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Evaluation of the effects of aging on asphalt rubber

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Oxidative aging is an important factor in the long term performance of asphalt pavements. Oxidation and the associated stiffening can lead to cracking, which in turn can lead to the functional and structural failure of the pavement system. Therefore, a

Oxidative aging is an important factor in the long term performance of asphalt pavements. Oxidation and the associated stiffening can lead to cracking, which in turn can lead to the functional and structural failure of the pavement system. Therefore, a greater understanding of the nature of oxidative aging in asphalt pavements can potentially be of great importance in estimating the performance of a pavement before it is constructed. Of particular interest are the effects of aging on asphalt rubber pavements, due to the fact that, as a newer technology, few asphalt rubber pavement sections have been evaluated for their full service life. This study endeavors to shed some light on this topic. This study includes three experimental programs on the aging of asphalt rubber binders and mixtures. The first phase addresses aging in asphalt rubber binders and their virgin bases. The binders were subjected to various aging conditions and then tested for viscosity. The change in viscosity was analyzed and it was found that asphalt rubber binders exhibited less long term aging. The second phase looks at aging in a laboratory environment, including both a comparison of accelerated oxidative aging techniques and aging effects that occur during long term storage. Dynamic modulus was used as a tool to assess the aging of the tested materials. It was found that aging materials in a compacted state is ideal, while aging in a loose state is unrealistic. Results not only showed a clear distinction in aged versus unaged material but also showed that the effects of aging on AR mixes is highly dependant on temperature; lower temperatures induce relatively minor stiffening while higher temperatures promote much more significant aging effects. The third experimental program is a field study that builds upon a previous study of pavement test sections. Field pavement samples were taken and tested after being in service for 7 years and tested for dynamic modulus and beam fatigue. As with the laboratory aging, the dynamic modulus samples show less stiffening at low temperatures and more at higher temperatures. Beam fatigue testing showed not only stiffening but also a brittle behavior.

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Date Created
2010

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Evaluation of short term aging effect of hot mix asphalt due to elevated temperatures and extended aging time

Description

Heating of asphalt during production and construction causes the volatilization and oxidation of binders used in mixes. Volatilization and oxidation causes degradation of asphalt pavements by increasing the stiffness of the binders, increasing susceptibility to cracking and negatively affecting the

Heating of asphalt during production and construction causes the volatilization and oxidation of binders used in mixes. Volatilization and oxidation causes degradation of asphalt pavements by increasing the stiffness of the binders, increasing susceptibility to cracking and negatively affecting the functional and structural performance of the pavements. Degradation of asphalt binders by volatilization and oxidation due to high production temperature occur during early stages of pavement life and are known as Short Term Aging (STA). Elevated temperatures and increased exposure time to elevated temperatures causes increased STA of asphalt. The objective of this research was to investigate how elevated mixing temperatures and exposure time to elevated temperatures affect aging and stiffening of binders, thus influencing properties of the asphalt mixtures. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage evaluated STA effect of asphalt binders. It involved aging two Performance Graded (PG) virgin asphalt binders, PG 76-16 and PG 64-22 at two different temperatures and durations, then measuring their viscosities. The second stage involved evaluating the effects of elevated STA temperature and time on properties of the asphalt mixtures. It involved STA of asphalt mixtures produced in the laboratory with the PG 64-22 binder at mixing temperatures elevated 25OF above standard practice; STA times at 2 and 4 hours longer than standard practices, and then compacted in a gyratory compactor. Dynamic modulus (E*) and Indirect Tensile Strength (IDT) were measured for the aged mixtures for each temperature and duration to determine the effect of different aging times and temperatures on the stiffness and fatigue properties of the aged asphalt mixtures. The binder test results showed that in all cases, there was increased viscosity. The results showed the highest increase in viscosity resulted from increased aging time. The results also indicated that PG 64-22 was more susceptible to elevated STA temperature and extended time than the PG 76-16 binders. The asphalt mixture test results confirmed the expected outcome that increasing the STA and mixing temperature by 25oF alters the stiffness of mixtures. Significant change in the dynamic modulus mostly occurred at four hour increase in STA time regardless of temperature.

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Date Created
2013

A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing

Description

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.

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Date Created
2017

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Utilization of thermoplastic mounting studs for simple performance testing on hot mix asphalt

Description

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.

Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.

A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.

The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.

The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.

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Date Created
2018

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Feasibility of Using Recycled Asphalt Pavements (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt for the City of Phoenix, Arizona

Description

Asphalt concrete is the most recycled material in the United States and its reclamation allows the positive reuse of the constituent aggregates and asphalt binder, contributing to the long-term sustainability of the transportation infrastructure; decreasing costs, and the total energy

Asphalt concrete is the most recycled material in the United States and its reclamation allows the positive reuse of the constituent aggregates and asphalt binder, contributing to the long-term sustainability of the transportation infrastructure; decreasing costs, and the total energy and greenhouse emissions embodied into new materials and infrastructure. Although the national trends in Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) usage are encouraging, the environmental conditions in Phoenix, Arizona are extreme and needs further consideration.

The objective of this research study was to evaluate the viability of using RAP in future pavement maintenance and rehabilitation projects for the City. Agencies in the State of Arizona have been slow adopting the use of RAP as a regular practice. While the potential benefits are great, there is some concern on the impact to long-term pavement performance.

RAP millings were sampled from the city’s stockpiles; processed RAP and virgin materials were provided by a local plant. Two asphalt binders were used: PG 70-10 and PG 64-16. RAP variability was evaluated by aggregate gradations; extracted and recovered binder was tested for properties and grading.

A mixture design procedure based on the City’s specifications was defined to establish trial blends. RAP incorporation was based on national and local practices. Four different RAP contents were studied 10%, 15%, 25%, and 25% content with a softer binder, in addition to a control mix (0% RAP).

Performance tests included: dynamic modulus to evaluate stiffness; Flow Number, to assess susceptibility for permanent deformation (rutting); and Tensile Strength Ratio as a measure of susceptibility to moisture damage.

Binder testing showed very stiff recovered asphalts and variable contents with a reasonable variability on aggregate gradations. Performance test results showed slightly higher modulus as RAP content increases, showing a slight improvement related to rutting as well. For moisture damage potential, all mixtures performed well showing improvement for RAP mixtures in most cases.

Statistical analysis showed that 0%, 10%, 15% and 25% with softer binder do not present significant statistical difference among mixtures, indicating that moderate RAP contents are feasible to use within the City paving operations and will not affect greatly nor negatively the pavement performance.

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Date Created
2018