Matching Items (11)

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Information pooling bias in collaborative cyber forensics

Description

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of cyber defense. Human teamwork in cyber defense analysis has been overlooked

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of cyber defense. Human teamwork in cyber defense analysis has been overlooked even though it has been identified as an important predictor of cyber defense performance. Also, to detect advanced forms of threats effective information sharing and collaboration between the cyber defense analysts becomes imperative. Therefore, through this dissertation work, I took a cognitive engineering approach to investigate and improve cyber defense teamwork. The approach involved investigating a plausible team-level bias called the information pooling bias in cyber defense analyst teams conducting the detection task that is part of forensics analysis through human-in-the-loop experimentation. The approach also involved developing agent-based models based on the experimental results to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this bias in human analysts. A prototype collaborative visualization tool was developed by considering the plausible cognitive limitations contributing to the bias to investigate whether a cognitive engineering-driven visualization tool can help mitigate the bias in comparison to off-the-shelf tools. It was found that participant teams conducting the collaborative detection tasks as part of forensics analysis, experience the information pooling bias affecting their performance. Results indicate that cognitive friendly visualizations can help mitigate the effect of this bias in cyber defense analysts. Agent-based modeling produced insights on internal cognitive processes that might be contributing to this bias which could be leveraged in building future visualizations. This work has multiple implications including the development of new knowledge about the science of cyber defense teamwork, a demonstration of the advantage of developing tools using a cognitive engineering approach, a demonstration of the advantage of using a hybrid cognitive engineering methodology to study teams in general and finally, a demonstration of the effect of effective teamwork on cyber defense performance.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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We built this town: raising activity awareness through the workplace using gamification

Description

The wide adoption and continued advancement of information and communications technologies (ICT) have made it easier than ever for individuals and groups to stay connected over long distances. These advances

The wide adoption and continued advancement of information and communications technologies (ICT) have made it easier than ever for individuals and groups to stay connected over long distances. These advances have greatly contributed in dramatically changing the dynamics of the modern day workplace to the point where it is now commonplace to see large, distributed multidisciplinary teams working together on a daily basis. However, in this environment, motivating, understanding, and valuing the diverse contributions of individual workers in collaborative enterprises becomes challenging. To address these issues, this thesis presents the goals, design, and implementation of Taskville, a distributed workplace game played by teams on large, public displays. Taskville uses a city building metaphor to represent the completion of individual and group tasks within an organization. Promising results from two usability studies and two longitudinal studies at a multidisciplinary school demonstrate that Taskville supports personal reflection and improves team awareness through an engaging workplace activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Synchrony: biometric indication of team cognition

Description

The goal of this experiment is to observe the relation between synchrony and performance in 3-person teams in a simulated Army medic training environment (i.e., Monitoring Extracting and Decoding Indicators

The goal of this experiment is to observe the relation between synchrony and performance in 3-person teams in a simulated Army medic training environment (i.e., Monitoring Extracting and Decoding Indicators of Cognitive workload: MEDIC). The cardiac measure Interbeat-Interval (IBI) was monitored during a physically oriented, and a cognitively oriented task. IBI was measured using NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectrology), and performance was measured using a team task score during a balance board and puzzle task. Synchrony has not previously been monitored across completely different tasks in the same experiment. I hypothesize that teams with high synchrony will show high performance on both tasks. Although no significant results were discovered by the correlational analysis, a trend was revealed that suggests there is a positive relationship between synchrony and performance. This study has contributed to the literature by monitoring physiological measures in a simulated team training environment, making suggestions for future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Team emotional intelligence as a predictor of project performance: a case study at a college-level construction management course

Description

The current paradigm to addressing the marginal increases in productivity and quality in the construction industry is to embrace new technologies and new programs designed to increase productivity. While both

The current paradigm to addressing the marginal increases in productivity and quality in the construction industry is to embrace new technologies and new programs designed to increase productivity. While both pursuits are justifiable and worthwhile they overlook a crucial element, the human element. If the individuals and teams operating the new technologies or executing the new programs lack all of the necessary skills the efforts are still doomed for, at best, mediocrity. But over the past two decades researchers and practitioners have been exploring and experimenting with a softer set of skills that are producing hard figures showing real improvements in performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Network defense and team cognition: a team-based cybersecurity simulation

Description

This research evaluates a cyber test-bed, DEXTAR (Defense Exercises for Team Awareness Research), and examines the relationship between good and bad team performance in increasingly difficult scenarios. Twenty-one computer science

This research evaluates a cyber test-bed, DEXTAR (Defense Exercises for Team Awareness Research), and examines the relationship between good and bad team performance in increasingly difficult scenarios. Twenty-one computer science graduate students (seven three-person teams), with experience in cybersecurity, participated in a team-based cyber defense exercise in the context of DEXTAR, a high fidelity cybersecurity testbed. Performance measures were analyzed in addition to team process, team behavior, and workload to examine the relationship between good and bad teams. Lessons learned are reported that will inform the next generation of DEXTAR.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The role of teamwork in predicting movie earnings

Description

Intelligence analysts’ work has become progressively complex due to increasing security threats and data availability. In order to study “big” data exploration within the intelligence domain the intelligence analyst

Intelligence analysts’ work has become progressively complex due to increasing security threats and data availability. In order to study “big” data exploration within the intelligence domain the intelligence analyst task was abstracted and replicated in a laboratory (controlled environment). Participants used a computer interface and movie database to determine the opening weekend gross movie earnings of three pre-selected movies. Data consisted of Twitter tweets and predictive models. These data were displayed in various formats such as graphs, charts, and text. Participants used these data to make their predictions. It was expected that teams (a team is a group with members who have different specialties and who work interdependently) would outperform individuals and groups. That is, teams would be significantly better at predicting “Opening Weekend Gross” than individuals or groups. Results indicated that teams outperformed individuals and groups in the first prediction, under performed in the second prediction, and performed better than individuals in the third prediction (but not better than groups). Insights and future directions are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Communication between teammates in urban search and rescue

Description

Although current urban search and rescue (USAR) robots are little more than remotely controlled cameras, the end goal is for them to work alongside humans as trusted teammates. Natural language

Although current urban search and rescue (USAR) robots are little more than remotely controlled cameras, the end goal is for them to work alongside humans as trusted teammates. Natural language communications and performance data are collected as a team of humans works to carry out a simulated search and rescue task in an uncertain virtual environment. Conditions are tested emulating a remotely controlled robot versus an intelligent one. Differences in performance, situation awareness, trust, workload, and communications are measured. The Intelligent robot condition resulted in higher levels of performance and operator situation awareness (SA).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Design and development of an immersive virtual reality team trainer for advance cardiac life support

Description

Technology in the modern day has ensured that learning of skills and behavior may be both widely disseminated and cheaply available. An example of this is the concept of virtual

Technology in the modern day has ensured that learning of skills and behavior may be both widely disseminated and cheaply available. An example of this is the concept of virtual reality (VR) training. Virtual Reality training ensures that learning can be provided often, in a safe simulated setting, and it may be delivered in a manner that makes it engaging while negating the need to purchase special equipment. This thesis presents a case study in the form of a time critical, team based medical scenario known as Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS). A framework and methodology associated with the design of a VR trainer for ACLS is detailed. In addition, in order to potentially provide an engaging experience, the simulator was designed to incorporate immersive elements and a multimodal interface (haptic, visual, and auditory). A study was conducted to test two primary hypotheses namely: a meaningful transfer of skill is achieved from virtual reality training to real world mock codes and the presence of immersive components in virtual reality leads to an increase in the performance gained. The participant pool consisted of 54 clinicians divided into 9 teams of 6 members each. The teams were categorized into three treatment groups: immersive VR (3 teams), minimally immersive VR (3 teams), and control (3 teams). The study was conducted in 4 phases from a real world mock code pretest to assess baselines to a 30 minute VR training session culminating in a final mock code to assess the performance change from the baseline. The minimally immersive team was treated as control for the immersive components. The teams were graded, in both VR and mock code sessions, using the evaluation metric used in real world mock codes. The study revealed that the immersive VR groups saw greater performance gain from pretest to posttest than the minimally immersive and control groups in case of the VFib/VTach scenario (~20% to ~5%). Also the immersive VR groups had a greater performance gain than the minimally immersive groups from the first to the final session of VFib/VTach (29% to -13%) and PEA (27% to 15%).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Pattern language: a design tool for collaborative work environments

Description

Interior design continues to re-define itself as a discipline that presents designers with new problems that require innovative solutions. This is particularly true in the case in office design. The

Interior design continues to re-define itself as a discipline that presents designers with new problems that require innovative solutions. This is particularly true in the case in office design. The transformation of the office environment from the standard bullpen configuration to today's dynamic, flexible, and open floor plans has required new design methodologies that incorporate tools and technologies that are readily available to interior designers. Today, increased use of teams in the workplace challenges interior designers to create environments that accommodate both group and individual tasks (Brill, Weidermann & BOSTI associates, 2001). Collaboration has received considerable attention as organizations focus on productivity and reducing costs to compete in a global economy (Hassanain, 2006). Designers and architects should learn to create environments that respond to dynamic, moveable, and flexible work methods. This web-based research study explores the use of pattern language as a new tool for designing collaborative work environments. In 1977, Christopher Alexander and his associates developed `Pattern language' (Alexander, Ishikawa & Silverstein, 1977) as a design formulation methodology. It consists of a series of interrelated physical elements combined to create a framework for design solutions. This pattern language tool for collaborative work environments was created based on research by Lori Anthony (2001). This study further builds upon current trends and research in collaborative work environments. The researcher conducted a pilot test by sending the web-based tool and an online questionnaire to all graduate students and faculty members in the fields of interior design and healthcare and healing environment (HHE). After testing its validity in The Design School at Arizona State University, the same tool and questionnaire was sent to the employees of one of the leading architecture and interior design firms in Phoenix, AZ. The results showed that among those design professionals surveyed, the majority believe pattern language could be a valuable design tool. The insights obtained from this study will provide designers, architects, and facility managers with a new design tool to aid in creating effective collaborative spaces in a work environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Designing tools to increase group awareness in the work place

Description

This thesis investigates the role of activity visualization tools in increasing group awareness at the workspace. Today, electronic calendaring tools are widely used in the workplace. The primary function is

This thesis investigates the role of activity visualization tools in increasing group awareness at the workspace. Today, electronic calendaring tools are widely used in the workplace. The primary function is to enable each person maintain a work schedule. They also are used to schedule meetings and share work details when appropriate. However, a key limitation of current tools is that they do not enable people in the workplace to understand the activity of the group as a whole. A tool that increases group awareness would promote reflection; it would enable thoughtful engagement with one's co-workers. I have developed two tools: the first tool enables the worker to examine detailed task information of one's own tasks, within the context of his/her peers' anonymized task data. The second tool is a public display to promote group reflection. I have used an iterative design methodology to refine the tools. I developed ActivityStream desktop tool that enables users to examine the detailed information of their own activities and the aggregate information of other peers' activities. ActivityStream uses a client-server architecture. The server collected activity data from each user by parsing RSS feeds associated with their preferred online calendaring and task management tool, on a daily basis. The client software displays personalized aggregate data and user specific tasks, including task types. The client display visualizes the activity data at multiple time scales. The activity data for each user is represented though discrete blocks; interacting with the block will reveal task details. The activity of the rest of the group is anonymized and aggregated. ActivityStream visualizes the aggregated data via Bezier curves. I developed ActivityStream public display that shows a group people's activity levels change over time to promote group reflection. In particular, the public display shows the anonymized task activity data, over the course of one year. The public display visualizes data for each user using a Bezier curve. The display shows data from all users simultaneously. This representation enables users to reflect on the relationships across the group members, over the course of one year. The survey results revealed that users are more aware of their peers' activities in the workspace.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010