Matching Items (10)

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Hexavalent chromium removal using ultraviolet photocatalytic reactor

Description

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove hexavalent chromium from drinking or industrial waters via a UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) process. Using an integrated UV lamp/ceramic membrane system to recirculate TiO2, both hexavalent and total chromium levels were reduced through photocatalytic processes without additional chemicals. Cr(VI) removal increased as a function of higher energy input and TiO2 dosage, achieving above 90% removal for a 1g/L dose of TiO2. Surface analysis of effluent TiO2 confirmed the presence of chromium species.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Utilization of fluorescent microspheres as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium removal in conventional drinking water treatment

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of fluorescent microspheres as a surrogate to measure the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts through the coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration

The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of fluorescent microspheres as a surrogate to measure the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts through the coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration steps of conventional water treatment. In order to maintain accuracy and applicability, a local water treatment facility was chosen as the system to model. The city of Chandler Arizona utilizes conventional treatment methodologies to remove pathogens from municipal drinking water and thus the water, coagulant, polymer, and doses concentrations were sourced directly from the plant. Jar testing was performed on four combinations of coagulant, polymer, and fluorescent microsphere to determine if the log removal was similar to that of Cryptosporidium oocysts.

Complications with the material properties of the microspheres arose during testing that ultimately yielded unfavorable but conclusive results. Log removal of microspheres did not increase with added coagulant in the predicted manner, though the beads were seen aggregating, the low density of the particles made the sedimentation step inefficient. This result can be explained by the low density of the microspheres as well as the potential presence of residual coagulant present in the system. Given the unfavorable properties of the beads, they do not appear to be a suitable candidate for the surrogacy of Cryptosporidium oocysts in conventional drinking water treatment. The beads in their current state are not an adequate surrogate; however, future testing has been outlined to modify the experiment in such a way that the microspheres should behave like oocysts in terms of physical transportation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Improving activated carbon performance in point of use and municipal processes

Description

Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve

Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve the performance of point of use and municipal activated carbon processes to provide safe and reliable water to the public at distributed centralized locations.

Template Assisted Crystallization system would adjust saturation index (SI) value of TAC treated water to zero when SI value of influent water was in the range at 0.08~0.3. However, the reduction in SI when SI values were higher (e.g. 0.7~1.3) was similar to the reduction at lower SI values which could be due to limitations in kinetics or mass transfer with the template on TAC media.

Pre-chlorination prior to municipal-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment was evaluated to control THM formation in distribution systems. Pre-chlorination decreased UVA, shift the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) molecular weight distribution and pre-formed trihalomethanes (THM). GAC treatment of pre-chlorinated water achieved lower THM formation in distribution systems.

To add functionality in POU systems to remove As(V) and Cr(VI), activated carbon was nano-tized to fabricate nano-enabled carbon block (CB) by (1) impregnating iron or titanium metal oxides chemically or (2) attaching titanium based P25 through electrostatic attraction force. Nanoparticle loadings of 5 to 10 wt % with respect to activated carbon enables reduction of As(V) or Cr(VI) from levels of common occurrence to below regulatory levels across carbon block designs. Minimal impacts on As(V) and Cr(VI) sorption were observed up to a nanoparticle pre-treatment temperature of 200 C, which is the temperature for CB production. Through controlling pH at 4.5 during mixing of nanoparticles with pH IEP=6 and activated carbon with pH IEP=3, electrostatic attachment of nanoparticles to activated carbon could be achieved prior to fabricating carbon block. A mini carbon block test device was designed, fabricated, and validated to mimic performances of full-scale carbon block using less volumes of test water. As(V) removal tests showed Fe impregnated CB achieved the highest As(V) removal while P25 attached CB had the lowest among three nanoparticles loaded CBs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Solar water disinfection

Description

Water quality is a severe problem throughout the world. Much available water is contaminated by pathogenic microbes. This project reviews the traditional process of solar water disinfection in bottles (SODIS),

Water quality is a severe problem throughout the world. Much available water is contaminated by pathogenic microbes. This project reviews the traditional process of solar water disinfection in bottles (SODIS), discusses experiments conducted with SODIS bottles modified to thermally enhance the process, analyzes experimental data for modified SODIS containers, and suggests ways that by which the traditional process can be improved. Traditional SODIS is currently used in many rural parts of developing countries to disinfect water. The process uses ultraviolet rays and thermal effects to inactivate microorganisms that tend to cause diarrheal disease. If a sufficiently high temperature is attained to reach a synergistic UV-thermal effect range, the process of SODIS is about three times faster. However, many factors can inhibit attainment of sufficient heating of water in SODIS bottles in practice. By modifying the bottles to enhance effectiveness of sunlight in increasing the temperature of the water, SODIS can be more effective. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted over a period of four months and15 days at Arizona State University Polytechnic campus in Mesa, Arizona, U.S.A. Four different types of inexpensive materials (black paint, white paint, foam insulation, and aluminized mylar) were used individually or in combination in seven different modified configurations to assess the potential of the modifications to increase the temperatures of water inside 2-liter PET bottles. Experiments were run in triplicate. Temperatures inside the bottles, along with yard temperature, were recorded over time. Graphs were plotted for each set of experiments. The results of these experiment show that several types of modifications increased water temperature during exposure to sunlight. Water in bottles with black paint and foam insulation on the back side attained the highest temperatures, approximately 8-10 degrees Celsius above temperatures attained in plain bottles. The results of these experiments show how several inexpensive, easily obtained materials can significantly enhance the SODIS process.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Photocatalysis for reductive transformation of nitrate and chromate in drinking water

Description

Contamination of drinking water supplies from oxo-anion pollutants necessitates treatment prior to potable use. This dissertation aims to inform and improve light delivery (emission spectra, radiant intensity, reactor configuration) in

Contamination of drinking water supplies from oxo-anion pollutants necessitates treatment prior to potable use. This dissertation aims to inform and improve light delivery (emission spectra, radiant intensity, reactor configuration) in order to enhance the photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and nitrate, two common oxo-anions in drinking water, and photocatalytic oxidation of two model organic pollutants (methylene blue, (MB) and para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)). By varying the photon fluence dose, two metrics (contaminant quantum yield (Φ), and electrical energy per order (EEO)) were used to assess photocatalytic reactor performance. A detailed literature review and experimental results demonstrated how different irradiance sources with variable intensity and emission spectra synergistically enhanced contaminant removal by a coupled photolytic/photocatalytic reaction mechanism. Cr(VI) was photocatalytically reduced on TiO2 and formed Cr(OH)3(s) in a large-scale slurry reactor, but Cr(III) was then photolyzed and reformed Cr(VI). UV light also led to photo-aggregation of TiO2 which improved its recovery by the ceramic membrane within the reactor. For nitrate reduction, light source emission spectra and fluence dose delineate the preferred pathways as intermediates were reduced via wavelength-dependent mechanisms. HONO was identified as a key nitrate reduction intermediate, which was reduced photocatalytically (UV wavelengths) and/or readily photolyzed at 365nm, to yield nitrogen gases. Photocatalytic nitrate reduction efficiency was higher for discrete wavelength irradiation than polychromatic irradiation. Light delivery through aqueous media to the catalyst surface limits efficiency of slurry-based photocatalysts because absorption and scattering of light in nanomaterial slurries decreases effective photon transmittance and minimizes photolytic reactions. The use of optical fibers coupled to light emitting diodes (OF-LED) with immobilized catalyst demonstrated higher performance compared to slurry systems. OF-LED increased Φ for MB degradation by increasing direct photon delivery to the photocatalyst. Design of OF-LED reactors using bundled optical fibers demonstrated photocatalytic pCBA removal with high Φ and reduced EEO due to increased surface area and catalytic sites compared to single OF/LED couples. This work advances light delivery as well as the suspension and attachment of nanoparticles in photocatalytic water treatment for selective transformation of oxo-anions and organic compounds to innocuous species.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Identification of N-Nitrosodimethylamine precursors to improve their control

Description

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen and drinking water disinfection by-product. NDMA forms as the product of reactions between chloramines and precursor compounds in water. This dissertation aims to

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen and drinking water disinfection by-product. NDMA forms as the product of reactions between chloramines and precursor compounds in water. This dissertation aims to provide insight into the removal of NDMA precursors, their nature, and a method to aid in their identification. Watershed-derived precursors accounted for more of and greater variability to NDMA formation upon chloramination than polymer-derived precursors in environmental samples. Coagulation polymers are quaternary amines, which have low NDMA yield but high use rates. Watershed-derived precursors were removed up to 90% by sorption to activated carbon, but activated carbon exhibited much less (<10%) sorption of polymer-derived precursors. Combined with literature NDMA molar yields of model anthropogenic compounds, where anthropogenic chemicals in some cases have NDMA yields >90% and biological compounds always have yields <2%, trace, organic, amine containing, anthropogenic chemicals were implicated as the most likely source of NDMA precursors in the watershed. Although activated carbon removes these precursors well, identification of individual compounds may result in more cost effective mitigation strategies. Therefore, I developed a method to isolate NDMA precursors from other organic matter into methanol to facilitate their identification. Optimization of the method resulted in a median recovery of NDMA precursors of 82% from 10 surface waters and one wastewater. The method produces 1,000X concentrated NDMA precursors and, in collaboration with the University of Colorado Center for Environmental Mass Spectrometry, time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was performed on multiple treated wastewater and raw drinking water isolates. During TOF-MS, tertiary amines can cleave to form a neutral loss and an R group ion that is dependent on the original structure and I wrote a software program to “trawl” exported TOF-MS spectra for the diagnostic neutral loss resulting from fragmentation of tertiary amines. Methadone was identified as one new NDMA precursor that occurs at concentrations that form physiologically relevant levels of NDMA in surface water and wastewater. The approach used here to identify NDMA precursors is adaptable to other unknown disinfection by-product precursors given that a functional group is known that can 1)control sorption and 2)produce a predictable diagnostic fragment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Flux performance and silver leaching from in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticle treated reverse osmosis point of use membranes

Description

Drinking water filtration using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes effectively removes salts and most other inorganic, organic, and microbial pollutants. RO technologies are utilized at both the municipal and residential scale.

Drinking water filtration using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes effectively removes salts and most other inorganic, organic, and microbial pollutants. RO technologies are utilized at both the municipal and residential scale. The formation of biofilms on RO membranes reduces water flux and increases energy consumption. The research conducted for this thesis involves In-Situ coating of silver, a known biocide, on the surface of RO membranes. This research was adapted from a protocol developed for coating flat sheet membranes with silver nanoparticles, and scaled up into spiral-wound membranes that are commonly used at the residential scale in point-of-use (POU) filtration systems. Performance analyses of the silver-coated spiral-wound were conducted in a mobile drinking water treatment system fitted with two POU units for comparison. Five month-long analyses were performed, including a deployment of the mobile system. In addition to flux, salt rejection, and other water quality analyses, additional membrane characterization tests were conducted on pristine and silver-coated membranes.

For flat sheet membranes coated with silver, the surface charge remained negative and contact angle remained below 90. Scaling up to spiral-wound RO membrane configuration was successful, with an average silver-loading of 1.93 g-Ag/cm2. Results showed the flux of water through the membrane ranged from 8 to 13 liters/m2*hr. (LMH) operating at 25% recovery during long-term of operation. The flux was initially decreased due to the silver coating, but no statistically significant differences were observed after 14 days of operation (P < 0.05). The salt rejection was also not effected due to the silver coating (P < 0.05). While 98% of silver was released during long-term studies, the silver release from the spiral-wound membrane was consistently below the secondary MCL of 100 ppb established by the EPA, and was consistently below 5 ppb after two hours of operation. Microbial assays in the form of heterotrophic plate counts suggested there was no statistically significant difference in the prevention of biofouling formation due to the silver coating (P < 0.05). In addition to performance tests and membrane characterizations, a remote data acquisition system was configured to remotely monitor performance and water quality parameters in the mobile system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Sustainable drinking water treatment: using weak base anion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles to simultaneously remove multiple oxoanions

Description

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the question, “Can synthesis methods of nano-composite sorbents be improved to increase sustainability and feasibility to remove hexavalent chromium and arsenic simultaneously from groundwater compared to existing sorbents?” Preliminary nano-composite sorbents outperformed existing sorbents in equilibrium tests, but struggled in packed bed applications and at low influent concentrations. The synthesis process was then tailored for weak base anion exchange (WBAX) while comparing titanium dioxide against iron hydroxide nanoparticles (Ti-WBAX and Fe-WBAX, respectively). Increasing metal precursor concentration increased the metal content of the created sorbents, but pollutant removal performance and usable surface area declined due to pore blockage and nanoparticle agglomeration. An acid-post rinse was required for Fe-WBAX to restore chromium removal capacity. Anticipatory life cycle assessment identified critical design constraints to improve environmental and human health performance like minimizing oven heating time, improving pollutant removal capacity, and efficiently reusing metal precursor solution. The life cycle environmental impact of Ti-WBAX was lower than Fe-WBAX as well as a mixed bed of WBAX and granular ferric hydroxide for all studied categories. A separate life cycle assessment found the total number of cancer and non-cancer cases prevented by drinking safer water outweighed those created by manufacture and use of water treatment materials and energy. However, treatment relocated who bore the health risk, concentrated it in a sub-population, and changed the primary manifestation from cancer to non-cancer disease. This tradeoff was partially mitigated by avoiding use of pH control chemicals. When properly synthesized, Fe-WBAX and Ti-WBAX sorbents maintained chromium removal capacity while significantly increasing arsenic removal capacity compared to the parent resin. The hybrid sorbent performance was demonstrated in packed beds using a challenging water matrix and low pollutant influent conditions. Breakthrough curves hint that the hexavalent chromium is removed by anion exchange and the arsenic is removed by metal oxide sorption. Overall, the hybrid nano-sorbent synthesis methods increased sustainability, improved sorbent characteristics, and increased simultaneous removal of chromium and arsenic for drinking water.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Use of granular activated carbon and carbon block filters at municipal and point of use drinking water treatment for removal of organics

Description

Activated Carbon has been used for decades to remove organics from water at large scale in municipal water treatment as well as at small scale in Point of Use (POU)

Activated Carbon has been used for decades to remove organics from water at large scale in municipal water treatment as well as at small scale in Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE) water treatment. This study focused on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and also activated Carbon Block (CB) were studied.

This thesis has three related elements for organics control in drinking water. First, coagulation chemistry for Alum and Aluminum Chlorohydrate (ACH) was optimized for significant organics removal to address membrane fouling issue at a local municipal water treatment plant in Arizona. Second, Rapid Small Scale Column Tests were conducted for removal of Perfluorinated compounds (PFC), PFC were present in groundwater at a local site in Arizona at trace levels with combined concentration of Perfluorooctaneoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfloorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) up to 245 ng/L. Groundwater from the concerned site is used as drinking water source by a private utility. PFC Removal was evaluated for different GAC, influent concentrations and particle sizes. Third, a new testing protocol (Mini Carbon Block (MCB)) for bench scale study of POU water treatment device, specifically carbon block filter was developed and evaluated. The new bench scale decreased the hydraulic requirements by 60 times approximately, which increases the feasibility to test POU at a lab scale. It was evaluated for a common POU organic contaminant: Chloroform, and other model contaminants.

10 mg/L of ACH and 30 mg/L of Alum with pH adjustment were determined as optimal coagulant doses. Bituminous coal based GAC was almost three times better than coconut shell based GAC for removing PFC. Multiple tests with MCB suggested no short circuiting and consistent performance for methylene blue though chloroform removal tests underestimated full scale carbon block performance but all these tests creates a good theoretical and practical fundament for this new approach and provides directions for future researchers.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Water quality decay and pathogen survival in drinking water distribution systems

Description

The deterioration of drinking-water quality within distribution systems is a serious cause for concern. Extensive water-quality deterioration often results in violations against regulatory standards and has been linked to

The deterioration of drinking-water quality within distribution systems is a serious cause for concern. Extensive water-quality deterioration often results in violations against regulatory standards and has been linked to water-borne disease outbreaks. The causes for the deterioration of drinking water quality inside distribution systems are not yet fully understood. Mathematical models are often used to analyze how different biological, chemical, and physical phenomena interact and cause water quality deterioration inside distribution systems. In this dissertation research I developed a mathematical model, the Expanded Comprehensive Disinfection and Water Quality (CDWQ-E) model, to track water quality changes in chloraminated water. I then applied CDWQ-E to forecast water quality deterioration trends and the ability of Naegleria fowleri (N.fowleri), a protozoan pathogen, to thrive within drinking-water distribution systems. When used to assess the efficacy of substrate limitation versus disinfection in controlling bacterial growth, CDWQ-E demonstrated that bacterial growth is more effectively controlled by lowering substrate loading into distribution systems than by adding residual disinfectants. High substrate concentrations supported extensive bacterial growth even in the presence of high levels of chloramine. Model results also showed that chloramine decay and oxidation of organic matter increase the pool of available ammonia, and thus have potential to advance nitrification within distribution systems. Without exception, trends predicted by CDWQ-E matched trends observed from experimental studies. When CDWQ-E was used to evaluate the ability N. fowleri to survive in finished drinking water, the model predicted that N. fowleri can survive for extended periods of time in distribution systems. Model results also showed that N. fowleri growth depends on the availability of high bacterial densities in the 105 CFU/mL range. Since HPC levels this high are rarely reported in bulk water, it is clear that in distribution systems biofilms are the prime reservoirs N. fowleri because of their high bacterial densities. Controlled laboratory experiments also showed that drinking water can be a source of N. fowleri, and the main reservoir appeared to be biofilms dominated by bacteria. When introduced to pipe-loops N. fowleri successfully attached to biofilms and survived for 5 months.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010