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A CMOS sigma-delta digital intermediate frequency to radio frequency transmitter

Description

During the last decades the development of the transistor and its continuous down-scaling allowed the appearance of cost effective wireless communication systems. New generation wideband wireless mobile systems demand high linearity, low power consumption and the low cost devices. Traditional

During the last decades the development of the transistor and its continuous down-scaling allowed the appearance of cost effective wireless communication systems. New generation wideband wireless mobile systems demand high linearity, low power consumption and the low cost devices. Traditional RF systems are mainly analog-based circuitry. Contrary to digital circuits, the technology scaling results in reduction on the maximum voltage swing which makes RF design very challenging. Pushing the interface between the digital and analog boundary of the RF systems closer to the antenna becomes an attractive trend for modern RF devices. In order to take full advantages of the deep submicron CMOS technologies and digital signal processing (DSP), there is a strong trend towards the development of digital transmitter where the RF upconversion is part of the digital-to-analog conversion (DAC). This thesis presents a new digital intermediate frequency (IF) to RF transmitter for 2GHz wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). The proposed transmitter integrates a 3-level digital IF current-steering cell, an up-conversion mixer with a tuned load and an RF variable gain amplifier (RF VGA) with an embedded finite impulse response (FIR) reconstruction filter in the up-conversion path. A 4th-order 1.5-bit IF bandpass sigma delta modulator (BP SDM) is designed to support in-band SNR while the out-of-band quantization noise due to the noise shaping is suppressed by the embedded reconstruction filter to meet spectrum emission mask and ACPR requirements. The RF VGA provides 50dB power scaling in 10-dB steps with less than 1dB gain error. The design is fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS technology with a total core area of 0.8 x 1.6 mm2. The IC delivers 0dBm output power at 2GHz and it draws approximately 120mA from a 1.8V DC supply at the maximum output power. The measurement results proved that a digital-intensive digital IF to RF converter architecture can be successfully employed for WCDMA transmitter application.

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Date Created
2012

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Cooperative multi-channel MAC protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

Description

Today, many wireless networks are single-channel systems. However, as the interest in wireless services increases, the contention by nodes to occupy the medium is more intense and interference worsens. One direction with the potential to increase system throughput is multi-channel

Today, many wireless networks are single-channel systems. However, as the interest in wireless services increases, the contention by nodes to occupy the medium is more intense and interference worsens. One direction with the potential to increase system throughput is multi-channel systems. Multi-channel systems have been shown to reduce collisions and increase concurrency thus producing better bandwidth usage. However, the well-known hidden- and exposed-terminal problems inherited from single-channel systems remain, and a new channel selection problem is introduced. In this dissertation, Multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols are proposed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for nodes equipped with a single half-duplex transceiver, using more sophisticated physical layer technologies. These include code division multiple access (CDMA), orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), and diversity. CDMA increases channel reuse, while OFDMA enables communication by multiple users in parallel. There is a challenge to using each technology in MANETs, where there is no fixed infrastructure or centralized control. CDMA suffers from the near-far problem, while OFDMA requires channel synchronization to decode the signal. As a result CDMA and OFDMA are not yet widely used. Cooperative (diversity) mechanisms provide vital information to facilitate communication set-up between source-destination node pairs and help overcome limitations of physical layer technologies in MANETs. In this dissertation, the Cooperative CDMA-based Multi-channel MAC (CCM-MAC) protocol uses CDMA to enable concurrent transmissions on each channel. The Power-controlled CDMA-based Multi-channel MAC (PCC-MAC) protocol uses transmission power control at each node and mitigates collisions of control packets on the control channel by using different sizes of the spreading factor to have different processing gains for the control signals. The Cooperative Dual-access Multi-channel MAC (CDM-MAC) protocol combines the use of OFDMA and CDMA and minimizes channel interference by a resolvable balanced incomplete block design (BIBD). In each protocol, cooperating nodes help reduce the incidence of the multi-channel hidden- and exposed-terminal and help address the near-far problem of CDMA by supplying information. Simulation results show that each of the proposed protocols achieve significantly better system performance when compared to IEEE 802.11, other multi-channel protocols, and another protocol CDMA-based.

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Date Created
2010