Specific cultural variables have been found to protect against the onset of alcohol, tobacco and drug use among Latino adolescents. It has been suggested that targeting similar cultural components during the treatment of drug dependence and abuse for Latino adults may also enhance the effectiveness of the intervention, although few studies have explored this hypothesis. The current study attempted to remedy this disparity by exploring the potentially protective influence of two cultural variables, ethnic pride and family traditionalism, on self-efficacy to avoid drug use following residential substance abuse treatment among 99 Hispanic and 85 non-Hispanic White males. Results of the study indicate that higher levels of ethnic pride predict greater confidence to remain abstinent from drugs following substance abuse treatment, and that this relationship is stronger among Hispanic participants than non-Hispanic White participants. Family traditionalism was not a significant predictor of drug avoidance self-efficacy for either group, suggesting that some specific cultural variables may be better targets for substance abuse treatment than others. Study limitations and future directions for research and clinical practice are discussed.