Matching Items (4)

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Separation of oil and other organics from water using inverse fluidization of hydrophobic aerogels

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This dissertation presents a systematic study of the sorption mechanisms of hydrophobic silica aerogel (Cabot Nanogel®) granules for oil and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different phases. The performance of Nanogel for removing oil from laboratory synthetic oil-in-water emulsions and

This dissertation presents a systematic study of the sorption mechanisms of hydrophobic silica aerogel (Cabot Nanogel®) granules for oil and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different phases. The performance of Nanogel for removing oil from laboratory synthetic oil-in-water emulsions and real oily wastewater, and VOCs from their aqueous solution, in both packed bed (PB) and inverse fluidized bed (IFB) modes was also investigated. The sorption mechanisms of VOCs in the vapor, pure liquid, and aqueous solution phases, free oil, emulsified oil, and oil from real wastewater on Nanogel were systematically studied via batch kinetics and equilibrium experiments. The VOC results show that the adsorption of vapor is very slow due to the extremely low thermal conductivity of Nanogel. The faster adsorption rates in the liquid and solution phases are controlled by the mass transport, either by capillary flow or by vapor diffusion/adsorption. The oil results show that Nanogel has a very high capacity for adsorption of pure oils. However, the rate for adsorption of oil from an oil-water emulsion on the Nanogel is 5-10 times slower than that for adsorption of pure oils or organics from their aqueous solutions. For an oil-water emulsion, the oil adsorption capacity decreases with an increasing proportion of the surfactant added. An even lower sorption capacity and a slower sorption rate were observed for a real oily wastewater sample due to the high stability and very small droplet size of the wastewater. The performance of Nanogel granules for removing emulsified oil, oil from real oily wastewater, and toluene at low concentrations in both PB and IFB modes was systematically investigated. The hydrodynamics characteristics of the Nanogel granules in an IFB were studied by measuring the pressure drop and bed expansion with superficial water velocity. The density of the Nanogel granules was calculated from the plateau pressure drop of the IFB. The oil/toluene removal efficiency and the capacity of the Nanogel granules in the PB or IFB were also measured experimentally and predicted by two models based on equilibrium and kinetic batch measurements of the Nanogel granules.

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Date Created
2011

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Synthesis of amine-modified aerogel sorbents and metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) membranes for carbon dioxide separation

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Amine-modified solid sorbents and membrane separation are promising technologies for separation and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. Amine absorption processes are mature, but still have room for improvement. This work focused on the synthesis of amine-modified

Amine-modified solid sorbents and membrane separation are promising technologies for separation and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. Amine absorption processes are mature, but still have room for improvement. This work focused on the synthesis of amine-modified aerogels and metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) membranes for CO2 separation. A series of solid sorbents were synthesized by functionalizing amines on the surface of silica aerogels. This was done by three coating methods: physical adsorption, magnetically assisted impact coating (MAIC) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). CO2 adsorption capacity of the sorbents was measured at room temperature in a Cahn microbalance. The sorbents synthesized by physical adsorption show the largest CO2 adsorption capacity (1.43-1.63 mmol CO2/g). An additional sorbent synthesized by ALD on hydrophilic aerogels at atmospheric pressures shows an adsorption capacity of 1.23 mmol CO2/g. Studies on one amine-modified sorbent show that the powder is of agglomerate bubbling fluidization (ABF) type. The powder is difficult to fluidize and has limited bed expansion. The ultimate goal is to configure the amine-modified sorbents in a micro-jet assisted gas fluidized bed to conduct adsorption studies. MOF-5 membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by two methods: in situ synthesis and secondary growth synthesis. Characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the membranes prepared by both methods have a thickness of 14-16 μm, and a MOF-5 crystal size of 15-25 μm with no apparent orientation. Single gas permeation results indicate that the gas transport through both membranes is determined by a combination of Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow. The contribution of viscous flow indicates that the membranes have defects.

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Date Created
2010

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Synthesis and carbon dioxide adsorption properties of amine modified particulate silica aerogel sorbents

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Post-combustion carbon capture is a viable option for reducing CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, and one potentially promising technology for this route is adsorption using chemically and physically based sorbents. A number of exceptional CO2 sorbents materials have been prepared including

Post-combustion carbon capture is a viable option for reducing CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, and one potentially promising technology for this route is adsorption using chemically and physically based sorbents. A number of exceptional CO2 sorbents materials have been prepared including metal organic frameworks, zeolites, and carbon based materials. One particular group of capable materials are amine based solid sorbents that has shown to possess high adsorption capacities and favorable adsorption kinetics. A key variable in the synthesis of an amine based sorbent is the support which acts as the platform for the amine modification. Aerogels, due to their high porosities and surface areas, appear to be a promising support for an amine modified CO2 sorbent. Therefore, in order to develop a commercially viable CO2 sorbent, particulate aerogels manufactured by Cabot Corporation through an economical and proprietary ambient drying process were modified with amines using a variety of functionalization methods. Two methods of physical impregnation of the amino polymer TEPA were performed in order to observe the performance as well as understand the effects of how the TEPA distribution is affected by the method of introduction. Both samples showed excellent adsorption capacities but poor cyclic stability for lack of any covalent attachment. Furthermore the method of TEPA impregnation seems to be independent on how the polymer will be distributed in the pore space of aerogel. The last two methods utilized involved covalently attaching amino silanes to the surface silanols of the aerogel. One method was performed in the liquid phase under anhydrous and hydrous conditions. The materials developed through the hydrous method have much greater adsorption capacities relative to the anhydrous sample as a result of the greater amine content present in the hydrous sample. Water is another source of silylation where additional silanes can attach and polymerize. These samples also possessed stable cyclic stability after 100 adsorption/regeneration cycles. The other method of grafting was performed in the gas phase through ALD. These samples possessed exceptionally high amine efficiencies and levels of N content without damaging the microstructure of the aerogel in contrast to the liquid phase grafted sorbents.

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Date Created
2014

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Novel Gas Sensor Solutions for Air Quality Monitoring

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Global industrialization and urbanization have led to increased levels of air pollution. The costs to society have come in the form of environmental damage, healthcare expenses, lost productivity, and premature mortality. Measuring pollutants is an important task for identifying its

Global industrialization and urbanization have led to increased levels of air pollution. The costs to society have come in the form of environmental damage, healthcare expenses, lost productivity, and premature mortality. Measuring pollutants is an important task for identifying its sources, warning individuals about dangerous exposure levels, and providing epidemiologists with data to link pollutants with diseases. Current methods for monitoring air pollution are inadequate though. They rely on expensive, complex instrumentation at limited fixed monitoring sites that do not capture the true spatial and temporal variation. Furthermore, the fixed outdoor monitoring sites cannot warn individuals about indoor air quality or exposure to chemicals at worksites. Recent advances in manufacturing and computing technology have allowed new classes of low-cost miniature gas sensor to emerge as possible alternatives. For these to be successful however, there must be innovations in the sensors themselves that improve reliability, operation, and their stability and selectivity in real environments. Three novel gas sensor solutions are presented. The first is the development of a wearable personal exposure monitor using all commercially available components, including two metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. The device monitors known asthma triggers: ozone, total volatile organic compounds, temperature, humidity, and activity level. Primary focus is placed on the ozone sensor, which requires special circuits, heating algorithm, and calibration to remove temperature and humidity interferences. Eight devices are tested in multiple field tests. The second is the creation of a new compact optoelectronic gas sensing platform using colorimetric microdroplets printed on the surface of a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) imager. The nonvolatile liquid microdroplets provide a homogeneous, uniform environment that is ideal for colorimetric reactions and lensless optical measurements. To demonstrate one type of possible indicating system gaseous ammonia is detected by complexation with Cu(II). The third project continues work on the CMOS imager optoelectronic platform and develops a more robust sensing system utilizing hydrophobic aerogel particles. Ammonia is detected colorimetrically by its reaction with a molecular dye, with additives and surface treatments enhancing uniformity of the printed films. Future work presented at the end describes a new biological particle sensing system using the CMOS imager.

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Date Created
2020