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Production, transmission, and consumption of Red Tourism in China: a model of the circuit of red heritage and tourism

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Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism, comprised of state-promoted tours to revolutionary memorial sites. It is

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism, comprised of state-promoted tours to revolutionary memorial sites. It is expected to generate political, economic, and social benefits, particularly to reinforce the legitimate leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. Statistics show that dramatic market growth in red tourism has occurred over the past decade. Yet it is still heavily driven by the government and thus whether long-term sustainability can be achieved is still questionable.

This dissertation explores the dynamics of red tourism from the perspective of a meaning-making process, where tourism discourses circulate among the processes of production, transmission, and consumption. The results reveal that higher-level government primarily assumes the leading role, whereas local government is largely excluded from strategy making processes and primarily responsible for implementation and operation. Some dissonance exists between higher and lower-level governments in their goals and involvement in red tourism development. Second, intermediaries are not altruistic and attempt to maximize their own benefits. While site interpreters may provide officially authorized narratives, their primary focus is hosting higher-up administrative visitors. On the contrary, tour guides are more customer-oriented, which may lead to officially undesirable interpretations. Third, driven by multiple motives, tourists have increasingly diverse attitudes towards red heritage and participate in various political and non-political activities. A considerable degree of congruence was found between tourists' participation, motivation, memories, and perception. Quantitative results indicate that the majority of tourists have learned about the political significance and/or content of red heritage, and developed more positive attitudes towards, and support for, the CCP and the government, to a certain extent.

This dissertation contributes to current research by adopting a systematic and emic perspective to explore the dynamics of red tourism. Several conceptual frameworks were developed inductively to describe the meaning-making process. Mixed methods were used to learn about tourists' consumption and perceptions of red heritage. Implications regarding enhancing the effectiveness of the meaning-making process, limitations of the study, and potential directions for future research are also discussed.

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Date Created
2014

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Serious running: factors that lead to awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty to long distance running

Description

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure activity. Awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty make of the four stages of PCM. Both perspectives have been used to describe committed leisure activity participants and commitment to organized recreational events. Research on leisure activity has yet to determine how the individual becomes loyal. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the process in which recreation activity participates becomes loyal and to identify who can be labels as serious within the PCM Framework. Data was obtained from an online electronic survey distributed to participants of four U.S. marathon and half marathon events. A total of 579 responses were used in the final analysis. Path analysis determined the process in which a runner becomes committed. MANOVA is used to determine difference between leisure groups in the four stages of PCM. Results indicate that activity participants need to go through all four stages of PCM before becoming loyal. As knowledge increases, individuals are more motivated to participate. When the activity satisfies motives and becomes a reflection of their identity, feelings become stronger which results in loyalty. Socialization is instrumental to the progression through the PCM Framework. Additionally, attachment is the "bottleneck" in which all loyal activity participants my pass through. Differences exist between serious leisure groups in the attachment and loyalty stages. Those that are `less serious' are not as committed to the activity as their counterparts.

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Date Created
2014

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The importance of streetscapes and servicescapes in tourist shopping villages: a case study of two Arizona communities

Description

Many communities that once relied on the extractive industries have since turned to tourism to find another source of income. These communities are primarily old mining towns. Since these towns have started to reinvent themselves, they have become important places

Many communities that once relied on the extractive industries have since turned to tourism to find another source of income. These communities are primarily old mining towns. Since these towns have started to reinvent themselves, they have become important places of study. Previous literature has found specific factors that are common in tourist shopping villages. Currently, there is not much research that has explored the affect the streetscape and servicescape have on visitor experiences. Existing research focuses on urban shopping settings such as shopping malls. This study interviewed employees and surveyed visitors in two suburban tourist shopping villages in Arizona. More specifically, it is aimed to explore how the streetscapes and servicescapes in tourist shopping villages influence visitors' overall experience, intent to return to the village, and their purchasing behavior. This study adds to the current literature on tourist shopping villages and the streetscapes and servicescapes as there is a limited amount of information available. To date, the majority of scholarly information available describes the factors of tourist shopping villages and does not attempt to identify their importance for tourists. This study may serve as a stepping platform for future research. The findings of this study offer important implications for destination marketing organizations, different stakeholders of tourism, and the policy makers. This study primarily focuses on the tourists' view of tourist shopping villages, and can offer insight into how to increase visitor spending.

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Date Created
2013