Matching Items (25)

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Children's appraisals as a mediating factor in the relation between interparental conflict and child adjustment

Description

This study examined the mediating role of children's self-reported appraisals in the relation between interparental conflict intensity and child adjustment. Both parent-reported and child-reported conflict intensity were used as predictor variables. Findings suggested that children's total appraisals mediated the relationshi

This study examined the mediating role of children's self-reported appraisals in the relation between interparental conflict intensity and child adjustment. Both parent-reported and child-reported conflict intensity were used as predictor variables. Findings suggested that children's total appraisals mediated the relationship between child-reported conflict intensity and all four outcome variables (conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and total adjustment). Additionally, children's appraisals of negative evaluation by others mediated the relationship between child-reported conflict intensity and depression, and both rejection and negative evaluation by others mediated the relationship between child-reported conflict intensity and anxiety. Only one mediational relationship was established when assessing conflict intensity through parent report, with children's appraisals of harm to others mediating the relationship between parent-reported conflict intensity and anxiety. Findings from this study outline the importance of assessing conflict and appraisals from the child's perspective as results indicated a higher level of mediating effects of child appraisals in the relation between conflict and child outcomes when assessing conflict from the child's perspective.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Differential prediction of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology

Description

Using data from an eight-year longitudinal study of 214 children's social and emotional development, I conducted three studies to (1) examine patterns of agreement for internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) symptomatology among different informants (mothers, fathers, teachers, and adolescents) using

Using data from an eight-year longitudinal study of 214 children's social and emotional development, I conducted three studies to (1) examine patterns of agreement for internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) symptomatology among different informants (mothers, fathers, teachers, and adolescents) using a recently developed structural equation modeling approach for multi-trait, multi-method data; (2) examine the developmental trajectories for INT and EXT and predict individual differences in symptom development using temperament and parenting variables; and (3) describe patterns of INT and EXT co-occurrence and predict these patterns from temperament and parenting. In Study 1, longitudinal invariance was established for mothers', fathers' and teachers' reports over a six-year period. Sex, age, and SES did not substantially moderate agreement among informants, although both sex and age were differentially related to symptomatology depending on the informant. Agreement among teachers and mothers, but not among mothers and fathers, differed by domain of symptomatology, and was greater for EXT than for INT. In Study 2, latent profile analysis, a person-centered analytic approach, did not provide easily interpretable patterns of symptom development, a failure that is likely the result of the relatively modest sample size. Latent growth curve models, an alternative analytic approach, did provide good fit to the data. Temperament and parenting variables were examined as predictors of the latent growth parameters in these models. Although there was little prediction of the slope, effortful control was negatively related to overall levels of EXT, whereas impulsivity and anger were positively related. Mutually responsive orientation, a measure of the parent-child relationship, was a more consistent predictor of EXT than was parental warmth. Furthermore, the relation between mutually responsive orientation and EXT was partially mediated by inhibitory control. Across informants, there were few consistent predictors of INT. In Study 3, latent profile analysis was used to classify individuals into different patterns of INT and EXT co-occurrence. In these models, a similar class structure was identified for mothers and for teachers. When temperament and parenting were examined as predictors of co-occurring symptomatology, few significant interactions were found and results largely replicated prior findings from this data set using arbitrary symptom groups.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Parent behaviors and children's interest in play: examining behavioral contingencies for children with and without autism

Description

The present study examined the behaviors of parents and children during a free play interaction in 20 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 20 matched, typically developing children. Observational coding was used to measure sensitive versus controlling parenting behaviors as

The present study examined the behaviors of parents and children during a free play interaction in 20 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 20 matched, typically developing children. Observational coding was used to measure sensitive versus controlling parenting behaviors as well as children's responsivity and interest and investment in play. The study also documented whether the child or the parent primarily directed the play interaction. Finally, the study examined the influence of parenting stress on parents' behaviors during play. Group differences in behaviors were assessed along with associations between parent and child behaviors. Further, sequential analyses were conducted to identify whether parent behaviors temporally facilitated children's responses and interest during a play interaction. Results demonstrated group differences in parental sensitivity, parenting stress, child responsivity, and proportion of child-directed play. Parental sensitivity was also associated with child interest and investment as well as the proportion of child-directed play. Finally, sequential analyses demonstrated a temporal association between completely child-directed play and child interest and investment, and between parental sensitivity and child responsivity. These results extend the existing literature on the behaviors of children with autism and those of their parents within play settings, and have important implications for parent-focused play interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Gene-environment interplay and prosocial behavior: an analysis of parent-child relationships

Description

Several decades of research have concluded that child social functioning is a critical predictor of wellbeing across various developmental domains. Most scientists agree that both genetic and environmental influences play defining roles in social behavior; the processes by which they

Several decades of research have concluded that child social functioning is a critical predictor of wellbeing across various developmental domains. Most scientists agree that both genetic and environmental influences play defining roles in social behavior; the processes by which they concurrently affect child development, however, has been the subject of less research. This work examines distinct mechanisms that shape child prosociality by examining genetic and environmental influences on development, via two empirical studies. The first study analyzed the evocative-reactive and the evocative-socially-mediated hypotheses as gene-environment correlation (rGE) mechanisms connecting the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) genes, child prosocial behavior, and parent differential treatment (PDT). Findings present modest evidence for the evocative-reactive rGE hypothesis; specifically, AVPR1a marginally influenced child prosociality, which subsequently predicted mother preference in adolescence. The second study examined several gene-environment interactions (GxEs) in exploring how social environmental variables- positive and negative parenting- predicted child prosociality, as moderated by socially-implicated child genes, DRD2 and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Findings indicated that while positive parenting was predictive of child prosociality regardless of genetic variants, the effects of negative parenting on child prosociality were dependent on child genetic variants. Together, findings from these studies suggest modest genetic and environmental influences on child behavior in middle childhood and adolescence, consistent with previous research and theory. Directions for future research are offered, and intervention and policy implications are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Factors associated with the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status: the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study

Description

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status compared to parent-measured body weight status. Methods: Data were collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households located in five low-income New Jersey cities with large minority populations. A subset of 548 children whose parents completed the survey and returned a worksheet of parent-measured heights and weights were the focus of the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors significantly associated with parental perception of their child's body weight status. Results: Based on parent-measure heights and weights, 36% of the children were overweight or obese (OWOB). Only 21% of OWOB children were perceived by their parents as OWOB. Child gender, child body mass index (BMI) and parent BMI were significant independent predictors of parents' accuracy at perceiving their child's body weight status. Conclusion: Boys, OWOB children, and children of OWOB parents had significantly greater odds of parental underestimation of their body weight status. Parents had better recognition of OWOB in their daughters, especially older daughters, than in their sons, suggesting parental gender bias in identifying OWOB in children. Further research is needed regarding parental gender bias and its implications in OWOB identification in children.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Two qualitative case studies examining the parent-child interaction in home-based musical play experiences

Description

ABSTRACT Two qualitative studies described the effects of parent's participation in the music therapy session on parent-child interaction during home-based musical experiences learned in music therapy session. Home-based musical play was based on two current programs: Sing & Grow (Abad

ABSTRACT Two qualitative studies described the effects of parent's participation in the music therapy session on parent-child interaction during home-based musical experiences learned in music therapy session. Home-based musical play was based on two current programs: Sing & Grow (Abad & Williams, 2007; Nicolson, 2008 Abad, 2011; Williams, et al; 2012) and Musical Connection Programme(Warren & Nugent, 2010). The researcher utilized the core elements of these programs, such as session structures and parenting strategies for improving parent-child interaction during music therapy interventions. Several questions emerged as a result of these case studies as follows 1) does parent's participation affect parent-child interaction during music therapy interventions 2) does musical parenting strategies promote parent-child interaction while practicing musical play at home 3) does parent's interaction increase when they practice parental strategies listed on parent's self-check list. Music therapy session was provided once per week during an eight week period. The participants were referred by Arizona State University (ASU) music therapy clinic. Sessions took place either in the ASU music therapy treatment room or the participant's home. There were four participants- one diagnosed with Down syndrome and the other with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and two parents or caregivers (each subject was counted as one participant). The parent/caregiver filled out the parental self-checklist 3-4 times per week and the survey after the end of the program. The case study materials were gathered through with parent/caregiver. The case studies revealed that all of the parents responded that the parent's participation in music therapy helped to improve their interactions with their child. Furthermore, all parents became more responsive in interacting with their child through musical play, such as sing-a-long and movements. Second, musical parenting strategies encouraged parent-child interaction when practicing musical play at home. Third, the parent's self-checklist was shown to be effective material for increasing positive parent-child interaction. The self-checklist reminded the parents to practice using strategies in order to promote interaction with their child. Overall, it was found that the parent's participation in home-based musical play increased parent-child interaction and the musical parenting strategies enhanced parent-child interaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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TEXT2COPE program for parents of overweight or obese preschool-aged children

Description

Children are five times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period, and 60% of overweight preschoolers are overweight at the age of 12 years (Matusik & Malecka-Tendera, 2011).

Children are five times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period, and 60% of overweight preschoolers are overweight at the age of 12 years (Matusik & Malecka-Tendera, 2011). Primary care interventions are urgently needed to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in families. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children. Cognitive behavioral interventions have demonstrated preliminary success in promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors in both adults and children. Mobile technology used to supplement interventions aimed at behavior change offers an outlet to bridge gaps in health disparities and generate innovative evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (TEXT2COPE) synergized with mobile technology on the healthy lifestyle behaviors of parents of overweight and obese preschoolers. Primary aims of the proposed pilot study were to (a) examine the feasibility and acceptability of the TEXT2COPE program among parents of overweight or obese preschoolers with mobile phones; (b) evaluate the preliminary effects of the TEXT2COPE program on healthy lifestyle behaviors in families with overweight or obese preschoolers; and (c) evaluate the relationship among the study variables (i.e., cognitive beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors). Findings indicate that this program is feasible and acceptable in this population. The intervention improved healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors in parents. Further supported are the interconnected relationships between parental beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Using funds of knowledge to build trust between a teacher and parents of language-delayed preschoolers

Description

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language delays. Also important are social interactions and shared experiences with

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language delays. Also important are social interactions and shared experiences with more knowledgeable persons. Within a cultural context Funds of Knowledge, that is the talents, traditions, and abilities families possess and pass down to their children may be a context for these. However, despite their importance the value Funds of Knowledge have has not been explored with parents of children with special needs. This action research study used a mixed-methods design to understand if Funds of Knowledge could be used as context to improve communication between parents and their children and build trust between parents and a teacher. Seven families participated in the study. Quantitative data were gathered with surveys and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Qualitative data consisted of transcripts from home-visit interviews, parent presentations, and a focus group, and were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. Results indicate parents entered the study with trust in the teacher especially in terms of having competence in her abilities. Data also show that parents used the language strategies provided to improve communication with their children. Data also indicate that the use of a Funds of Knowledge activity allowed parents to share their knowledge and interests with their children and children in the classroom, feel empowered, and express emotions. From these findings, implication for practice and further research are provided.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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A longitudinal examination of anxiety across childhood and adolescence

Description

Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) was used to study the role of child individual, parental, and environmental predictors of anxiety across childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal growth modeling was used to examine the

Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) was used to study the role of child individual, parental, and environmental predictors of anxiety across childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal growth modeling was used to examine the influence of behavioral inhibition, parental control, parental anxiety and stressful life events on the developmental progression of anxiety from 4 to 15 years of age. Based on these data, it appears that there are significant developmental differences between the role of child individual, parental and environmental risk factors. These results highlight the importance of considering developmental factors when assessing and targeting risk for anxiety.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Family systems in the context of child risk: an observational analysis

Description

Family plays an important yet understudied role in the development of psychopathology during childhood, particularly for children at developmental risk. Indeed, much of the research on families has actually concentrated more on risk processes in individual family members or within-family

Family plays an important yet understudied role in the development of psychopathology during childhood, particularly for children at developmental risk. Indeed, much of the research on families has actually concentrated more on risk processes in individual family members or within-family subsystems. In general, important and complex associations have been found among family-related constructs such as marital conflict, parent-child relationships, parental depression, and parenting stress, which have in turn been found to contribute to the emergence of children's behavioral problems. Research has begun to emerge that certain family system constructs, such as cohesion, organization, and control may influence children's development, but this research has been limited by a focus on parent-reports of family functioning, rather than utilizing observational methods. With notable exceptions, there is almost no observational research examining families of children at developmental risk. This study examined the longitudinal relations among family risk and family system constructs, as well as how family systems constructs mediated the relations between family risk and child outcome. Further, the study examined how developmental risk moderated these relations. The sample followed 242 families of children with and without developmental risk across the transition-to-school period. Family risk factors were assessed at 5 years, using parental reports of symptomatology, parenting stress, and marital adjustment, and observational assessments of the parent-child relationship. Family system constructs (cohesion, warmth, conflict, organization, control) were measured at age 6 using structured observations of the entire family playing a board game. Child behavior problems and social competence were assessed at age 7. Results indicated that families of children with developmental delays did not differ from families of typically developing children on the majority of family system attributes. Cohesion and organization mediated the relations between specific family risk factors and social competence for all families. For families of typically developing children only, higher levels of control were associated with more behavior problems and less social competence. These findings underscore the importance of family-level assessment in understanding the development of psychopathology. Important family effects on children's social competence were found, although the pathways among family risk and family systems attributes are complex.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012