Matching Items (7)

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A single-phase current source solar inverter with constant instantaneous power, improved reliability, and reduced-size DC-link filter

Description

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any electrolytic capacitors. Instead an inductor is used as the DC-link filter and reliable AC film capacitors are utilized for the filter and auxiliary capacitor. The proposed topology has a life expectancy on par with PV panels. The proposed modulation technique can be used for any current source inverter where an unbalanced three-phase operation is desires such as active filters and power controllers. The proposed topology is ready for the next phase of microgrid and power system controllers in that it accepts reactive power commands. This work presents the proposed topology and its working principle supported by with numerical verifications and hardware results. Conclusions and future work are also presented.

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  • 2013

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Solar micro inverter modeling and reliability

Description

The demand for cleaner energy technology is increasing very rapidly. Hence it is

important to increase the eciency and reliability of this emerging clean energy technologies.

This thesis focuses on modeling and

The demand for cleaner energy technology is increasing very rapidly. Hence it is

important to increase the eciency and reliability of this emerging clean energy technologies.

This thesis focuses on modeling and reliability of solar micro inverters. In

order to make photovoltaics (PV) cost competitive with traditional energy sources,

the economies of scale have been guiding inverter design in two directions: large,

centralized, utility-scale (500 kW) inverters vs. small, modular, module level (300

W) power electronics (MLPE). MLPE, such as microinverters and DC power optimizers,

oer advantages in safety, system operations and maintenance, energy yield,

and component lifetime due to their smaller size, lower power handling requirements,

and module-level power point tracking and monitoring capability [1]. However, they

suer from two main disadvantages: rst, depending on array topology (especially

the proximity to the PV module), they can be subjected to more extreme environments

(i.e. temperature cycling) during the day, resulting in a negative impact to

reliability; second, since solar installations can have tens of thousands to millions of

modules (and as many MLPE units), it may be dicult or impossible to track and

repair units as they go out of service. Therefore identifying the weak links in this

system is of critical importance to develop more reliable micro inverters.

While an overwhelming majority of time and research has focused on PV module

eciency and reliability, these issues have been largely ignored for the balance

of system components. As a relatively nascent industry, the PV power electronics

industry does not have the extensive, standardized reliability design and testing procedures

that exist in the module industry or other more mature power electronics

industries (e.g. automotive). To do so, the critical components which are at risk and

their impact on the system performance has to be studied. This thesis identies and

addresses some of the issues related to reliability of solar micro inverters.

This thesis presents detailed discussions on various components of solar micro inverter

and their design. A micro inverter with very similar electrical specications in

comparison with commercial micro inverter is modeled in detail and veried. Components

in various stages of micro inverter are listed and their typical failure mechanisms

are reviewed. A detailed FMEA is conducted for a typical micro inverter to identify

the weak links of the system. Based on the S, O and D metrics, risk priority number

(RPN) is calculated to list the critical at-risk components. Degradation of DC bus

capacitor is identied as one the failure mechanism and the degradation model is built

to study its eect on the system performance. The system is tested for surge immunity

using standard ring and combinational surge waveforms as per IEEE 62.41 and

IEC 61000-4-5 standards. All the simulation presented in this thesis is performed

using PLECS simulation software.

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  • 2015

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Modeling and control of a three phase voltage source inverter with an LCL filter

Description

This thesis addresses the design and control of three phase inverters. Such inverters are

used to produce three-phase sinusoidal voltages and currents from a DC source. They

are critical for injecting power

This thesis addresses the design and control of three phase inverters. Such inverters are

used to produce three-phase sinusoidal voltages and currents from a DC source. They

are critical for injecting power from renewable energy sources into the grid. This is

especially true since many of these sources of energy are DC sources (e.g. solar

photovoltaic) or need to be stored in DC batteries because they are intermittent (e.g. wind

and solar). Two classes of inverters are examined in this thesis. A control-centric design

procedure is presented for each class. The first class of inverters is simple in that they

consist of three decoupled subsystems. Such inverters are characterized by no mutual

inductance between the three phases. As such, no multivariable coupling is present and

decentralized single-input single-output (SISO) control theory suffices to generate

acceptable control designs. For this class of inverters several families of controllers are

addressed in order to examine command following as well as input disturbance and noise

attenuation specifications. The goal here is to illuminate fundamental tradeoffs. Such

tradeoffs include an improvement in the in-band command following and output

disturbance attenuation versus a deterioration in out-of-band noise attenuation.

A fundamental deficiency associated with such inverters is their large size. This can be

remedied by designing a smaller core. This naturally leads to the second class of inverters

considered in this work. These inverters are characterized by significant mutual

inductances and multivariable coupling. As such, SISO control theory is generally not

adequate and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) theory becomes essential for

controlling these inverters.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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A double grounded transformerless photovoltaic array string inverter with film capacitors and silicon carbide transistors

Description

A new photovoltaic (PV) array power converter circuit is presented. The salient features of this inverter are: transformerless topology, grounded PV array, and only film capacitors. The motivations are to

A new photovoltaic (PV) array power converter circuit is presented. The salient features of this inverter are: transformerless topology, grounded PV array, and only film capacitors. The motivations are to reduce cost, eliminate leakage ground currents, and improve reliability. The use of Silicon Carbide (SiC) transistors is the key enabling technology for this particular circuit to attain good efficiency.

Traditionally, grid connected PV inverters required a transformer for isolation and safety. The disadvantage of high frequency transformer based inverters is complexity and cost. Transformerless inverters have become more popular recently, although they can be challenging to implement because of possible high frequency currents through the PV array's stay capacitance to earth ground. Conventional PV inverters also typically utilize electrolytic capacitors for bulk power buffering. However such capacitors can be prone to decreased reliability.

The solution proposed here to solve these problems is a bi directional buck boost converter combined with half bridge inverters. This configuration enables grounding of the array's negative terminal and passive power decoupling with only film capacitors.

Several aspects of the proposed converter are discussed. First a literature review is presented on the issues to be addressed. The proposed circuit is then presented and examined in detail. This includes theory of operation, component selection, and control systems. An efficiency analysis is also conducted. Simulation results are then presented that show correct functionality. A hardware prototype is built and experiment results also prove the concept. Finally some further developments are mentioned.

As a summary of the research a new topology and control technique were developed. The resultant circuit is a high performance transformerless PV inverter with upwards of 97% efficiency.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Modeling and control for microgrids

Description

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is quantified with emphasis on its use for controller design purposes. Control design examples are given using a Glover McFarlane controller, gain sched- uled Glover McFarlane controller, and bumpless transfer controller which are compared to the standard droop control approach. These examples serve as a guide to illustrate the use of multi-variable modeling techniques in the context of robust controller design and show that gain scheduled MIMO control techniques can extend the operating range of a microgrid. A hardware implementation is used to compare constant gain droop controllers with Glover McFarlane controllers and shows a clear advantage of the Glover McFarlane approach.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Gap analysis towards a design qualification standard development for grid-connected photovoltaic inverters

Description

The high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) both at the utility and at the distribu-tion levels, has raised concerns about the reliability of grid-tied inverters of PV power systems. Inverters are

The high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) both at the utility and at the distribu-tion levels, has raised concerns about the reliability of grid-tied inverters of PV power systems. Inverters are generally considered as the weak link in PV power systems. The lack of a dedicated qualification/reliability standard for PV inverters is a main barrier in realizing higher level of confidence in reliability. Development of a well-accepted design qualification standard specifically for PV inverters will help pave the way for significant improvement in reliability and performance of inverters across the entire industry. The existing standards for PV inverters such as UL 1741 and IEC 62109-1 primarily focus on safety. IEC 62093 discusses inverter qualification but it includes all the balance of sys-tem components and therefore not specific to PV inverters. There are other general stan-dards for distributed generators including the IEEE1547 series of standards which cover major concerns like utility integration but they are not dedicated to PV inverters and are not written from a design qualification point of view. In this thesis, some of the potential requirements for a design qualification standard for PV inverters are addressed. The IEC 62093 is considered as a guideline and the possible inclusions in the framework for a dedicated design qualification standard of PV inverter are discussed. The missing links in existing PV inverter related standards are identified by performing gap analysis. Dif-ferent requirements of small residential inverters compared to large utility-scale systems, and the emerging requirements on grid support features are also considered. Electric stress test is found to be the key missing link and one of the electric stress tests, the surge withstand test is studied in detail. The use of the existing standards for surge withstand test of residential scale PV inverters is investigated and a method to suitably adopt these standards is proposed. The proposed method is studied analytically and verified using simulation. A design criterion for choosing the switch ratings of the inverter that can per-form reliably under the surge environment is derived.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Modeling and analysis of three-phase grid-tied photovoltaic systems

Description

Market acceptability of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies and the gradual and consistent increase in their depth of penetration have generated significant interest over the past few years. In particular,

Market acceptability of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies and the gradual and consistent increase in their depth of penetration have generated significant interest over the past few years. In particular, in Arizona and several other states there has been a substantial in-crease in distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation interfaced to the power distribution systems, and is expected to continue to grow at a significant rate. This has made integration, control and optimal operation of DER units a main area of focus in the design and operation of distribution systems. Grid-connected, distributed PV covers a wide range of power levels ranging from small, single phase residential roof-top systems to large three-phase, multi-megawatt systems. The focus of this work is on analyzing large, three-phase systems, with the power distribution system of the Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe campus used as the test bed for analysis and simulation. The Tempe campus of ASU has presently 4.5 MW of installed PV capacity, with another 4.5 MW expected to be added by 2011, which will represent about 22% of PV penetration. The PV systems are interfaced to the grid invariably by a power electronic inverter. Many of the important characteristics of the PV generation are influenced by the design and performance of the inverter, and hence suitable models of the inverter are needed to analyze PV systems. Several models of distributed generation (DG), including switching and average models, suitable for different study objectives, and different control modes of the inverter have been described in this thesis. A critical function of the inverters is to quickly detect and eliminate unintentional islands during grid failure. In this thesis, many active anti-islanding techniques with voltage and frequency positive feedback have been studied. Effectiveness of these techniques in terms of the tripping times specified in IEEE Std. 1547 for interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems has been analyzed. The impact of distributed PV on the voltage profile of a distribution system has been ana-lyzed with ASU system as the test bed using power systems analysis tools namely PowerWorld and CYMDIST. The present inverters complying with IEEE 1547 do not regulate the system vol-tage. However, the future inverters especially at higher power levels are expected to perform sev-eral grid support functions including voltage regulation and reactive power support. Hence, the impact of inverters with the reactive power support capabilities is also analyzed. Various test sce-narios corresponding to different grid conditions are simulated and it is shown that distributed PV improves the voltage profile of the system. The improvements are more significant when the PV generators are capable of reactive power support. Detailed short circuit analyses are also per-formed on the system, and the impact of distributed PV on the fault current magnitude, with and without reactive power injection, have been studied.

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Date Created
  • 2010