Matching Items (10)

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Developmental changes in anxiety and social competence in early childhood: exploring growth and the roles of child temperament and gender

Description

This dissertation examined how anxiety levels and social competence change across the course of early elementary school, as well as how individual differences at the transition to kindergarten may influence

This dissertation examined how anxiety levels and social competence change across the course of early elementary school, as well as how individual differences at the transition to kindergarten may influence these trajectories. Previous research has supported unidirectional relations among anxiety and social competence, but few studies explore how inter- and intra-individual changes in social competence and anxiety may be related across time. From a developmental perspective, studying these trajectories following the transition to kindergarten is important, as cognitive and emotion regulation capacities increase markedly across kindergarten, and the relative success with which children navigate this transition can have a bearing on future social and emotional functioning across elementary school. In addition, given gender differences in anxiety manifestation and social competence development broadly, gender differences were also examined in an exploratory manner. Data from parent and teacher reports of a community sample of 291 children across kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grades were analyzed. Results from bivariate growth models revealed steeper increases in anxiety, relative to peers in the sample, were associated with steeper decreases in social competence across time. This finding held after controlling for externalizing behavior problems at each time point, which suggests that relations among anxiety and social competence may be independent of other behavior problems commonly associated with poor social adjustment. Temperament variables were associated with changes in social competence, such that purportedly "risky" temperament traits of higher negative emotionality and lower attention control were associated with concurrently lower social competence in kindergarten, but with relatively steeper increases in social competence across time. Temperament variables in kindergarten were unrelated with changes in anxiety across time. Gender differences in relations among anxiety in kindergarten and growth in social competence also were revealed. Findings for teacher and parent reports of child behavior varied. Results are discussed with respect to contexts that may drive differences between parent and teacher reports of child behavior, as well as key developmental considerations that may help to explain why kindergarten temperament variables examined herein appear to predict changes in social competence but not changes in anxiety levels.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Genetic and environmental influences on early social competence: moderation by parental social support

Description

This study examined whether social support available to parents moderated the heritability of parent-reported social approach at 12 months (N = 286 twin pairs, 52.00% female) and social competence at

This study examined whether social support available to parents moderated the heritability of parent-reported social approach at 12 months (N = 286 twin pairs, 52.00% female) and social competence at 30 months (N = 259 twin pairs, 53.30% female). Genetic and environmental covariance across age is also reported. Social support consistently moderated genetic influences on children’s social approach and competence, such that heritability was highest when parents reported low social support. Shared environment was not moderated by social support and explained continuity across age. Findings provide further evidence that genetic and environmental influences on development vary across context. When parents are supported, environmental influences on children’s social competence are larger, perhaps because support helps parents provide a broadly promotive environment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Profiles of social withdrawal in late childhood: associations with academic engagement and achievement

Description

The primary goals of this study were to empirically identify subgroups of socially withdrawn youth in late childhood using latent profile analysis and to examine profiles of students' scholastic adjustment.

The primary goals of this study were to empirically identify subgroups of socially withdrawn youth in late childhood using latent profile analysis and to examine profiles of students' scholastic adjustment. Further, comparisons of the academic functioning for different subtypes of withdrawn children, with particular emphasis on socially disinterested and socially avoidant youth, were made. Participants were 358 fifth grade children. Results indicated that theoretical subtypes of socially withdrawn youth emerge among fifth grade students (i.e., shy, socially disinterested, socially avoidant, and nonwithdrawn). Additionally, associations among subtype membership and various indices of academic engagement and achievement demonstrated unique academic profiles depending on subgroup classification. In particular, youth who were identified as socially avoidant were at greatest risk for academic difficulties compared to their peers. Findings also emerged for socially disinterested youth indicating some degree of academic maladjustment associated with a preference for solitude. These findings have implications for students exhibiting different forms of social withdrawal for their academic functioning in later childhood.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Activative fathering, children's self-regulation, and social skills

Description

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4 to 6. Fathering and mothering behaviors were coded via naturalistic observations at child age 4, children's dysregulation was coded during a laboratory puzzle task at age 5, and children's social skills were rated by parents and teachers at age 6. Results found support for a constellation of activative fathering behaviors unique to father-child interactions. Activative fathering, net of mothering behaviors, predicted decreased behavioral dysregulation one year later. Support was not found for moderation of the relation between activative fathering and children's dysregulation by paternal warmth, nor was support found for children's dysregulation as a mediator of the relation between activative fathering and children's social skills. These results suggest that parenting elements of father-child activation are unique to fathering and may be more broadly observable in naturalistic contexts not limited to play activities alone. Additionally, activative fathering appears to uniquely influence children's self-regulatory abilities above and beyond identical mothering behavior. In the present work, paternal warmth was not a necessary for activative fathering to positively contribute to children's regulatory abilities nor did children's dysregulation link activative fathering to social skills.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The effects of a movement-based after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem. A true-experimental pretest-posttest design was used

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem. A true-experimental pretest-posttest design was used and included 14 hours of treatment time. The subjects (N = 66), fifth-grade students were randomly selected from the lowest quartile of scores on Colwell's Music Achievement Test (MAT), which was administered to all fifth-grade students (N = 494) in three Korean elementary schools. The treatment group (n =33) experienced a movement-based after-school music program (MAMP); the control group (n = 33) did not receive the after-school music program. Measurements included sections of Colwell's Music Achievement Test (MAT), Kim's Social Development Scale (SDS), and Hare's Self-Esteem Scale (HSS). The researcher and music teachers of each school administered all measurements. Fourteen treatment lessons occurred over fourteen weeks. One-way analyses of covariance tests were used to test for post-test differences between groups. A significant difference was found in music achievement total scores of the MAT with the treatment group scoring higher scores than the control group. There were no significant differences for interval and meter discrimination tests of MAT. There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in the post-test scores of the Social Development Scale (SDS) and the Self-Esteem Scale (HSS). However, for both tests, mean scores increased for the treatment group and decreased for the control group. Results from this study suggest that a movement-based after-school music program promotes music underachievers' musical growth and may also support music underachievers' social development and self-esteem.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Japanese preschool educators' cultural practices and beliefs about the pedagogy of social-emotional development

Description

This dissertation examines Japanese preschool teachers' cultural practices and beliefs about the pedagogy of social-emotional development. The study is an interview-based, ethnographic study, which is based on the video-cued mutivocal

This dissertation examines Japanese preschool teachers' cultural practices and beliefs about the pedagogy of social-emotional development. The study is an interview-based, ethnographic study, which is based on the video-cued mutivocal ethnographic method. This study focuses on the emic terms that Japanese preschool teachers use to explain their practices, such as amae (dependency), omoiyari (empathy), sabishii (loneliness), mimamoru (watching and waiting) and garari (peripheral participation). My analysis suggests that sabishii, amae, and omoiyari form a triad of emotional exchange that has a particular cultural patterning and salience in Japan and in the Japanese approach to the socialization of emotions in early childhood. Japanese teachers think about the development of the class as a community, which is different from individual-centric Western pedagogical perspective that gives more attention to each child's development. Mimamoru is a pedagogical philosophy and practice in Japanese early childhood education. A key component of Japanese teachers' cultural practices and beliefs about the pedagogy of social-emotional development is that the process requires the development not only of children as individuals, but also of children in a preschool class as a community. In addition, the study suggests that at a deeper level these emic concepts reflect more general Japanese cultural notions of time, space, sight, and body. This dissertation concludes with the argument that teachers' implicit cultural practices and beliefs is "A cultural art of teaching." Teachers' implicit cultural practices and beliefs are harmonized in the teachers' mind and body, making connections between them, and used depending on the nuances of a situation, as informed by teachers' conscious and unconscious thoughts. The study has also shown evidence of similar practices and logic vertically distributed within Japanese early childhood education, from the way teachers act with children, to the way directors act with teachers, to the way government ministries act with directors, to the way deaf and hearing educators act with their deaf and hearing students. Because these practices are forms of bodily habitus and implicit Japanese culture, it makes sense that they are found across fields of action.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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New directions in social competence research: : examining developmental trajectories and language minority populations

Description

Research regarding social competence is growing rapidly, but there remain a few aspects of social development that merit more attention. The presented pair of studies were planned to address two

Research regarding social competence is growing rapidly, but there remain a few aspects of social development that merit more attention. The presented pair of studies were planned to address two such areas in the social development literature, specifically the longitudinal trajectories of social competence and the role of social competence in second language development in language minority (LM) students. The goal of the first investigation was to examine the developmental trends of interpersonal skills (IS) across the early childhood and elementary school years in a nationally representative, U.S. sample. The goal of the second study was to examine whether differing trajectories of IS development in language minority children in the U.S. were related to their language and literacy (LL) skills at grade 5. Both studies utilized data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 and modeled ratings of children's IS at five time points between fall of kindergarten and spring of fifth grade using latent class growth analyses in Mplus. In study 1, the best model was a quadratic two-class latent class growth analysis. Trajectory class 1 was a higher-level path with a marginally significant non-linear shape and class 2 was a primarily stable, moderate level path with a slight, non-significant increase over time. The same pattern of results emerged for both boys and girls separately as with the combined-sex model, and in all three final models the proportion of the sample in the higher-level class was greater than the moderate-level class. In study 2 a sample of U.S. children whose primary language at home was something other than English was utilized. LL at the start of kindergarten and sex were included as covariates and LL in fifth grade as a distal outcome. The best model for the data was a cubic two-class latent class growth analysis. Class 1 followed a higher-level path with small, incremental change over time and class 2 was a moderate-level path with greater undulation. Both covariates significantly predicted latent class and language and literacy scores at grade 5 differed significantly across classes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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School-wide positive behavior supports: fidelity of implementation in urban schools

Description

The purpose of this study was to implement Tier 1 universal expectations and Tier 2 secondary preventions, using a School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) problem-solving framework with fidelity in a

The purpose of this study was to implement Tier 1 universal expectations and Tier 2 secondary preventions, using a School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) problem-solving framework with fidelity in a culturally and linguistically diverse urban elementary school. A mixed-method design was used to address the following three research questions. How can school leadership teams design and implement Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports with fidelity in an urban elementary school? In what ways can Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions, designed and created by a school leadership team, reduce disruptive student behaviors? How satisfied were staff members with implementation of the Tier 1 and Tier 2 preventions? Data collection was completed using office discipline referrals (ODRs), the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET 2.0), the Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ), staff surveys, and interviews to aid researchers and educational leaders in urban schools in identifying successes, pitfalls, and areas needing improvement in the implementation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports in urban schools.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Interpersonal skills of gifted students: risk versus resilience

Description

The population of intellectually gifted youth encompasses a wide range of abilities, talents, temperaments, and personality characteristics. Although generalizations are often made outside of the empirical literature regarding the interpersonal

The population of intellectually gifted youth encompasses a wide range of abilities, talents, temperaments, and personality characteristics. Although generalizations are often made outside of the empirical literature regarding the interpersonal skills of these children, much remains to be understood about their social behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the within-group differences of gifted children, and it was hypothesized that subgroups of the gifted population would differ from each other in terms of interpersonal skill development. Gifted education teachers within a large K-12 public school district in the Southwestern United States completed the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) regarding the social-emotional competence of 206 elementary and middle school students classified as gifted. Correlational analyses and factorial analysis of variance were conducted to compare interpersonal skills (as measured by DESSA ratings) and students' level of giftedness, area of identification as gifted, gender, and age. Results indicated that interpersonal skills were significantly related to gender, area of identification, and level of giftedness. Female children were described as having significantly higher levels of interpersonal skills overall, and children identified as gifted with both nonverbal and quantitative measures exhibited significantly higher levels of interpersonal skills than those identified with verbal or nonverbal measures alone. Significant correlations were also observed between the level of children's estimated gifted abilities and their interpersonal skills. Trends in the data suggested that as children's cognitive abilities increased, their interpersonal skills also increased, placing profoundly gifted children at social advantages over their moderately gifted peers. However, it was also noted that although the two variables were significantly related, they were not commensurate. While children presented with above-average cognitive abilities, their interpersonal skills were within the average range. This suggests that gifted children may benefit from interventions that target interpersonal skill development, in an effort to bring their social skills more in line with their cognitive abilities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Joint attention and its relation to social outcomes: typically developing children and children with autism

Description

Previous research has suggested that the social interactions parents engage in with their typically developing children are critical to the relationships children form with peers later in development. Fewer studies,

Previous research has suggested that the social interactions parents engage in with their typically developing children are critical to the relationships children form with peers later in development. Fewer studies, however, have investigated the relation between parent and child interactions and peer relations in children with autism. The current study aimed to investigate the relation between parent-child joint attention skills, social competence and friendship quality in children with autism and in typically developing children. A matched sample of 20 preschool-aged children with autism and 20 preschool-aged typically developing children were observed interacting with their parents in a laboratory setting. Approximately one year later, parents filled out a questionnaire assessing their child's social competency and quality of friendships with peers. Results indicated significant group differences between children with autism and typically developing children in all study variables, with children with autism displaying less initiation of joint attention, lower social competence and low quality friendships. Additionally, child initiated joint attention was positively related to social competence for both groups; effects were not moderated by diagnosis status. It is concluded that parent and child interactions during the preschool years are important to the development of social competence with peers. Intervention and policy implications are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010