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3D modeling of incipient spall damage in shocked FCC multicrystals

Description

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in the material microstructure where damage will nucleate and grow and to formulate continuum models that account for the variability of the damage process due to microstructural heterogeneity. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to be a key aspect in determining sites of failure initiation. Correlations have been found between the damage sites and the surrounding microstructure to determine the preferred sites of spall damage, since it tends to localize at and around the regions of intrinsic defects such as grain boundaries and triple points. However, considerable amount of work still has to be done in this regard to determine the physics driving the damage at these intrinsic weak sites in the microstructure. The main focus of this research work is to understand the physical mechanisms behind the damage localization at these preferred sites. A crystal plasticity constitutive model is implemented with different damage criteria to study the effects of stress concentration and strain localization at the grain boundaries. A cohesive zone modeling technique is used to include the intrinsic strength of the grain boundaries in the simulations. The constitutive model is verified using single elements tests, calibrated using single crystal impact experiments and validated using bicrystal and multicrystal impact experiments. The results indicate that strain localization is the predominant driving force for damage initiation and evolution. The microstructural effects on theses damage sites are studied to attribute the extent of damage to microstructural features such as grain orientation, misorientation, Taylor factor and the grain boundary planes. The finite element simulations show good correlation with the experimental results and can be used as the preliminary step in developing accurate probabilistic models for damage nucleation.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Multiscale reduced order models for the geometrically nonlinear response of complex structures

Description

The focus of this investigation includes three aspects. First, the development of nonlinear reduced order modeling techniques for the prediction of the response of complex structures exhibiting "large" deformations, i.e.

The focus of this investigation includes three aspects. First, the development of nonlinear reduced order modeling techniques for the prediction of the response of complex structures exhibiting "large" deformations, i.e. a geometrically nonlinear behavior, and modeled within a commercial finite element code. The present investigation builds on a general methodology, successfully validated in recent years on simpler panel structures, by developing a novel identification strategy of the reduced order model parameters, that enables the consideration of the large number of modes needed for complex structures, and by extending an automatic strategy for the selection of the basis functions used to represent accurately the displacement field. These novel developments are successfully validated on the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of a 9-bay panel structure modeled within Nastran. In addition, a multi-scale approach based on Component Mode Synthesis methods is explored. Second, an assessment of the predictive capabilities of nonlinear reduced order models for the prediction of the large displacement and stress fields of panels that have a geometric discontinuity; a flat panel with a notch was used for this assessment. It is demonstrated that the reduced order models of both virgin and notched panels provide a close match of the displacement field obtained from full finite element analyses of the notched panel for moderately large static and dynamic responses. In regards to stresses, it is found that the notched panel reduced order model leads to a close prediction of the stress distribution obtained on the notched panel as computed by the finite element model. Two enrichment techniques, based on superposition of the notch effects on the virgin panel stress field, are proposed to permit a close prediction of the stress distribution of the notched panel from the reduced order model of the virgin one. A very good prediction of the full finite element results is achieved with both enrichments for static and dynamic responses. Finally, computational challenges associated with the solution of the reduced order model equations are discussed. Two alternatives to reduce the computational time for the solution of these problems are explored.

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Date Created
  • 2012

Finite element analysis of silicon thin films on soft substrates as anodes for lithium ion batteries

Description

The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums

The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums be developed in order to transform abundant renewable energy into an on-demand source of power. Lithium (Li) ion batteries are seeing a stream of improvements as they are introduced into many consumer electronics, electric vehicles and aircraft, and medical devices. Li-ion batteries are well suited for portable applications because of their high energy-to-weight ratios, high energy densities, and reasonable life cycles. Current research into Li-ion batteries is focused on enhancing its energy density, and by changing the electrode materials, greater energy capacities can be realized. Silicon (Si) is a very attractive option because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity. Current Si anodes, however, suffer from early capacity fading caused by pulverization from the stresses induced by large volumetric changes that occur during charging and discharging. An innovative system aimed at resolving this issue is being developed. This system incorporates a thin Si film bonded to an elastomeric substrate which is intended to provide the desired stress relief. Non-linear finite element simulations have shown that a significant amount of deformation can be accommodated until a critical threshold of Li concentration is reached; beyond which buckling is induced and a wavy structure appears. When compared to a similar system using rigid substrates where no buckling occurs, the stress is reduced by an order of magnitude, significantly prolonging the life of the Si anode. Thus the stress can be released at high Li-ion diffusion induced strains by buckling the Si thin film. Several aspects of this anode system have been analyzed including studying the effects of charge rate and thin film plasticity, and the results are compared with preliminary empirical measurements to show great promise. This study serves as the basis for a radical resolution to one of the few remaining barriers left in the development of high performing Si based electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Finite element analysis of micro-cantilever beam experiments in UO2

Description

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict its performance. In particular, evaluating mechanical properties, such as elasticity, plasticity and creep at sub-grain length scales is key to developing this understanding as well as building multi-scale models of fuel behavior with predicting capabilities. In this work, modeling techniques were developed to study effects of microstructure on Young’s modulus, which was selected as a key representative property that affects overall mechanical behavior, using experimental data obtained from micro-cantilever bending testing as benchmarks. Beam theory was firstly introduced to calculate Young's modulus of UO2 from the experimental data and then three-dimensional finite element models of the micro-cantilever beams were constructed to simulate bending tests in UO2 at room temperature. The influence of the pore distribution was studied to explain the discrepancy between predicted values and experimental results. Results indicate that results of tests are significantly affected by porosity given that both pore size and spacing in the samples are of the order of the micro-beam dimensions. Microstructure reconstruction was conducted with images collected from three-dimensional serial sectioning using focused ion beam (FIB) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and pore clusters were placed at different locations along the length of the beam. Results indicate that the presence of pore clusters close to the substrate, i.e., the clamp of the micro-cantilever beam, has the strongest effect on load-deflection behavior, leading to a reduction of stiffness that is the largest for any location of the pore cluster. Furthermore, it was also found from both numerical and i

analytical models that pore clusters located towards the middle of the span and close to the end of the beam only have a very small effect on the load-deflection behavior, and it is concluded that better estimates of Young's modulus can be obtained from micro- cantilever experiments by using microstructurally explicit models that account for porosity in about one half of the beam length close to the clamp. This, in turn, provides an avenue to simplify micro-scale experiments and their analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015