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Violencia en la narrativa contemporánea chicana y peruanoestadounidense: Pequeña nación" de Alejandro Morales y "Guerra en la penumbra" de Daniel Alarcón

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ABSTRACT This thesis aims to demonstrate the validity of political violence in contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives as a reflection of the sociopolitical situation of immigrants and their descendants in the United States (U.S.). The thesis explores the various

ABSTRACT This thesis aims to demonstrate the validity of political violence in contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives as a reflection of the sociopolitical situation of immigrants and their descendants in the United States (U.S.). The thesis explores the various ways in which contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives present the political violence in the U.S. towards Mexican and Peruvian immigrants and Chicanos and Peruvian Americans examining the intersections that exist between the resistance and violence discourses and its sociopolitical consequences. Although the topic of political violence has been previously studied in U.S. and Latin American narratives throughout its history, its analysis has been insufficiently explored as far as contemporary narratives of the XXI century are concerned. With this in mind, two texts will be used to study this discourse of violence in Chicano and Peruvian American literature: Alejandro Morales' "Pequeña nación" (2005) and Daniel Alarcón's "Guerra en la penumbra" (2005). The thesis examines the immigrant as a center of discourse exploring the conflict between them and the institutions or groups in power that instigate this political violence. The first chapter covers the socio historical background regarding Mexican and Peruvian migration flows to the United States in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The second chapter introduces "The Triangle of Violence" proposed by Norwegian mathematician and sociologist Johan Galtung as the basis for the theoretical framework and approach of this analysis. Chapter three analyzes the Chicano short story "Pequeña nación" by Alejandro Morales. The analysis of the Peruvian American short story "Guerra en la penumbra" by Daniel Alarcón follows in chapter four. The conclusion emphasizes the problem of political violence experienced by immigrants in the U.S. in contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives and possible solutions contained therein, protesting a problem that can hinder immigration policy reforms and the defense of human rights.

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2013

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Hacia una lectura visual del poema visual figurativo en la vanguardia Hispanoamericana

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In the first thirty years of the XX century, an old literary visual tradition was reborn in a series of new striking visual texts better known as calligrams. They were produced by some avant-garde poets such as Vicente Huidobro, José

In the first thirty years of the XX century, an old literary visual tradition was reborn in a series of new striking visual texts better known as calligrams. They were produced by some avant-garde poets such as Vicente Huidobro, José Juan Tablada, Alberto Hidalgo and Carlos Oquendo de Amat in Latin America, and Juan Larrea, Guillermo de Torre, Francisco Vighi, Luis Mosquera, and others in Spain. However, with few exceptions, the interpretation of those written drawings has caught little attention from literary critics. This research, contrasted to that of Willard Bohn's, is a contribution to the deciphering of such literary art form, designated here as the figurative visual poem. It is a proposal for its visual reading which draws from the fact that this type of text is concretely a drawing formed by written verses. As such, it can be regarded as a plastic writing, combining pictorial and verbal signs in one perceptible configuration on the page. The result of this semiotic operation is a hybrid product in which the iconic forms become symbolic and vice versa. It is in fact, an art object which should be approached as a text that can be seen as well as read. The study leads to the conclusion that Willard Bohn misreads the order in which language and image are articulated in the visual poem identified with the second order semiological system proposed by Roland Barthes, placing preeminence on language over image. This results in reading the avant-garde visual figurative poem in an ekphrastic fashion. Consequently, the role of the image in the system is left in an ambiguous realm at the time of deciphering this hybrid text. Our contribution to re-conducting this undertaking has been equally drawn from a semiotic stance taken from Louis Hjemslev that balances language and image as correlates of a semiotic function. Due to the signaling nature of both, language and figure, a visual poem becomes an iconic metaphor as well as a metaphoric icon, and moreover a self-referential sign, thus justifying its status of an autonomous art.

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2011

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Narrativas no-convencionales en cuentistas hispanoamericanos contemporáneos: Iván Thays, Jorge Volpi, Ricardo Chávez Castañeda y Héctor Libertella

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Narrativas no-convencionales en cuentistas hispanoamericanos contemporáneos: Iván Thays (Perú), Jorge Volpi y Ricardo Chávez Castañeda (México) y Héctor Libertella (Argentina) se centra en cuentos contemporáneos de autores de diferentes tradiciones nacionales dentro de un marco de tiempo veinticinco años, que

Narrativas no-convencionales en cuentistas hispanoamericanos contemporáneos: Iván Thays (Perú), Jorge Volpi y Ricardo Chávez Castañeda (México) y Héctor Libertella (Argentina) se centra en cuentos contemporáneos de autores de diferentes tradiciones nacionales dentro de un marco de tiempo veinticinco años, que convergen en la práctica de las narrativas no-convencionales. Defino narrativa no-convencional como un efecto narrativo controlado e intencional que implícita o explícitamente cuestiona procedimientos o convenciones generalmente catalogados como "realismo" y por lo tanto se desvía de él. Este estudio establece conexiones, afinidades y potenciales diferencias entre los textos del corpus seleccionado, y se enfoca en los procesos por medio de los cuales las narrativas no convencionales se desvían en mayor o menor grado del "realismo".

El marco teórico que utilizo se compone de dos enfoques. Me centro, por un lado, en una área muy reciente de estudios definida como narrativas no naturales, que abarca teorías narratológicas que exponen extrañamiento y experimentación en una variedad de textos literarios y permiten el análisis de la representación del espacio-tiempo de manera innovadora. Por el otro lado, me baso en teorías epistemológicas, complementadas con un enfoque fenomenológico desarrollado por Darío Villanueva, según la cual el lector es capaz de crear una simulación intencional de realismo/antirrealismo interactuando, reconociendo y comparando los sistemas de referencia o esquemas con otros marcos a los que ha tenido acceso anteriormente. Todos los textos despliegan un conjunto de prácticas narratológicas para crear o destruir la ilusión de realismo. Además de poner de relieve la narrativa no-convencional, la disertación enfatiza la narrativa antimimética como uno de los géneros menos explorados dentro de la tradición hispanoamericana.

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2015