Matching Items (23)

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Measuring the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems: a multimethod approach

Description

This research assessed the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems in Nepal. The research was composed of three interrelated studies. The first study evaluated different approaches to protected area governance.

This research assessed the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems in Nepal. The research was composed of three interrelated studies. The first study evaluated different approaches to protected area governance. This was a multiple-case study research involving three protected areas in Nepal: the Annapurna Conservation Area, Chitwan National Park, and the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area. Data were collected from various published and unpublished sources and supplemented with 55 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that outcomes pertaining to biodiversity conservation, community livelihoods, and sustainable tourism vary across these protected areas. The study concluded that there is no institutional panacea for managing protected areas. The second study diagnosed the sustainability of tourism in two destination communities: Ghandruk and Sauraha, which are located within the Annapurna Conservation Area and Chitwan National Park, respectively. A systemic, holistic approach--the social-ecological system framework--was used to analyze the structures, processes, and outcomes of tourism development. Data collection involved 45 face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a review of published and unpublished documents. Results revealed that tourism has several positive and a few negative sociocultural, economic, and ecological outcomes in both communities. Overall, tourism has progressed towards sustainability in these destinations. The third study examined tourism stakeholders' perspectives regarding sustainable tourism outcomes in protected areas. The study compared the responses of residents with residents, as well as tourists with tourists, across the Annapurna Conservation Area and Chitwan National Park. Tourism sustainability was evaluated with six tourism impact subscales measuring negative and positive ecological, economic, and social impacts. Data were collected using the survey method. Respondents included 230 residents and 205 tourists in Annapurna, and 220 residents and 210 tourists in Chitwan. The findings revealed that the residents across these protected areas perceived positive and negative impacts differently, as did the tourists, suggesting that the form of tourism development affects the sustainability outcomes in protected areas. Overall, this research concluded that protected areas and tourism are intricately related, and sustainable management of a protected area-based tourism system requires a polycentric adaptive approach that warrants a broad participation of relevant stakeholders.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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The importance of streetscapes and servicescapes in tourist shopping villages: a case study of two Arizona communities

Description

Many communities that once relied on the extractive industries have since turned to tourism to find another source of income. These communities are primarily old mining towns. Since these towns

Many communities that once relied on the extractive industries have since turned to tourism to find another source of income. These communities are primarily old mining towns. Since these towns have started to reinvent themselves, they have become important places of study. Previous literature has found specific factors that are common in tourist shopping villages. Currently, there is not much research that has explored the affect the streetscape and servicescape have on visitor experiences. Existing research focuses on urban shopping settings such as shopping malls. This study interviewed employees and surveyed visitors in two suburban tourist shopping villages in Arizona. More specifically, it is aimed to explore how the streetscapes and servicescapes in tourist shopping villages influence visitors' overall experience, intent to return to the village, and their purchasing behavior. This study adds to the current literature on tourist shopping villages and the streetscapes and servicescapes as there is a limited amount of information available. To date, the majority of scholarly information available describes the factors of tourist shopping villages and does not attempt to identify their importance for tourists. This study may serve as a stepping platform for future research. The findings of this study offer important implications for destination marketing organizations, different stakeholders of tourism, and the policy makers. This study primarily focuses on the tourists' view of tourist shopping villages, and can offer insight into how to increase visitor spending.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Click me out to the ballgame: exploring city websites to assess the civic priorities of small and mid-sized communities with minor league baseball teams

Description

The boom in publicly-funded sports facility construction since the 1980s resulted in studies that generally found the economic benefits accruing from facility construction do not justify the costs. However, focusing

The boom in publicly-funded sports facility construction since the 1980s resulted in studies that generally found the economic benefits accruing from facility construction do not justify the costs. However, focusing narrowly on economic costs in large cities leaves out an important part of the story. The author is interested in the possible non-economic benefits to a city from having a sports team and stadium, and focuses on determining any relationship between minor league teams and stadiums and community self-image. The methodology for this review is an assessment of the websites – primarily the website's front page – for 42 cities with minor league baseball teams. In addition, a survey of local government officials provides a layer of corroboration for the website review results. Through this assessment, the author brings together elements that contribute to three different fields – facility financing, e-government, and small and mid-sized cities. The website reviews have two elements. First, the author assesses the extent to which the website provides information about the team and stadium on the front page or a website page within two links from the front page. The result is that a relatively low amount of information about teams and stadiums is available on the 42 city websites. Second, the author assesses all the active links on the website front page and categorize the links regarding whether they are primarily directed toward residents, businesses, or tourists. On average 67 percent of the links on the 42 city websites' front pages are directed toward residents. In addition to the website reviews, the author reports on a survey of local government executives and managers regarding the city websites. The key findings from the survey are that residents are the group of most interest to the website creators; the websites' content and appearance generally are intended to reflect the communities' self-image, and; in general, the low amount of information about the teams and stadiums on the website front page accurately represents the importance of the teams and stadiums to communities' self-image. The survey results generally corroborate the website reviews.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Production, transmission, and consumption of Red Tourism in China: a model of the circuit of red heritage and tourism

Description

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism,

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism, comprised of state-promoted tours to revolutionary memorial sites. It is expected to generate political, economic, and social benefits, particularly to reinforce the legitimate leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. Statistics show that dramatic market growth in red tourism has occurred over the past decade. Yet it is still heavily driven by the government and thus whether long-term sustainability can be achieved is still questionable.

This dissertation explores the dynamics of red tourism from the perspective of a meaning-making process, where tourism discourses circulate among the processes of production, transmission, and consumption. The results reveal that higher-level government primarily assumes the leading role, whereas local government is largely excluded from strategy making processes and primarily responsible for implementation and operation. Some dissonance exists between higher and lower-level governments in their goals and involvement in red tourism development. Second, intermediaries are not altruistic and attempt to maximize their own benefits. While site interpreters may provide officially authorized narratives, their primary focus is hosting higher-up administrative visitors. On the contrary, tour guides are more customer-oriented, which may lead to officially undesirable interpretations. Third, driven by multiple motives, tourists have increasingly diverse attitudes towards red heritage and participate in various political and non-political activities. A considerable degree of congruence was found between tourists' participation, motivation, memories, and perception. Quantitative results indicate that the majority of tourists have learned about the political significance and/or content of red heritage, and developed more positive attitudes towards, and support for, the CCP and the government, to a certain extent.

This dissertation contributes to current research by adopting a systematic and emic perspective to explore the dynamics of red tourism. Several conceptual frameworks were developed inductively to describe the meaning-making process. Mixed methods were used to learn about tourists' consumption and perceptions of red heritage. Implications regarding enhancing the effectiveness of the meaning-making process, limitations of the study, and potential directions for future research are also discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Perceptions of nature-based tourism, travel preferences, promotions and disparity between domestic and international tourists: the case of Botswana

Description

This study explores domestic and international tourists' perceptions of nature-based tourism using the North-South conceptualization of nature and the setting up of national parks as a conceptual framework. In addition,

This study explores domestic and international tourists' perceptions of nature-based tourism using the North-South conceptualization of nature and the setting up of national parks as a conceptual framework. In addition, using Urry's (1990) tourist gaze, the study assesses tourism promotions in Botswana from locals' and tourism marketers' points of view. Moreover, the study assesses locals' tourist gaze and compares it with the international tourist gaze. Qualitative methods were used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with local residents, international tourists, and tourism promoters such as government agencies and the private sector. Photo-elicitation interviews were also carried out to help identify the respondents' gaze. Six study sites, including the protected areas of Chobe National Park (CNP), Moremi Game Reserve (MGR), two cities of Gaborone and Francistown, and two urban villages of Palapye and Maun were selected for this study. Results indicate that the way people in the South conceptualize nature is different from the way international tourists do, and this has an impact on visitations to national parks. While for international tourists nature symbolizes recreation, rejuvenation, and an opportunity `to get away from it all', for locals it is seen as a part of everyday life. Furthermore, tourism promotions in the country are geared towards promoting Western tourists' gaze with the local market gaze being totally ignored by the sector. The local gaze is also different from the Western gaze. While for international tourists visiting Botswana the gaze is directed towards wildlife and wilderness, for locals, the gaze is directed towards more traditional destinations, such as farms, as well as more `modern' attractions and `touristic' attractions.

However, it is the Western gaze that is taken into consideration by tourism promoters, thereby questioning the sustainability of an industry that disregards one group over another. The results also indicate that culture and historical events have an impact on visitations to protected areas. Policy implications are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Entering sacred ground: public history at the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

Description

Baseball is the quintessential American game. To understand the country one must also understand the role baseball played in the nation's maturation process. Embedded in baseball's history are (among other

Baseball is the quintessential American game. To understand the country one must also understand the role baseball played in the nation's maturation process. Embedded in baseball's history are (among other things) the stories of America's struggles with issues of race, gender, immigration, organized labor, drug abuse, and rampant consumerism. Over the better part of two centuries, the national pastime both reflected changes to American culture and helped shape them as well. Documenting these changes and packaging them for consumption is the responsibility of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York. Founded as a tourist attraction promoting largely patriotic values, in recent decades the Baseball Hall of Fame made a concerted effort to transform itself into a respected member of the history museum community--dedicated to displaying American history through the lens of baseball. This dissertation explores the evolution of the Baseball Hall of Fame from celebratory shrine to history museum through an analysis of public history practice within the museum. In particular, this study examines the ways the Hall both reflected and reinforced changes to American values and ideologies through the evolution of public history practice in the museum. The primary focus of this study is the museum's exhibits and analyzing what their content and presentation convey about the social climate during the various stages of the Baseball Hall of Fame's evolution. The principal resources utilized to identify these stages include promotional materials, exhibit reviews, periodicals, and photographic records, as well as interviews with past and present Hall-of-Fame staff. What this research uncovers is the story of an institution in the midst of a slow transition. Throughout the past half century, the Hall of Fame staff struggled with a variety of obstacles to change (including the museum's traditionally conservative roots, the unquestioning devotion Americans display for baseball and its mythology, and the Hall of Fame's idyllic setting in a quaint corner of small-town America) that undermined their efforts to become the type of socially relevant institution many envisioned. Contending with these challenges continues to characterize much of the museum's operations today.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Sink or swim: understanding Mexican American constraints and facilitators for swim lesson participation

Description

The problem of the study was to investigate constraints and facilitators of Mexican American parents when deciding whether or not to enroll their children in formal swim lessons as a

The problem of the study was to investigate constraints and facilitators of Mexican American parents when deciding whether or not to enroll their children in formal swim lessons as a means of drowning prevention. The information obtained by this study (1) helps create awareness about youth drowning incidents and (2) provides insight about Mexican American perspectives and behaviors toward drowning prevention through, or not through as the case may be, youth formal swim lesson participation. This study's sample was purposively selected using typical case and snowball sampling techniques. Individual interviews were conducted with Mexican American parent participants and focus group interviews were conducted with aquatic personnel. From April to August, individual and focus group interviews were conducted in the border towns Sierra Vista, Bisbee, and Douglas in the state of Arizona. There were a total of 25 Mexican American parent participants: 10 had never enrolled their children in swim lessons and 15 had experience enrolling and observing their children in swim lessons. There were 3 focus groups interviews of aquatic personnel experts: Sierra Vista had 6, Bisbee had 7 and Douglas had 9 participants. The theory used to identify and classify the types of constraints and facilitators described in the findings of this study was the Leisure Constraints Theory proposed by Crawford, Jackson and Godbey, 1991. Finding from this study suggest that despite the uncommon perception, Mexican Americans youth are actually participating more in formal swim lessons than they have in past generations. Mexican American families in this sample reported major constraints for formal swim lessons as a reliance on learning form family and friends, swimming at private pools, money, time, and transportation as barriers to participation. Facilitators for Mexican American youth to participate in formal swim lessons are youth drowning awareness, education, lack of parental swimming ability, generational social norm behavior changes, financial assistance and an attitude shift in favor of formal swim lessons.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Exploring the on-site behavior of attendees at community festivals: a social constructivist grounded theory approach

Description

Empirical and theoretical gaps exist on the subject matter of attendee experiential behavior at community festivals as this action occurs in real time. To acquire knowledge and begin to build

Empirical and theoretical gaps exist on the subject matter of attendee experiential behavior at community festivals as this action occurs in real time. To acquire knowledge and begin to build theory, attendee behavior was investigated through an interpretive lens to give rise to a socially constructed understanding of this phenomenon in contrast to typical positivist inquiry designs found in the field of event studies used to test theory and determine universal explanations. This ontology was deemed appropriate as human experience at community festivals is multifaceted, relative to social interactions, highly variable with complex meanings, and has a wide variety of consequential implications; all views representative of social constructivism. A grounded theory approach was used in conjunction with a participant observation method to collect data on attendee behavior during fieldwork undertaken at community festivals. Prior to fieldwork, literature was not reviewed nor specific theory pre-selected to serve as a basis for research, with the researcher's only intent to record attendee's on-site actions with an open mind. Fieldwork notes were systematically expanded into descriptive narratives that were broken down into initial codes to establish robust analytic directions, which were synthesized into categories and subcategories through focused coding. Relationships between categories and subcategories were reassembled with axial coding bringing into view a strong emergent theme on social capital bonding and bridging at community festivals and a second theme that considers the aspirations of event management to program festive experiences. To strengthen the second theme event manager interviews and content analysis of event association newsletters were conducted as theoretical sampling to move data towards saturation. From emergent themes it was theorized, while social capital bonding is profusely exhibited at community festivals, social capital bridging is minimally displayed unless augmented with programmed festivity to increase physical, emotional, and social engagement of attendees. Literature reviewed in relation to this theory revealed that spirituality, dance, music, the arts, and wild abandonment were important elements of festivity. An implication arising from this study indicates that if community festivals consciously enhance programmed festivity then correspondingly increased social capital impacts within community development might also be achieved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Serious running: factors that lead to awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty to long distance running

Description

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure activity. Awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty make of the four stages of PCM. Both perspectives have been used to describe committed leisure activity participants and commitment to organized recreational events. Research on leisure activity has yet to determine how the individual becomes loyal. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the process in which recreation activity participates becomes loyal and to identify who can be labels as serious within the PCM Framework. Data was obtained from an online electronic survey distributed to participants of four U.S. marathon and half marathon events. A total of 579 responses were used in the final analysis. Path analysis determined the process in which a runner becomes committed. MANOVA is used to determine difference between leisure groups in the four stages of PCM. Results indicate that activity participants need to go through all four stages of PCM before becoming loyal. As knowledge increases, individuals are more motivated to participate. When the activity satisfies motives and becomes a reflection of their identity, feelings become stronger which results in loyalty. Socialization is instrumental to the progression through the PCM Framework. Additionally, attachment is the "bottleneck" in which all loyal activity participants my pass through. Differences exist between serious leisure groups in the attachment and loyalty stages. Those that are `less serious' are not as committed to the activity as their counterparts.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Examining the impact of media content, emotions, and mental imagery visualization on pre-trip place attachment

Description

Numerous studies have examined the attachments individuals have to the places they visit, and that those attachments are formed through experiencing a place in person. This study is unique in

Numerous studies have examined the attachments individuals have to the places they visit, and that those attachments are formed through experiencing a place in person. This study is unique in that it examines pre-trip place attachment formation via the use of mobile technology and social media. It proposes that media experienced through the use of a participant's smartphone can foster the development of positive emotions, which in turn, facilitates greater mental imagery processing that ultimately influences pre-trip place attachment formation. An experimental design was constructed to examine how text and video on a destination's Facebook page influences an individual's emotions, mental imagery, and subsequently attachment to that destination. Specifically, a 2 (narrative text vs. descriptive text) x 2 (short, fast-paced video vs. long, slow-paced video) between-subjects design was used. A total of 343 usable participant responses were included in the analysis. The data was then analyzed through a two-step process using structural equation modeling. Results revealed no significant influence of textual or video media on emotions although the choice in text has a greater influence on emotions than choice in video. Additionally, emotions had a significant impact on mental imagery. Finally, mental imagery processing had a significant impact on only the social bonding dimension of place attachment. In conclusion, while media had no significant impact on emotions, the effect of previous traveler's retelling of personal accounts on the emotions of potential travelers researching a destination should be examined more closely. Further, the study participants had no prior experience with the destination, yet emotions influenced mental imagery, which also influenced social bonding. Thus further research should be conducted to better understand how potential traveler's image of a destination can be affected by the stories or others.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013