Matching Items (4)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

152336-Thumbnail Image.png

Frequency response characteristics of respiratory flow-meters

Description

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where the rate of airflow passing the aircraft is used to determine the speed of the plane. A clinical example would be that the flow of a patient's breath which could help determine the state of the patient's lungs. This project is focused on the flow-meter that are used for airflow measurement in human lungs. In order to do these measurements, resistive-type flow-meters are commonly used in respiratory measurement systems. This method consists of passing the respiratory flow through a fluid resistive component, while measuring the resulting pressure drop, which is linearly related to volumetric flow rate. These types of flow-meters typically have a low frequency response but are adequate for most applications, including spirometry and respiration monitoring. In the case of lung parameter estimation methods, such as the Quick Obstruction Method, it becomes important to have a higher frequency response in the flow-meter so that the high frequency components in the flow are measurable. The following three types of flow-meters were: a. Capillary type b. Screen Pneumotach type c. Square Edge orifice type To measure the frequency response, a sinusoidal flow is generated with a small speaker and passed through the flow-meter that is connected to a large, rigid container. True flow is proportional to the derivative of the pressure inside the container. True flow is then compared with the measured flow, which is proportional to the pressure drop across the flow-meter. In order to do the characterization, two LabVIEW data acquisition programs have been developed, one for transducer calibration, and another one that records flow and pressure data for frequency response testing of the flow-meter. In addition, a model that explains the behavior exhibited by the flow-meter has been proposed and simulated. This model contains a fluid resistor and inductor in series. The final step in this project was to approximate the frequency response data to the developed model expressed as a transfer function.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

151764-Thumbnail Image.png

Pressure based spirometry: mobile spirometry using a pressure transducer

Description

Spirometry is a type of pulmonary function test that measures the amount of air volume and the speed of air flow from a patient's breath in order to assess lung function. The goal of this project is to develop and

Spirometry is a type of pulmonary function test that measures the amount of air volume and the speed of air flow from a patient's breath in order to assess lung function. The goal of this project is to develop and validate a mobile spirometer technology based on a differential pressure sensor. The findings in this paper are used in a larger project that combines the features of a capnography device and a spirometer into a single mobile health unit known as the capno-spirometer. The following paper discusses the methods, experiments, and prototypes that were developed and tested in order to create a robust and accurate technology for all of the spirometry functions within the capno-spirometer. The differential pressure sensor is set up with one inlet measuring the pressure inside the spirometer tubing and the other inlet measuring the ambient pressure of the environment. The inlet measuring the inside of the tubing is very sensitive to its orientation and position with respect to the path of the air flow. It is found that taking a measurement from the center of the flow is 50% better than from the side wall. The sensor inlet is optimized at 37 mm from the mouthpiece inlet. The unit is calibrated by relating the maximum pressure sensor voltage signal to the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) taken during a series of spirometry tests. In conclusion, this relationship is best represented as a quadratic function and a calibration equation is computed to provide a flow rate given a voltage change. The flow rates are used to calculate the four main spirometry parameters: PEF, FVC, FEV1, and FER. These methods are then referenced with the results from a commercial spirometer for validation. After validation, the pressure-based spirometry technology is proven to be both robust and accurate.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

149447-Thumbnail Image.png

Impact of increased penetration of DFIG based wind turbine generators on rotor angle stability of power systems

Description

An advantage of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) as compared to conventional fixed speed wind turbine generators is higher efficiency. This higher efficiency is achieved due to the ability of the DFIG to operate near its optimal turbine efficiency over

An advantage of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) as compared to conventional fixed speed wind turbine generators is higher efficiency. This higher efficiency is achieved due to the ability of the DFIG to operate near its optimal turbine efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds through variable speed operation. This is achieved through the application of a back-to-back converter that tightly controls the rotor current and allows for asynchronous operation. In doing so, however, the power electronic converter effectively decouples the inertia of the turbine from the system. Hence, with the increase in penetration of DFIG based wind farms, the effective inertia of the system will be reduced. With this assertion, the present study is aimed at identifying the systematic approach to pinpoint the impact of increased penetration of DFIGs on a large realistic system. The techniques proposed in this work are tested on a large test system representing the Midwestern portion of the U.S. Interconnection. The electromechanical modes that are both detrimentally and beneficially affected by the change in inertia are identified. The combination of small-signal stability analysis coupled with the large disturbance analysis of exciting the mode identified is found to provide a detailed picture of the impact on the system. The work is extended to develop suitable control strategies to mitigate the impact of significant DFIG penetration on a large power system. Supplementary control is developed for the DFIG power converters such that the effective inertia contributed by these wind generators to the system is increased. Results obtained on the large realistic power system indicate that the frequency nadir following a large power impact is effectively improved with the proposed control strategy. The proposed control is also validated against sudden wind speed changes in the form of wind gusts and wind ramps. The beneficial impact in terms of damping power system oscillations is observed, which is validated by eigenvalue analysis. Another control mechanism is developed aiming at designing the power system stabilizer (PSS) for a DFIG similar to the PSS of synchronous machines. Although both the supplementary control strategies serve the purpose of improving the damping of the mode with detrimental impact, better damping performance is observed when the DFIG is equipped with both the controllers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

156043-Thumbnail Image.png

System Identification, Diagnosis, and Built-In Self-Test of High Switching Frequency DC-DC Converters

Description

Complex electronic systems include multiple power domains and drastically varying dynamic power consumption patterns, requiring the use of multiple power conversion and regulation units. High frequency switching converters have been gaining prominence in the DC-DC converter market due to smaller

Complex electronic systems include multiple power domains and drastically varying dynamic power consumption patterns, requiring the use of multiple power conversion and regulation units. High frequency switching converters have been gaining prominence in the DC-DC converter market due to smaller solution size (higher power density) and higher efficiency. As the filter components become smaller in value and size, they are unfortunately also subject to higher process variations and worse degradation profiles jeopardizing stable operation of the power supply. This dissertation presents techniques to track changes in the dynamic loop characteristics of the DC-DC converters without disturbing the normal mode of operation. A digital pseudo-noise (PN) based stimulus is used to excite the DC-DC system at various circuit nodes to calculate the corresponding closed-loop impulse response. The test signal energy is spread over a wide bandwidth and the signal analysis is achieved by correlating the PN input sequence with the disturbed output generated, thereby

accumulating the desired behavior over time. A mixed-signal cross-correlation circuit is used to derive on-chip impulse responses, with smaller memory and lower computational requirement in comparison to a digital correlator approach. Model reference based parametric and non-parametric techniques are discussed to analyze the impulse response results in both time and frequency domain. The proposed techniques can extract open-loop phase margin and closed-loop unity-gain frequency within 5.2% and 4.1% error, respectively, for the load current range of 30-200mA. Converter parameters such as natural frequency (ω_n ), quality factor (Q), and center frequency (ω_c ) can be estimated within 3.6%, 4.7%, and 3.8% error respectively, over load inductance of 4.7-10.3µH, and filter capacitance of 200-400nF. A 5-MHz switching frequency, 5-8.125V input voltage range, voltage-mode controlled DC-DC buck converter is designed for the proposed built-in self-test (BIST) analysis. The converter output voltage range is 3.3-5V and the supported maximum

load current is 450mA. The peak efficiency of the converter is 87.93%. The proposed converter is fabricated on a 0.6µm 6-layer-metal Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology with a die area of 9mm^2 . The area impact due to the system identification blocks including related I/O structures is 3.8% and they consume 530µA quiescent current during operation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017