Matching Items (11)

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Modeling and characterization of ammonia injection and catalytic reduction in Kyrene Unit-7 HRSG

Description

ABSTRACT The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG

ABSTRACT The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG − this gas typically contains a high concentration of NO and cannot be discharged directly to the atmosphere because of environmental restrictions. In the HRSG, one method of reducing the flue gas NO concentration is to inject ammonia into the gas at a plane upstream of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit through an injection grid (AIG); the SCR is where the NO is reduced to N2 and H2O. The amount and spatial distribution of the injected ammonia are key considerations for NO reduction while using the minimum possible amount of ammonia. This work had three objectives. First, a flow network model of the Ammonia Flow Control Unit (AFCU) was to be developed to calculate the quantity of ammonia released into the flue gas from each AIG perforation. Second, CFD simulation of the flue gas flow was to be performed to obtain the velocity, temperature, and species concentration fields in the gas upstream and downstream of the SCR. Finally, performance characteristics of the ammonia injection system were to be evaluated. All three objectives were reached. The AFCU was modeled using JAVA - with a graphical user interface provided for the user. The commercial software Fluent was used for CFD simulation. To evaluate the efficacy of the ammonia injection system in reducing the flue gas NO concentration, the twelve butterfly valves in the AFCU ammonia delivery piping (risers) were throttled by various degrees in the model and the NO concentration distribution computed for each operational scenario. When the valves were kept fully open, it was found that it led to a more uniform reduction in NO concentration compared to throttling the valves such that the riser flows were equal. Additionally, the SCR catalyst was consumed somewhat more uniformly, and ammonia slip (ammonia not consumed in reaction) was found lower. The ammonia use could be decreased by 10 percent while maintaining the NO concentration limit in the flue gas exhausting into the atmosphere.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Optimized vortex tube bundle for large flow rate applications

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ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a

ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a cold stream. Many studies have been carried out to find the mechanisms of the energy separation in the vortex tube. Recent rapid development in computational fluid dynamics is providing a powerful tool to investigate the complex flow in the vortex tube. However various issues in these numerical simulations remain, such as choosing the most suitable turbulent model, as well as the lack of systematic comparative analysis. LES model for the vortex tube simulation is hardly used in the present literatures, and the influence of parameters on the performance of the vortex tube has scarcely been studied. This study is aimed to find the influence of various parameters on the performance of the vortex tube, the best geometric value of vortex tube and the realizable method to reach the required cold out flow rate 40 kg/s . First of all, setting up an original 3-D simulation vortex tube model. By comparing experiment results reported in the literature and our simulation results, a most suitable model for the simulation of the vortex tube is obtained. Secondly, we perform simulations to optimize parameters that can deliver a set of desired output, such as cold stream pressure, temperature and flow-rate. We also discuss the use of the cold air flow for petroleum engineering applications.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Thermal storage and transport in colloidal nanocrystal-based materials

Description

The rapid progress of solution-phase synthesis has led colloidal nanocrystals one of the most versatile nanoscale materials, provided opportunities to tailor material's properties, and boosted related technological innovations. Colloidal nanocrystal-based

The rapid progress of solution-phase synthesis has led colloidal nanocrystals one of the most versatile nanoscale materials, provided opportunities to tailor material's properties, and boosted related technological innovations. Colloidal nanocrystal-based materials have been demonstrated success in a variety of applications, such as LEDs, electronics, solar cells and thermoelectrics. In each of these applications, the thermal transport property plays a big role. An undesirable temperature rise due to inefficient heat dissipation could lead to deleterious effects on devices' performance and lifetime. Hence, the first project is focused on investigating the thermal transport in colloidal nanocrystal solids. This study answers the question that how the molecular structure of nanocrystals affect the thermal transport, and provides insights for future device designs. In particular, PbS nanocrystals is used as a monitoring system, and the core diameter, ligand length and ligand binding group are systematically varied to study the corresponding effect on thermal transport.

Next, a fundamental study is presented on the phase stability and solid-liquid transformation of metallic (In, Sn and Bi) colloidal nanocrystals. Although the phase change of nanoparticles has been a long-standing research topic, the melting behavior of colloidal nanocrytstals is largely unexplored. In addition, this study is of practical importance to nanocrystal-based applications that operate at elevated temperatures. Embedding colloidal nanocrystals into thermally-stable polymer matrices allows preserving nanocrystal size throughout melt-freeze cycles, and therefore enabling observation of stable melting features. Size-dependent melting temperature, melting enthalpy and melting entropy have all been measured and discussed.

In the next two chapters, focus has been switched to developing colloidal nanocrystal-based phase change composites for thermal energy storage applications. In Chapter 4, a polymer matrix phase change nanocomposite has been created. In this composite, the melting temperature and energy density could be independently controlled by tuning nanocrystal diameter and volume fractions. In Chapter 5, a solution-phase synthesis on metal matrix-metal nanocrytal composite is presented. This approach enables excellent morphological control over nanocrystals and demonstrated a phase change composite with a thermal conductivity 2 - 3 orders of magnitude greater than typical phase change materials, such as organics and molten salts.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Multi scale study of heat transfer using Monte Carlo technique for phonon transport

Description

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but heat transfer is a microscopic phenomena. Hence a multi-scale modeling approach is required to study the self-heating effects. A state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator and the commercially available Giga 3D tool from Silvaco are used in our study to understand the self heating effects. The Monte Carlo device simulator solves the electrical transport and heat generation for nanometer length scales accurately while the Giga 3D tool solves for thermal transport over micrometer length scales. The approach used is to understand the self-heating effects in a test device structure, composed of a heater and a sensor, fabricated and characterized by IMEC. The heater is the Device Under Test(DUT) and the sensor is used as a probe. Therefore, the heater is biased in the saturation region and the sensor is biased in the sub-threshold regime. Both are planar MOSFETs of gate length equal to 22 nm. The simulated I-V characteristics of the sensor match with the experimental behavior at lower applied drain voltages but differ at higher applied biases.

The self-heating model assumes that the heat transport within the device follows Energy Balance model which may not be accurate. To properly study heat transport within the device, a state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator is necessary. In this regard, the Phonon Monte Carlo(PMC) simulator is developed. Phonons are treated as quasi particles that carry heat energy. Like electrons, phonons obey a corresponding Boltzmann Transport Equation(BTE) which can be used to study their transport. The direct solution of the BTE for phonons is possible, but it is difficult to incorporate all scattering mechanisms. In the Monte Carlo based solution method, it is easier to incorporate different relevant scattering mechanisms. Although the Monte Carlo method is computationally intensive, it provides good insight into the physical nature of the transport problem. Hence Monte Carlo based techniques are used in the present work for studying phonon transport. Monte Carlo simulations require calculating the scattering rates for different scattering processes. In the present work, scattering rates for three phonon interactions are calculated from different approaches presented in the literature. Optical phonons are also included in the transport problem. Finally, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for silicon is calculated in the range from 100K to 900K and is compared to available experimental data.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Low cost system for test of thru-plane thermal transfer coefficient

Description

Determining the thermal conductivity of carbon gas diffusion layers used in hydrogen fuel cells is a very active topic of research. The primary driver behind this research is due to

Determining the thermal conductivity of carbon gas diffusion layers used in hydrogen fuel cells is a very active topic of research. The primary driver behind this research is due to the need for development of proton exchange membrane fuels with longer usable life cycles before failure. As heat is a byproduct of the oxygen-hydrogen reaction an optimized pathway to remove the excess heat is needed to prevent thermal damage to the fuel cell as both mechanical and chemical degradation is accelerated under elevated temperatures. Commercial systems used for testing thermal conductivity are readily available, but are prohibitively expensive, ranging from just over $10,000 to $80,000 for high-end systems. As this cost can exclude some research labs from experimenting with thermal conductivity, a low cost alternative system is a desirable product. The development of a low cost system that maintained typical accuracy levels of commercials systems was carried out successfully at a significant cost reduction. The end product was capable of obtaining comparable accuracy to commercial systems at a cost reduction of more than 600% when compared to entry level commercial models. Combined with a system design that only required some basic fabrication equipment, this design will allow many research labs to expand their testing capabilities without straining departmental budgets. As expected with the development of low cost solutions, the reduction in cost came at the loss in other aspects of system performance, mainly run time. While the developed system requires a significate time investment to obtain useable results, the system can be improved by the used of RTDs in place of thermocouples or incorporation of an isothermal cold plate. These improvements would reduce the runtime to less than that of a standard work day while maintaining an approximate reduction in cost of 350%.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Experiments on laminar convective heat transfer with r-Al2O3 nanofluids

Description

As miniature and high-heat-dissipation equipment became major manufacture and operation trends, heat-rejecting and heat-transport solutions faced increasing challenges. In the 1970s, researchers showed that particle suspensions can enhance the

As miniature and high-heat-dissipation equipment became major manufacture and operation trends, heat-rejecting and heat-transport solutions faced increasing challenges. In the 1970s, researchers showed that particle suspensions can enhance the heat transfer efficiency of their base fluids. However, their work was hindered by the sedimentation and erosion issues caused by the relatively large particle sizes in their suspensions. More recently, nanofluids--suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids-were proposed to be applied as heat transfer fluids, because of the enhanced thermal conductivity that has generally been observed. However, in practical applications, a heat conduction mechanism may not be sufficient for cooling high-heat-dissipation devices such as microelectronics or powerful optical equipment. Thus, the thermal performance under convective, i.e., flowing heat transfer conditions becomes of primary interest. In addition, with the presence of nanoparticles, the viscosity of a nanofluid is greater than its base fluid and deviates from Einstein's classical prediction. Through the use of a test rig designed and assembled as part of this dissertation, the viscosity and heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids can be simultaneously determined by pressure drop and temperature difference measurements under laminar flow conditions. An extensive characterization of the nanofluid samples, including pH, electrical conductivity, particle sizing and zeta potential, is also documented. Results indicate that with constant wall heat flux, the relative viscosities of nanofluid decrease with increasing volume flow rate. The results also show, based on Brenner's model, that the nanofluid viscosity can be explained in part by the aspect ratio of the aggregates. The measured heat transfer coefficient values for nanofluids are generally higher than those for base fluids. In the developing region, this can be at least partially explained by Prandtl number effects. The Nusselt number ( Nu ) results for nanofluid show that Nu increases with increasing nanofluid volume fraction and volume flow rate. However, only DI-H2O (deionized water) and 5/95 PG/H2O (PG = propylene glycol) based nanofluids with 1 vol% nanoparticle loading have Nu greater than the theoretical prediction, 4.364. It is suggested that the nanofluid has potential to be applied within the thermally developing region when utilizing the nanofluid as a heat transfer liquid in a circular tube. The suggested Reynold's number is greater than 100.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Microchannel flow boiling enhancement via cross-sectional expansion

Description

The heat transfer enhancements available from expanding the cross-section of a boiling microchannel are explored analytically and experimentally. Evaluation of the literature on critical heat flux in flow boiling and

The heat transfer enhancements available from expanding the cross-section of a boiling microchannel are explored analytically and experimentally. Evaluation of the literature on critical heat flux in flow boiling and associated pressure drop behavior is presented with predictive critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop correlations. An optimum channel configuration allowing maximum CHF while reducing pressure drop is sought. A perturbation of the channel diameter is employed to examine CHF and pressure drop relationships from the literature with the aim of identifying those adequately general and suitable for use in a scenario with an expanding channel. Several CHF criteria are identified which predict an optimizable channel expansion, though many do not. Pressure drop relationships admit improvement with expansion, and no optimum presents itself. The relevant physical phenomena surrounding flow boiling pressure drop are considered, and a balance of dimensionless numbers is presented that may be of qualitative use. The design, fabrication, inspection, and experimental evaluation of four copper microchannel arrays of different channel expansion rates with R-134a refrigerant is presented. Optimum rates of expansion which maximize the critical heat flux are considered at multiple flow rates, and experimental results are presented demonstrating optima. The effect of expansion on the boiling number is considered, and experiments demonstrate that expansion produces a notable increase in the boiling number in the region explored, though no optima are observed. Significant decrease in the pressure drop across the evaporator is observed with the expanding channels, and no optima appear. Discussion of the significance of this finding is presented, along with possible avenues for future work.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Optimization of complex thermal-fluid processes

Description

First, in a large-scale structure, a 3-D CFD model was built to simulate flow and temperature distributions. The flow patterns and temperature distributions are characterized and validated through spot measurements.

First, in a large-scale structure, a 3-D CFD model was built to simulate flow and temperature distributions. The flow patterns and temperature distributions are characterized and validated through spot measurements. The detailed understanding of them then allows for optimization of the HVAC configuration because identification of the problematic flow patterns and temperature mis-distributions leads to some corrective measures. Second, an appropriate form of the viscous dissipation term in the integral form of the conservation equation was considered, and the effects of momentum terms on the computed drop size in pressure-atomized sprays were examined. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) calculated in this manner agrees well with experimental data of the drop velocities and sizes. Using the suggested equation with the revised treatment of liquid momentum setup, injection parameters can be directly input to the system of equations. Thus, this approach is capable of incorporating the effects of injection parameters for further considerations of the drop and velocity distributions under a wide range of spray geometry and injection conditions. Lastly, groundwater level estimation was investigated using compressed sensing (CS). To satisfy a general property of CS, a random measurement matrix was used, the groundwater network was constructed, and finally the l-1 optimization was run. Through several validation tests, correct estimation of groundwater level by CS was shown. Using this setup, decreasing trends in groundwater level in the southwestern US was shown. The suggested method is effective in that the total measurements of registered wells can be reduced down by approximately 42 %, sparse data can be visualized and a possible approach for groundwater management during extreme weather changes, e.g. in California, was demonstrated.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Enhancing the cooling capacity of roof ponds using polyethylene band filter

Description

With the desire of high standards of comfort, huge amount of energy is being consumed to maintain the indoor environment. In US building consumes 40% of the total primary energy

With the desire of high standards of comfort, huge amount of energy is being consumed to maintain the indoor environment. In US building consumes 40% of the total primary energy while residential buildings consume about 21%. A large proportion of this consumption is due to cooling of buildings. Deteriorating environmental conditions due to excessive energy use suggest that we should look at passive designs and renewable energy opportunities to supply the required comfort. Phoenix gets about 300 days of clear sky every year. It also witnesses large temperature variations from night and day. The humidity ratio almost always stays below the 50% mark. With more than six months having outside temperatures more than 75 oF, night sky radiative cooling promise to be an attractive means to cool the buildings during summer. This technique can be useful for small commercial facilities or residential buildings. The roof ponds can be made more effective by covering them with Band Filters. These band filters block the solar heat gain and allow the water to cool down to lower temperatures. It also reduces the convection heat gain. This helps rood ponds maintain lower temperatures and provide more cooling then an exposed pond. 50 μm Polyethylene band filter is used in this study. Using this band filter, roof ponds can be made up to 10% more effective. About 45% of the energy required to cool a typical residential building in summer can be saved.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Coupling of thermal mass with night ventilation in buildings

Description

Passive cooling designs & technologies offer great promise to lower energy use in buildings. Though the working principles of these designs and technologies are well understood, simplified tools to quantitatively

Passive cooling designs & technologies offer great promise to lower energy use in buildings. Though the working principles of these designs and technologies are well understood, simplified tools to quantitatively evaluate their performance are lacking. Cooling by night ventilation, which is the topic of this research, is one of the well known passive cooling technologies. The building's thermal mass can be cooled at night by ventilating the inside of the space with the relatively lower outdoor air temperatures, thereby maintaining lower indoor temperatures during the warmer daytime period. Numerous studies, both experimental and theoretical, have been performed and have shown the effectiveness of the method to significantly reduce air conditioning loads or improve comfort levels in those climates where the night time ambient air temperature drops below that of the indoor air. The impact of widespread adoption of night ventilation cooling can be substantial, given the large fraction of energy consumed by air conditioning of buildings (about 12-13% of the total electricity use in U.S. buildings). Night ventilation is relatively easy to implement with minimal design changes to existing buildings. Contemporary mathematical models to evaluate the performance of night ventilation are embedded in detailed whole building simulation tools which require a certain amount of expertise and is a time consuming approach. This research proposes a methodology incorporating two models, Heat Transfer model and Thermal Network model, to evaluate the effectiveness of night ventilation. This methodology is easier to use and the run time to evaluate the results is faster. Both these models are approximations of thermal coupling between thermal mass and night ventilation in buildings. These models are modifications of existing approaches meant to model dynamic thermal response in buildings subject to natural ventilation. Effectiveness of night ventilation was quantified by a parameter called the Discomfort Reduction Factor (DRF) which is the index of reduction of occupant discomfort levels during the day time from night ventilation. Daily and Monthly DRFs are calculated for two climate zones and three building heat capacities. It is verified that night ventilation is effective in seasons and regions when day temperatures are between 30 oC and 36 oC and night temperatures are below 20 oC. The accuracy of these models may be lower than using a detailed simulation program but the loss in accuracy in using these tools more than compensates for the insights provided and better transparency in the analysis approach and results obtained.

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Date Created
  • 2011