Matching Items (3)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

151561-Thumbnail Image.png

A neodymium hybrid fault current limiter

Description

This dissertation presents a new hybrid fault current limiter (FCL) topology that is primarily intended to protect single-phase power equipment. It can however be extended to protect three phase systems

This dissertation presents a new hybrid fault current limiter (FCL) topology that is primarily intended to protect single-phase power equipment. It can however be extended to protect three phase systems but would need three devices to protect each individual phase. In comparison against the existing fault current limiter technology, the salient fea-tures of the proposed topology are: a) provides variable impedance that provides a 50% reduction in prospective fault current; b) near instantaneous response time which is with-in the first half cycle (1-4 ms); c) the use of semiconductor switches as the commutating switch which produces reduced leakage current, reduced losses, improved reliability, and a faster switch time (ns-µs); d) zero losses in steady-state operation; e) use of a Neodym-ium (NdFeB) permanent magnet as the limiting impedance which reduces size, cost, weight, eliminates DC biasing and cooling costs; f) use of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to control the magnitude of the fault current to a user's desired level. g) experi-mental test system is developed and tested to prove the concepts of the proposed FCL. This dissertation presents the proposed topology and its working principle backed up with numerical verifications, simulation results, and hardware implementation results. Conclu-sions and future work are also presented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149510-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of models for optical instrument transformers

Description

Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation

Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation of this study. Finding the answer for this question and developing complete models are the contributions of this work. Dedicated test facilities are developed so that the steady state and transient performances of analog outputs of a magnetic current transformer (CT) and a magnetic voltage transformer (VT) are compared with that of an optical current transformer (OCT) and an optical voltage transformer (OVT) respectively. Frequency response characteristics of OIT outputs are obtained. Comparison results show that OITs have a specified accuracy of 0.3% in all cases. They are linear, and DC offset does not saturate the systems. The OIT output signal has a 40~60 μs time delay, but this is typically less than the equivalent phase difference permitted by the IEEE and IEC standards for protection applications. Analog outputs have significantly higher bandwidths (adjustable to 20 to 40 kHz) than the IT. The digital output signal bandwidth (2.4 kHz) of an OCT is significantly lower than the analog signal bandwidth (20 kHz) due to the sampling rates involved. The OIT analog outputs may have significant white noise of 6%, but the white noise does not affect accuracy or protection performance. Temperatures up to 50oC do not adversely affect the performance of the OITs. Three types of models are developed for analog outputs: analog, digital, and complete models. Well-known mathematical methods, such as network synthesis and Jones calculus methods are applied. The developed models are compared with experiment results and are verified with simulation programs. Results show less than 1.5% for OCT and 2% for OVT difference and that the developed models can be used for power system simulations and the method used for the development can be used to develop models for all other brands of optical systems. The communication and data transfer between the all-digital protection systems is investigated by developing a test facility for all digital protection systems. Test results show that different manufacturers' relays and transformers based on the IEC standard can serve the power system successfully.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

155471-Thumbnail Image.png

Analytical approaches for identification and representation of critical protection systems in transient stability studies

Description

After a major disturbance, the power system response is highly dependent on protection schemes and system dynamics. Improving power systems situational awareness requires proper and simultaneous modeling of both protection

After a major disturbance, the power system response is highly dependent on protection schemes and system dynamics. Improving power systems situational awareness requires proper and simultaneous modeling of both protection schemes and dynamic characteristics in power systems analysis tools. Historical information and ex-post analysis of blackouts reaffirm the critical role of protective devices in cascading events, thereby confirming the necessity to represent protective functions in transient stability studies. This dissertation is aimed at studying the importance of representing protective relays in power system dynamic studies. Although modeling all of the protective relays within transient stability studies may result in a better estimation of system behavior, representing, updating, and maintaining the protection system data becomes an insurmountable task. Inappropriate or outdated representation of the relays may result in incorrect assessment of the system behavior. This dissertation presents a systematic method to determine essential relays to be modeled in transient stability studies. The desired approach should identify protective relays that are critical for various operating conditions and contingencies. The results of the transient stability studies confirm that modeling only the identified critical protective relays is sufficient to capture system behavior for various operating conditions and precludes the need to model all of the protective relays. Moreover, this dissertation proposes a method that can be implemented to determine the appropriate location of out-of-step blocking relays. During unstable power swings, a generator or group of generators may accelerate or decelerate leading to voltage depression at the electrical center along with generator tripping. This voltage depression may cause protective relay mis-operation and unintentional separation of the system. In order to avoid unintentional islanding, the potentially mis-operating relays should be blocked from tripping with the use of out-of-step blocking schemes. Blocking these mis-operating relays, combined with an appropriate islanding scheme, help avoid a system wide collapse. The proposed method is tested on data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. A triple line outage of the California-Oregon Intertie is studied. The results show that the proposed method is able to successfully identify proper locations of out-of-step blocking scheme.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017