Validation of the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for diet quality measurement in young adult males
The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S), represents a method for rapid diet quality assessment, however, few studies have tested its validity. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R) are tools that effectively assess diet quality, however, both are complex and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the REAP-S against the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R. Fifty males, 18 to 33 years of age, completed the REAP-S as well as a 24-hour diet recall. HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores were determined for each 24-hour recall. Scores from the REAP-S were evaluated against the HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores using Spearman rank order correlations and chi square. Modifications were also made to the original method of scoring the REAP-S to evaluate how the correlations transformed when certain questions were removed. The correlation coefficient for REAP-S and the HEI-2005 was 0.367 (P=0.009), and the correlation coefficient for REAP-S and the DQI-R was 0.323 (P=0.022). Chi square determined precision of the REAP-S to the HEI-2005 for overall diet quality at 64% and 62% for the DQI-R and REAP-S. Scores that were considered extreme (n=21) by the HEI-2005 (scores <40 and >60) had 76% precision with REAP-S. The correlation for the modified version of scoring REAP-S with the overall HEI-2005 and DQI-R were 0.395 (P=0.005) and 0.417 (P=0.003) respectively. Chi square statistics revealed the REAP-S accurately captured the diets of high quality versus low quality with 64% precision to the HEI-2005 and 62% of the DQI-R. When evaluating the modified REAP-S scores against the extreme HEI-2005 scores, precision increased to 81%. It appears the REAP-S is an acceptable tool to rapidly assess diet quality. It has a significant, moderate correlation to both the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R, with strong precision as well. Both correlation and precision is strengthened when values are compared to only the extreme scores of the HEI-2005; however, more research studies are needed to evaluate the validity of REAP-S in a more diverse population and to evaluate if changes to select questions can improve its accuracy in assessing diet quality.