Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve…
Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve the performance of point of use and municipal activated carbon processes to provide safe and reliable water to the public at distributed centralized locations.
Template Assisted Crystallization system would adjust saturation index (SI) value of TAC treated water to zero when SI value of influent water was in the range at 0.08~0.3. However, the reduction in SI when SI values were higher (e.g. 0.7~1.3) was similar to the reduction at lower SI values which could be due to limitations in kinetics or mass transfer with the template on TAC media.
Pre-chlorination prior to municipal-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment was evaluated to control THM formation in distribution systems. Pre-chlorination decreased UVA, shift the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) molecular weight distribution and pre-formed trihalomethanes (THM). GAC treatment of pre-chlorinated water achieved lower THM formation in distribution systems.
To add functionality in POU systems to remove As(V) and Cr(VI), activated carbon was nano-tized to fabricate nano-enabled carbon block (CB) by (1) impregnating iron or titanium metal oxides chemically or (2) attaching titanium based P25 through electrostatic attraction force. Nanoparticle loadings of 5 to 10 wt % with respect to activated carbon enables reduction of As(V) or Cr(VI) from levels of common occurrence to below regulatory levels across carbon block designs. Minimal impacts on As(V) and Cr(VI) sorption were observed up to a nanoparticle pre-treatment temperature of 200 C, which is the temperature for CB production. Through controlling pH at 4.5 during mixing of nanoparticles with pH IEP=6 and activated carbon with pH IEP=3, electrostatic attachment of nanoparticles to activated carbon could be achieved prior to fabricating carbon block. A mini carbon block test device was designed, fabricated, and validated to mimic performances of full-scale carbon block using less volumes of test water. As(V) removal tests showed Fe impregnated CB achieved the highest As(V) removal while P25 attached CB had the lowest among three nanoparticles loaded CBs.