Matching Items (23)

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Effects of attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and bike rodeo participation on Intention to bike safely

Description

Thousands of children are being injured every day in bicycling accidents. Interventions, like Safe Routes to School, are currently in place to combat injury rates by providing programs to teach children safe biking behaviors. In order to develo

Thousands of children are being injured every day in bicycling accidents. Interventions, like Safe Routes to School, are currently in place to combat injury rates by providing programs to teach children safe biking behaviors. In order to develop effective behavioral change programs, behavior and the components of which it is composed must be understood. Attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are important predictors of intention to perform a behavior. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent to which attitude, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and bike rodeo participation explain third through eighth graders' intentions to bike safely. These constructs were tested using a survey research design in a purposive sample of fifty-seven third through eighth grade students in Safe Routes to School schools in the Southwest. Students took an online survey in the computer lab at their respective schools supervised by a teacher. The study found attitudes to be comprised of three factors: happy/safe, not afraid, and calm. Overall, the model explained approximately 71% of the variance in children's intentions to bike safely, R2=.749, Adjusted R2=.713, F(7, 49)=20.854, p<.01. The significant predictors were happy/safe attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and a quadratic self-efficacy term explaining 10% (p=.019), 28% (p<.01), 18% (p<.01), and 15% (p<.01) respectively. The results of the study can be used to create future and improve current bike safety interventions for children.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Entering sacred ground: public history at the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

Description

Baseball is the quintessential American game. To understand the country one must also understand the role baseball played in the nation's maturation process. Embedded in baseball's history are (among other things) the stories of America's struggles with issues of race,

Baseball is the quintessential American game. To understand the country one must also understand the role baseball played in the nation's maturation process. Embedded in baseball's history are (among other things) the stories of America's struggles with issues of race, gender, immigration, organized labor, drug abuse, and rampant consumerism. Over the better part of two centuries, the national pastime both reflected changes to American culture and helped shape them as well. Documenting these changes and packaging them for consumption is the responsibility of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York. Founded as a tourist attraction promoting largely patriotic values, in recent decades the Baseball Hall of Fame made a concerted effort to transform itself into a respected member of the history museum community--dedicated to displaying American history through the lens of baseball. This dissertation explores the evolution of the Baseball Hall of Fame from celebratory shrine to history museum through an analysis of public history practice within the museum. In particular, this study examines the ways the Hall both reflected and reinforced changes to American values and ideologies through the evolution of public history practice in the museum. The primary focus of this study is the museum's exhibits and analyzing what their content and presentation convey about the social climate during the various stages of the Baseball Hall of Fame's evolution. The principal resources utilized to identify these stages include promotional materials, exhibit reviews, periodicals, and photographic records, as well as interviews with past and present Hall-of-Fame staff. What this research uncovers is the story of an institution in the midst of a slow transition. Throughout the past half century, the Hall of Fame staff struggled with a variety of obstacles to change (including the museum's traditionally conservative roots, the unquestioning devotion Americans display for baseball and its mythology, and the Hall of Fame's idyllic setting in a quaint corner of small-town America) that undermined their efforts to become the type of socially relevant institution many envisioned. Contending with these challenges continues to characterize much of the museum's operations today.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Companionship preferences in incentive travel

Description

Incentive travel continues to grow as a form of motivation in the work place. However, there is little research that has examined future potential incentive travelers' wants and needs from an incentive travel trip. The purpose of this study was

Incentive travel continues to grow as a form of motivation in the work place. However, there is little research that has examined future potential incentive travelers' wants and needs from an incentive travel trip. The purpose of this study was to understand how and in what way various potential incentive travelers' beliefs, including attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and motivation, influence their future inclusion of a significant other on an incentive travel trip using a modified theory of planned behavior. Moreover, the potential moderating effect of past inclusion of a significant other experience was examined as well. The study collected 129 usable responses from potential incentive travelers from companies based in Iowa and Arizona. The research for this project was conducted through online questionnaires that included quantitative and qualitative questions. The study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Pearson's correlation and multiple regression to test study hypotheses. The results of the multiple regression indicated three constructs, attitudes, subjective norm and motivation appeared to be statistically significant, while perceived behavioral control was not statistically significant in predicting potential incentive travelers' intended inclusion of a significant other. Perceived behavioral control was not significant because the control of including a significant other is dependent on the participant's employer. Pearson's correlation found a moderating effect of past inclusion of a significant other on subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. In conclusion, the results validated the theory of planned behavior in the context of incentive travelers' inclusion of a significant other.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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Negotiated tourist identities: nationality and tourist adaptation

Description

Within the media there is an abundance of reports that claim tourists are being harassed, kidnapped and even killed in some instances as a result of their representation of their country's political ideology and international relations. A qualitative study was

Within the media there is an abundance of reports that claim tourists are being harassed, kidnapped and even killed in some instances as a result of their representation of their country's political ideology and international relations. A qualitative study was undertaken in Bolivia to determine how a tourist avoids or copes with the fear of severe political retribution or harassment in a country whose political environment is largely opposed to that of the traveler's home country. Interviews were conducted in multiple regions of Bolivia, and the data were coded. The results show that tourists experience political retribution on a much smaller scale than initially thought, usually through non-threatening social encounters. The overall themes influencing traveler behaviors are the (Un)Apologetic American, the George W. Bush foreign policy era, avoiding perceived unsafe countries or regions, and Bolivian borders. Respondents, when asked to reflect upon their behavioral habits, do not usually forthrightly deny their country of origin but merely adapt their national identities based on their familial origins, dual citizenship, language abilities or lack thereof, familiarity with the world/regional politics or lack thereof and associating oneself with a popular region in the United States (e.g. New York), rather than the US as a whole. Interestingly, none of the Americans interviewed candidly deny their American nationality or express future intention to deny their nationality. The Americans did express feeling "singled out" at the Bolivian borders which leads to the management implication to implement an automated receipt when purchasing a Bolivian visa and improving the Ministry of Tourism website that would more clearly state visa requirements. Additionally, the image of Bolivia as a culturally and politically homogeneous country is discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Sink or swim: understanding Mexican American constraints and facilitators for swim lesson participation

Description

The problem of the study was to investigate constraints and facilitators of Mexican American parents when deciding whether or not to enroll their children in formal swim lessons as a means of drowning prevention. The information obtained by this study

The problem of the study was to investigate constraints and facilitators of Mexican American parents when deciding whether or not to enroll their children in formal swim lessons as a means of drowning prevention. The information obtained by this study (1) helps create awareness about youth drowning incidents and (2) provides insight about Mexican American perspectives and behaviors toward drowning prevention through, or not through as the case may be, youth formal swim lesson participation. This study's sample was purposively selected using typical case and snowball sampling techniques. Individual interviews were conducted with Mexican American parent participants and focus group interviews were conducted with aquatic personnel. From April to August, individual and focus group interviews were conducted in the border towns Sierra Vista, Bisbee, and Douglas in the state of Arizona. There were a total of 25 Mexican American parent participants: 10 had never enrolled their children in swim lessons and 15 had experience enrolling and observing their children in swim lessons. There were 3 focus groups interviews of aquatic personnel experts: Sierra Vista had 6, Bisbee had 7 and Douglas had 9 participants. The theory used to identify and classify the types of constraints and facilitators described in the findings of this study was the Leisure Constraints Theory proposed by Crawford, Jackson and Godbey, 1991. Finding from this study suggest that despite the uncommon perception, Mexican Americans youth are actually participating more in formal swim lessons than they have in past generations. Mexican American families in this sample reported major constraints for formal swim lessons as a reliance on learning form family and friends, swimming at private pools, money, time, and transportation as barriers to participation. Facilitators for Mexican American youth to participate in formal swim lessons are youth drowning awareness, education, lack of parental swimming ability, generational social norm behavior changes, financial assistance and an attitude shift in favor of formal swim lessons.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Examining the impact of media content, emotions, and mental imagery visualization on pre-trip place attachment

Description

Numerous studies have examined the attachments individuals have to the places they visit, and that those attachments are formed through experiencing a place in person. This study is unique in that it examines pre-trip place attachment formation via the use

Numerous studies have examined the attachments individuals have to the places they visit, and that those attachments are formed through experiencing a place in person. This study is unique in that it examines pre-trip place attachment formation via the use of mobile technology and social media. It proposes that media experienced through the use of a participant's smartphone can foster the development of positive emotions, which in turn, facilitates greater mental imagery processing that ultimately influences pre-trip place attachment formation. An experimental design was constructed to examine how text and video on a destination's Facebook page influences an individual's emotions, mental imagery, and subsequently attachment to that destination. Specifically, a 2 (narrative text vs. descriptive text) x 2 (short, fast-paced video vs. long, slow-paced video) between-subjects design was used. A total of 343 usable participant responses were included in the analysis. The data was then analyzed through a two-step process using structural equation modeling. Results revealed no significant influence of textual or video media on emotions although the choice in text has a greater influence on emotions than choice in video. Additionally, emotions had a significant impact on mental imagery. Finally, mental imagery processing had a significant impact on only the social bonding dimension of place attachment. In conclusion, while media had no significant impact on emotions, the effect of previous traveler's retelling of personal accounts on the emotions of potential travelers researching a destination should be examined more closely. Further, the study participants had no prior experience with the destination, yet emotions influenced mental imagery, which also influenced social bonding. Thus further research should be conducted to better understand how potential traveler's image of a destination can be affected by the stories or others.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Production, transmission, and consumption of Red Tourism in China: a model of the circuit of red heritage and tourism

Description

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism, comprised of state-promoted tours to revolutionary memorial sites. It is

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism, comprised of state-promoted tours to revolutionary memorial sites. It is expected to generate political, economic, and social benefits, particularly to reinforce the legitimate leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. Statistics show that dramatic market growth in red tourism has occurred over the past decade. Yet it is still heavily driven by the government and thus whether long-term sustainability can be achieved is still questionable.

This dissertation explores the dynamics of red tourism from the perspective of a meaning-making process, where tourism discourses circulate among the processes of production, transmission, and consumption. The results reveal that higher-level government primarily assumes the leading role, whereas local government is largely excluded from strategy making processes and primarily responsible for implementation and operation. Some dissonance exists between higher and lower-level governments in their goals and involvement in red tourism development. Second, intermediaries are not altruistic and attempt to maximize their own benefits. While site interpreters may provide officially authorized narratives, their primary focus is hosting higher-up administrative visitors. On the contrary, tour guides are more customer-oriented, which may lead to officially undesirable interpretations. Third, driven by multiple motives, tourists have increasingly diverse attitudes towards red heritage and participate in various political and non-political activities. A considerable degree of congruence was found between tourists' participation, motivation, memories, and perception. Quantitative results indicate that the majority of tourists have learned about the political significance and/or content of red heritage, and developed more positive attitudes towards, and support for, the CCP and the government, to a certain extent.

This dissertation contributes to current research by adopting a systematic and emic perspective to explore the dynamics of red tourism. Several conceptual frameworks were developed inductively to describe the meaning-making process. Mixed methods were used to learn about tourists' consumption and perceptions of red heritage. Implications regarding enhancing the effectiveness of the meaning-making process, limitations of the study, and potential directions for future research are also discussed.

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Date Created
2014

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Niche tourism within small island tourism economies: an analysis of SCUBA tourists In bermuda

Description

Developing new markets in tourism is vital for the prosperity of Small Island Tourism Economies like Bermuda (McElroy). Countries must continuously improve and reinvent themselves in order to maintain growth. SCUBA diving in Bermuda is a market that could be

Developing new markets in tourism is vital for the prosperity of Small Island Tourism Economies like Bermuda (McElroy). Countries must continuously improve and reinvent themselves in order to maintain growth. SCUBA diving in Bermuda is a market that could be improved. Most SCUBA divers are of higher than average household income and can make an attractive tourist base. This thesis analyzes SCUBA tourists in Bermuda to ascertain their characteristics, economics impacts, and participation in island activities in order to help guide future endeavors involving SCUBA tourism in Bermuda and provide an outline of how to analyze other Niche markets. Comparisons are made between SCUBA and Non-SCUBA tourists (those who participated in Scuba against those that did not). The results show that spending, activities/events participated, and SCUBA tourists characteristics are not all significantly different from one another at the 5% level. Meaning that some variables were significant and some weren't , with in their respective groups. Within Trip Expenditures it was shown that, of the 9 variables tested, 3 were significant. In Activities, 8 of the 11 tested were significant, attractions there were 8 of the 18 variables that were significant and in Evening Entertainment, there was 2 out the 6 variables being significant at the 5% level.

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Agent

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Date Created
2012

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Antecedents of effective environmental management: a test of the value-belief-norm theory

Description

The purpose of this quantitative study is to test the validity of a behavioral theory, value-belief-norm theory (Stern, 2000), in the context of environmental hotel management. The lack of theoretical consideration in previous studies on environmental attitudes of hotel/resort managers

The purpose of this quantitative study is to test the validity of a behavioral theory, value-belief-norm theory (Stern, 2000), in the context of environmental hotel management. The lack of theoretical consideration in previous studies on environmental attitudes of hotel/resort managers warrants an investigation of a theory with the potential to better explain behaviors that support the goals of environment management systems. The goal of this research was to document the values, beliefs, personal norms, and environmental management support behaviors of managers in a hospitality setting. Data were collected from a sample of hotel and resort managers in the Phoenix metropolitan area by using a survey of well-documented items from previous research on the theory. Results suggest the value-belief-norm theory is successful in explaining environmental management support behaviors. Implications for practitioners as well as researchers are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Stresses and distresses of professional Taiwanese tennis players and resources they use to cope

Description

Playing tennis professionally is a stressful profession. However, it has the potential to be even more stressful for players who must move from their home country in order to train. If not dealt with, these stresses have the potential of

Playing tennis professionally is a stressful profession. However, it has the potential to be even more stressful for players who must move from their home country in order to train. If not dealt with, these stresses have the potential of causing many negative outcomes, including increasing levels of distress, in these professional tennis players. It is known that resources play a role in reducing or buffering levels of stress and distress among individuals, but there are competing theories as to how this occurs. Using Ensel and Lin's models of stress processes, this is an exploratory study that identifies the stresses and distresses professional Taiwanese tennis players face and the resources they use to cope. Participants included in this study are professional Taiwanese tennis players (2 males and 2 females) who continuously attend national and international tennis competitions and have both domestic and world ranks. Results from the semi-structured interviews revealed that challenges, frustration, resources, and toughness were four general themes to describe stresses and distresses professional Taiwanese tennis players face and the resources they use to cope. Future research for professional tennis players is also discussed.

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Date Created
2011