This dissertation presents a new hybrid fault current limiter (FCL) topology that is primarily intended to protect single-phase power equipment. It can however be extended to protect three phase systems but would need three devices to protect each individual phase. In comparison against the existing fault current limiter technology, the salient fea-tures of the proposed topology are: a) provides variable impedance that provides a 50% reduction in prospective fault current; b) near instantaneous response time which is with-in the first half cycle (1-4 ms); c) the use of semiconductor switches as the commutating switch which produces reduced leakage current, reduced losses, improved reliability, and a faster switch time (ns-µs); d) zero losses in steady-state operation; e) use of a Neodym-ium (NdFeB) permanent magnet as the limiting impedance which reduces size, cost, weight, eliminates DC biasing and cooling costs; f) use of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to control the magnitude of the fault current to a user's desired level. g) experi-mental test system is developed and tested to prove the concepts of the proposed FCL. This dissertation presents the proposed topology and its working principle backed up with numerical verifications, simulation results, and hardware implementation results. Conclu-sions and future work are also presented.