Matching Items (43)

158814-Thumbnail Image.png

Fully-passive Wireless Acquisition of Biosignals

Description

The recording of biosignals enables physicians to correctly diagnose diseases and prescribe treatment. Existing wireless systems failed to effectively replace the conventional wired methods due to their large sizes, high

The recording of biosignals enables physicians to correctly diagnose diseases and prescribe treatment. Existing wireless systems failed to effectively replace the conventional wired methods due to their large sizes, high power consumption, and the need to replace batteries. This thesis aims to alleviate these issues by presenting a series of wireless fully-passive sensors for the acquisition of biosignals: including neuropotential, biopotential, intracranial pressure (ICP), in addition to a stimulator for the pacing of engineered cardiac cells. In contrast to existing wireless biosignal recording systems, the proposed wireless sensors do not contain batteries or high-power electronics such as amplifiers or digital circuitries. Instead, the RFID tag-like sensors utilize a unique radiofrequency (RF) backscattering mechanism to enable wireless and battery-free telemetry of biosignals with extremely low power consumption. This characteristic minimizes the risk of heat-induced tissue damage and avoids the need to use any transcranial/transcutaneous wires, and thus significantly enhances long-term safety and reliability. For neuropotential recording, a small (9mm x 8mm), biocompatible, and flexible wireless recorder is developed and verified by in vivo acquisition of two types of neural signals, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). For wireless multichannel neural recording, a novel time-multiplexed multichannel recording method based on an inductor-capacitor delay circuit is presented and tested, realizing simultaneous wireless recording from 11 channels in a completely passive manner. For biopotential recording, a wearable and flexible wireless sensor is developed, achieving real-time wireless acquisition of ECG, EMG, and EOG signals. For ICP monitoring, a very small (5mm x 4mm) wireless ICP sensor is designed and verified both in vitro through a benchtop setup and in vivo through real-time ICP recording in rats. Finally, for cardiac cell stimulation, a flexible wireless passive stimulator, capable of delivering stimulation current as high as 60 mA, is developed, demonstrating successful control over the contraction of engineered cardiac cells. The studies conducted in this thesis provide information and guidance for future translation of wireless fully-passive telemetry methods into actual clinical application, especially in the field of implantable and wearable electronics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158760-Thumbnail Image.png

Physical Optics Modeling of AMC Checkerboard Surfaces for RCS-Reduction and Low Backscattering Retrodirective Array

Description

Artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) surfaces have the unique electromagnetic property that the phase of the reflected fields imitate those of perfect magnetic conductors (PMCs). When a perfect electric conductor

Artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) surfaces have the unique electromagnetic property that the phase of the reflected fields imitate those of perfect magnetic conductors (PMCs). When a perfect electric conductor (PEC) and an AMC surface are placed on the same plane and illuminated by a plane wave, destructive interference occurs between the fields (due to 180 degrees phase difference between the reflected fields of each surface).

In this dissertation, a design procedure is introduced where a refined algorithm is developed and employed on single-band AMCs leading to a 10-dB RCS-reduction bandwidth of 80%. The AMC circuit model is judiciously utilized to reduce the substrate thickness while simultaneously increasing the bandwidth of the AMC surfaces. Furthermore, dual-band AMC surfaces are synthesized and utilized in combination with single-band AMC surfaces to extend the 10-dB RCS-reduction bandwidth from 80% to about 99%. Employing the proposed design procedure, a 99% bandwidth of 10-dB RCS-reduction bandwidth is achieved while reducing the thickness of the substrate by 20%.

The second topic of this dissertation aims at analytically modeling the scattering of planar checkerboard surfaces. The high-frequency asymptotic method, Physical Optics (PO), is utilized to analyze the scattering characteristics of complex structures since the PO is computationally efficient and provides intuitive physical insight. Closed-form formulations developed using PO are used to predict the scattering patterns of checkerboard planar surfaces. The PO-based data compare well, along and near specular directions, with simulations by the full-wave Finite Element Method (FEM).

Finally, a Van Atta retrodirective reflector with low backscattering is designed and developed using a microstrip antenna array. Conventional retrodirective reflectors are sensitive to interference by the fields scattered by the antenna structure. By using a virtual feeding network, structural mode scattering is identified and canceled using AMC technology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158751-Thumbnail Image.png

Metasurface-Based Techniques for Broadband Radar Cross-Section Reduction of Complex Structures

Description

Within the past two decades, metasurfaces, with their unique ability to tailor the wavefront, have attracted scientific attention. Along with many other research areas, RADAR cross-section (RCS)-reduction techniques have also

Within the past two decades, metasurfaces, with their unique ability to tailor the wavefront, have attracted scientific attention. Along with many other research areas, RADAR cross-section (RCS)-reduction techniques have also benefited from metasurface technology.

In this dissertation, a novel technique to synthesize the RCS-reduction metasurfaces is presented. This technique unifies the two most widely studied and two well-established modern RCS-reduction methods: checkerboard RCS-reduction andgradient-index RCS-reduction. It also overcomes the limitations associated with these RCS-reduction methods. It synthesizes the RCS-reduction metasurfaces, which can be juxtaposed with almost any existing metasurface, to reduce its RCS. The proposed technique is fundamentally based on scattering cancellation. Finally, an example of the RCS-reduction metasurface has been synthesized and introduced to reduce the RCS of an existing high-gain metasurface ground plane.

After that, various ways of obtaining ultrabroadband RCS-reduction using the same technique are proposed, which overcome the fundamental limitation of the conventional checkerboard metasurfaces, where the reflection phase difference of (180+-37) degrees is required to achieve 10-dB RCS reduction. First, the guideline on how to select Artificial Magnetic Conductors (AMCs) is explained with an example of a blended checkerboard architecture where a 10-dB RCS reduction is observed over 83% of the bandwidth. Further, by modifying the architecture of the blended checkerboard metasurface, the 10-dB RCS reduction bandwidth increased to 91% fractional bandwidth. All the proposed architectures are validated using measured data for fabricated prototypes. Critical steps for designing the ultrabroadband RCS reduction checkerboard surface are summarized.

Finally, a broadband technique to reduce the RCS of complex targets is presented. By using the proposed technique, the problem of reducing the RCS contribution from such multiple-bounces simplifies to identifying and implementing a set of orthogonal functions. Robust guidelines for avoiding grating lobes are provided using array theory. The 90 degree dihedral corner is used to verify the proposed technique. Measurements are reported for a fabricated prototype, where a 70% RCS-reduction bandwidth is observed. To generalize the method, a 45 degree dihedral corner, with a quadruple-bounce mechanism, is considered. Generalized guidelines are summarized and applied to reduce the RCS of complex targets using the proposed method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

153928-Thumbnail Image.png

Radiation detection and imaging: neutrons and electric fields

Description

The work presented in this manuscript has the overarching theme of radiation. The two forms of radiation of interest are neutrons, i.e. nuclear, and electric fields. The ability

The work presented in this manuscript has the overarching theme of radiation. The two forms of radiation of interest are neutrons, i.e. nuclear, and electric fields. The ability to detect such forms of radiation have significant security implications that could also be extended to very practical industrial applications. The goal is therefore to detect, and even image, such radiation sources.

The method to do so revolved around the concept of building large-area sensor arrays. By covering a large area, we can increase the probability of detection and gather more data to build a more complete and clearer view of the environment. Large-area circuitry can be achieved cost-effectively by leveraging the thin-film transistor process of the display industry. With production of displays increasing with the explosion of mobile devices and continued growth in sales of flat panel monitors and television, the cost to build a unit continues to decrease.

Using a thin-film process also allows for flexible electronics, which could be taken advantage of in-house at the Flexible Electronics and Display Center. Flexible electronics implies new form factors and applications that would not otherwise be possible with their single crystal counterparts. To be able to effectively use thin-film technology, novel ways of overcoming the drawbacks of the thin-film process, namely the lower performance scale.

The two deliverable devices that underwent development are a preamplifier used in an active pixel sensor for neutron detection and a passive electric field imaging array. This thesis will cover the theory and process behind realizing these devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

152106-Thumbnail Image.png

Magneto-dielectric wire antennas theory and design

Description

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in airborne applications and reduce the visual and RF signatures of the communication node. This dissertation is concerned with a new class of antennas called Magneto-Dielectric wire antennas (MDWA) that provide an ideal solution to this ever-present and growing need. Magneto-dielectric structures (μr>1;εr>1) can partially guide electromagnetic waves and radiate them by leaking off the structure or by scattering from any discontinuities, much like a metal antenna of the same shape. They are attractive alternatives to conventional whip and blade antennas because they can be placed conformal to a metallic ground plane without any performance penalty. A two pronged approach is taken to analyze MDWAs. In the first, antenna circuit models are derived for the prototypical dipole and loop elements that include the effects of realistic dispersive magneto-dielectric materials of construction. A material selection law results, showing that: (a) The maximum attainable efficiency is determined by a single magnetic material parameter that we term the hesitivity: Closely related to Snoek's product, it measures the maximum magnetic conductivity of the material. (b) The maximum bandwidth is obtained by placing the highest amount of μ" loss in the frequency range of operation. As a result, high radiation efficiency antennas can be obtained not only from the conventional low loss (low μ") materials but also with highly lossy materials (tan(δm)>>1). The second approach used to analyze MDWAs is through solving the Green function problem of the infinite magneto-dielectric cylinder fed by a current loop. This solution sheds light on the leaky and guided waves supported by the magneto-dielectric structure and leads to useful design rules connecting the permeability of the material to the cross sectional area of the antenna in relation to the desired frequency of operation. The Green function problem of the permeable prolate spheroidal antenna is also solved as a good approximation to a finite cylinder.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

151685-Thumbnail Image.png

Application of effective medium modeling to plasmonic nanosphere waveguides

Description

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired resolution. It has been proposed that the extraordinarily slow propagation experienced by light guided along plasmon resonant structures is a viable approach to obtaining these short wavelengths. To assess the feasibility of such a system, an effective medium model of a chain of Noble metal plasmonic nanospheres is developed, leading to a straightforward calculation of the waveguiding properties. Evaluation of other models for such structures that have appeared in the literature, including an eigenvalue problem nearest neighbor approximation, a multi- neighbor approximation with retardation, and a method-of-moments method for a finite chain, show conflicting expectations of such a structure. In particular, recent publications suggest the possibility of regions of invalidity for eigenvalue problem solutions that are considered far below the onset of guidance, and for solutions that assume the loss is low enough to justify perturbation approximations. Even the published method-of-moments approach suffers from an unjustified assumption in the original interpretation, leading to overly optimistic estimations of the attenuation of the plasmon guided wave. In this work it is shown that the method of moments approach solution was dominated by the radiation from the source dipole, and not the waveguiding behavior claimed. If this dipolar radiation is removed the remaining fields ought to contain the desired guided wave information. Using a Prony's-method-based algorithm the dispersion properties of the chain of spheres are assessed at two frequencies, and shown to be dramatically different from the optimistic expectations in much of the literature. A reliable alternative to these models is to replace the chain of spheres with an effective medium model, thus mapping the chain problem into the well-known problem of the dielectric rod. The solution of the Green function problem for excitation of the symmetric longitudinal mode (TM01) is performed by numerical integration. Using this method the frequency ranges over which the rod guides and the associated attenuation are clearly seen. The effective medium model readily allows for variation of the sphere size and separation, and can be taken to the limit where instead of a chain of spheres we have a solid Noble metal rod. This latter case turns out to be the optimal for minimizing the attenuation of the guided wave. Future work is proposed to simulate the chain of photonic nanospheres and the nanowire using finite-difference time-domain to verify observed guided behavior in the Green's function method devised in this thesis and to simulate the proposed nanosensing devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

154371-Thumbnail Image.png

Fast numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from PEC and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing

Description

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin’s procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N^2) to O(N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

156645-Thumbnail Image.png

FDTD Simulation Techniques for Simulation of Very Large 2D and 3D Domains Applied to Radar Propagation over the Ocean

Description

A domain decomposition method for analyzing very large FDTD domains, hundreds of thousands of wavelengths long, is demonstrated by application to the problem of radar scattering in the maritime environment.

A domain decomposition method for analyzing very large FDTD domains, hundreds of thousands of wavelengths long, is demonstrated by application to the problem of radar scattering in the maritime environment. Success depends on the elimination of artificial scattering from the “sky” boundary and is ensured by an ultra-high-performance absorbing termination which eliminates this reflection at angles of incidence as shallow as 0.03 degrees off grazing. The two-dimensional (2D) problem is used to detail the features of the method. The results are cross-validated by comparison to a parabolic equation (PE) method and surface integral equation method on a 1.7km sea surface problem, and to a PE method on propagation through an inhomogeneous atmosphere in a 4km-long space, both at X-band. Additional comparisons are made against boundary integral equation and PE methods from the literature in a 3.6km space containing an inhomogeneous atmosphere above a flat sea at S-band. The applicability of the method to the three-dimensional (3D) problem is shown via comparison of a 2D solution to the 3D solution of a corridor of sea. As a technical proof of the scalability of the problem with computational power, a 5m-wide, 2m-tall, 1050m-long 3D corridor containing 321.8 billion FDTD cells has been simulated at X-band. A plane wave spectrum analysis of the (X-band) scattered fields produced by a 5m-wide, 225m-long realistic 3D sea surface, and the 2D analog surface obtained by extruding a 2D sea along the width of the corridor, reveals the existence of out-of-plane 3D phenomena missed by the traditional 2D analysis. The realistic sea introduces random strong flashes and nulls in addition to a significant amount of cross-polarized field. Spatial integration using a dispersion-corrected Green function is used to reconstruct the scattered fields outside of the computational FDTD space which would impinge on a 3D target at the end of the corridor. The proposed final approach is a hybrid method where 2D FDTD carries the signal for the first tens of kilometers and the last kilometer is analyzed in 3D.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

158105-Thumbnail Image.png

Impedance Modulated Metasurface Antennas

Description

Impedance-modulated metasurfaces are compact artificially-engineered surfaces whose surface-impedance profile is modulated with a periodic function. These metasurfaces function as leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) that are capable of achieving high gains and

Impedance-modulated metasurfaces are compact artificially-engineered surfaces whose surface-impedance profile is modulated with a periodic function. These metasurfaces function as leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) that are capable of achieving high gains and narrow beamwidths with thin and light-weight structures. The surface-impedance modulation function for the desired radiation characteristics can be obtained using the holographic principle, whose application in antennas has been investigated extensively.

On account of their radiation and physical characteristics, modulated metasurfaces can be employed in automotive radar, 5G, and imaging applications. Automotive radar applications might require the antennas to be flush-mounted on the vehicular bodies that can be curved. Hence, it is necessary to analyze and design conformal metasurface antennas. The surface-impedance modulation function is derived for cylindrically-curved metasurfaces, where the impedance modulation is along the cylinder axis. These metasurface antennas are referred to as axially-modulated cylindrical metasurface LWAs (AMCLWAs). The effect of curvature is modeled, the radiation characteristics are predicted analytically, and they are validated by simulations and measurements.

Communication-based applications, like 5G and 6G, require the generation of multiple beams with polarization diversity, which can be achieved using a class of impedance-modulated metasurfaces referred to as polarization-diverse holographic metasurfaces (PDHMs). PDHMs can form, one at a time, a pencil beam in the desired direction with horizontal polarization, vertical polarization, left-hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). These metasurface antennas are analyzed, designed, measured, and improved to include the ability to frequency scan.

In automotive radar and other imaging applications, the performance of metasurface antennas can be impacted by the formation of standing waves due to multiple reflections between the antenna and the target. The monostatic RCS of the metasurface antenna is reduced by modulating its surface impedance with a square wave, to avert multiple reflections. These square-wave-modulated metasurfaces are referred to as checkerboard metasurface LWAs, whose radiation and scattering characteristics, for normal incidence parallel polarization, are analyzed and measured.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

156702-Thumbnail Image.png

Terahertz Micro-Doppler Radar for Detection and Characterization of Multicopters

Description

The micromotions (e.g. vibration, rotation, etc.,) of a target induce time-varying frequency modulations on the reflected signal, called the micro-Doppler modulations. Micro-Doppler modulations are target specific and may contain information

The micromotions (e.g. vibration, rotation, etc.,) of a target induce time-varying frequency modulations on the reflected signal, called the micro-Doppler modulations. Micro-Doppler modulations are target specific and may contain information needed to detect and characterize the target. Thus, unlike conventional Doppler radars, Fourier transform cannot be used for the analysis of these time dependent frequency modulations. While Doppler radars can detect the presence of a target and deduce if it is approaching or receding from the radar location, they cannot identify the target. Meaning, for a Doppler radar, a small commercial aircraft and a fighter plane when gliding at the same velocity exhibit similar radar signature. However, using a micro-Doppler radar, the time dependent frequency variations caused by the vibrational and rotational micromotions of the two aircrafts can be captured and analyzed to discern between them. Similarly, micro-Doppler signature can be used to distinguish a multicopter from a bird, a quadcopter from a hexacopter or a octacopter, a bus from a car or a truck and even one person from another. In all these scenarios, joint time-frequency transforms must be employed for the analysis of micro-Doppler variations, in order to extract the targets’ features.

Due to ample bandwidth, THz radiation provides richer radar signals than the microwave systems. Thus, a Terahertz (THz) micro-Doppler radar is developed in this work for the detection and characterization of the micro-Doppler signatures of quadcopters. The radar is implemented as a continuous-wave (CW) radar in monostatic configuration and operates at a low-THz frequency of 270 GHz. A linear time-frequency transform, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is used for the analysis the micro-Doppler signature. The designed radar has been built and measurements are carried out using a quadcopter to detect the micro-Doppler modulations caused by the rotation of its propellers. The spectrograms are obtained for a quadcopter hovering in front of the radar and analysis methods are developed for characterizing the frequency variations caused by the rotational and vibrational micromotions of the quadcopter. The proposed method can be effective for distinguishing the quadcopters from other flying targets like birds which lack the rotational micromotions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018