Matching Items (8)

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Developing a cohesive space-time information framework for analyzing movement trajectories in real and simulated environments

Description

In today's world, unprecedented amounts of data of individual mobile objects have become more available due to advances in location aware technologies and services. Studying the spatio-temporal patterns, processes, and

In today's world, unprecedented amounts of data of individual mobile objects have become more available due to advances in location aware technologies and services. Studying the spatio-temporal patterns, processes, and behavior of mobile objects is an important issue for extracting useful information and knowledge about mobile phenomena. Potential applications across a wide range of fields include urban and transportation planning, Location-Based Services, and logistics. This research is designed to contribute to the existing state-of-the-art in tracking and modeling mobile objects, specifically targeting three challenges in investigating spatio-temporal patterns and processes; 1) a lack of space-time analysis tools; 2) a lack of studies about empirical data analysis and context awareness of mobile objects; and 3) a lack of studies about how to evaluate and test agent-based models of complex mobile phenomena. Three studies are proposed to investigate these challenges; the first study develops an integrated data analysis toolkit for exploration of spatio-temporal patterns and processes of mobile objects; the second study investigates two movement behaviors, 1) theoretical random walks and 2) human movements in urban space collected by GPS; and, the third study contributes to the research challenge of evaluating the form and fit of Agent-Based Models of human movement in urban space. The main contribution of this work is the conceptualization and implementation of a Geographic Knowledge Discovery approach for extracting high-level knowledge from low-level datasets about mobile objects. This allows better understanding of space-time patterns and processes of mobile objects by revealing their complex movement behaviors, interactions, and collective behaviors. In detail, this research proposes a novel analytical framework that integrates time geography, trajectory data mining, and 3D volume visualization. In addition, a toolkit that utilizes the framework is developed and used for investigating theoretical and empirical datasets about mobile objects. The results showed that the framework and the toolkit demonstrate a great capability to identify and visualize clusters of various movement behaviors in space and time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Spatiotemporal data mining, analysis, and visualization of human activity data

Description

This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze

This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data mining, machine learning, and geovisualization techniques. Three different types of spatiotemporal activity data were collected through different data collection approaches: (1) crowd sourced geo-tagged digital photos, representing people's travel activity, were retrieved from the website Panoramio.com through information retrieval techniques; (2) the same techniques were used to crawl crowd sourced GPS trajectory data and related metadata of their daily activities from the website OpenStreetMap.org; and finally (3) preschool children's daily activities and interactions tagged with time and geographical location were collected with a novel TabletPC-based behavioral coding system. The proposed methodology is applied to these data to (1) automatically recommend optimal multi-day and multi-stay travel itineraries for travelers based on discovered attractions from geo-tagged photos, (2) automatically detect movement types of unknown moving objects from GPS trajectories, and (3) explore dynamic social and socio-spatial patterns of preschool children's behavior from both geographic and social perspectives.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A taxonomy of parallel vector spatial analysis algorithms

Description

Nearly 25 years ago, parallel computing techniques were first applied to vector spatial analysis methods. This initial research was driven by the desire to reduce computing times in order to

Nearly 25 years ago, parallel computing techniques were first applied to vector spatial analysis methods. This initial research was driven by the desire to reduce computing times in order to support scaling to larger problem sets. Since this initial work, rapid technological advancement has driven the availability of High Performance Computing (HPC) resources, in the form of multi-core desktop computers, distributed geographic information processing systems, e.g. computational grids, and single site HPC clusters. In step with increases in computational resources, significant advancement in the capabilities to capture and store large quantities of spatially enabled data have been realized. A key component to utilizing vast data quantities in HPC environments, scalable algorithms, have failed to keep pace. The National Science Foundation has identified the lack of scalable algorithms in codified frameworks as an essential research product. Fulfillment of this goal is challenging given the lack of a codified theoretical framework mapping atomic numeric operations from the spatial analysis stack to parallel programming paradigms, the diversity in vernacular utilized by research groups, the propensity for implementations to tightly couple to under- lying hardware, and the general difficulty in realizing scalable parallel algorithms. This dissertation develops a taxonomy of parallel vector spatial analysis algorithms with classification being defined by root mathematical operation and communication pattern, a computational dwarf. Six computational dwarfs are identified, three being drawn directly from an existing parallel computing taxonomy and three being created to capture characteristics unique to spatial analysis algorithms. The taxonomy provides a high-level classification decoupled from low-level implementation details such as hardware, communication protocols, implementation language, decomposition method, or file input and output. By taking a high-level approach implementation specifics are broadly proposed, breadth of coverage is achieved, and extensibility is ensured. The taxonomy is both informed and informed by five case studies im- plemented across multiple, divergent hardware environments. A major contribution of this dissertation is a theoretical framework to support the future development of concrete parallel vector spatial analysis frameworks through the identification of computational dwarfs and, by extension, successful implementation strategies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A spatial analysis of "most weather warned" counties by severe weather phenomena in the contiguous United States

Description

Severe weather affects many regions of the United States, and has potential to greatly impact many facets of society. This study provides a climatological spatial analysis by county of severe

Severe weather affects many regions of the United States, and has potential to greatly impact many facets of society. This study provides a climatological spatial analysis by county of severe weather warnings issued by the National Weather Service (NWS) between January 1st, 1986 to December 31st, 2017 for the contiguous United States. The severe weather warnings were issued for county-based flash flood, severe thunderstorm, and tornado phenomena issued through the study period and region. Post 2002 severe weather warnings issued by storm warning area were included in this study in the form of county-based warnings simultaneously issued for each affected county. Past studies have researched severe weather warnings issued by the NWS, however these studies are limited in geographic representation, study period, and focused on population bias. A spatial analysis of severe weather warning occurrences by county identify that (a) highest occurrences of flash flood warnings are located in the desert Southwest and Texas, (b) severe thunderstorm warning occurrence is more frequent in Arizona, portions of the Midwest, the South, and the Mid and South Atlantic states, (c) the tornado activity regions of Tornado Alley and Dixie Alley (i.e. Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Illinois) contained the highest occurrences of tornado warnings, and (d) the highest instances of aggregate warning occurrences are found in the desert Southwest, the Midwest, and the Southern regions of the United States. Generally, severe weather warning “hot spots” tend to be located in those same regions, with greater coverage. This study concludes with a comparison of local maxima and general hot spot regions to expected regions for each phenomenon. Implications of this study are far reaching, including emergency management, and has potential to reduce risk of life.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Deriving an obstacle-avoiding shortest path in continuous space: a spatial approach

Description

The shortest path between two locations is important for spatial analysis, location modeling, and wayfinding tasks. Depending on permissible movement and availability of data, the shortest path is either derived

The shortest path between two locations is important for spatial analysis, location modeling, and wayfinding tasks. Depending on permissible movement and availability of data, the shortest path is either derived from a pre-defined transportation network or constructed in continuous space. However, continuous space movement adds substantial complexity to identifying the shortest path as the influence of obstacles has to be considered to avoid errors and biases in a derived path. This obstacle-avoiding shortest path in continuous space has been referred to as Euclidean shortest path (ESP), and attracted the attention of many researchers. It has been proven that constructing a graph is an effective approach to limit infinite search options associated with continuous space, reducing the problem to a finite set of potential paths. To date, various methods have been developed for ESP derivation. However, their computational efficiency is limited due to fundamental limitations in graph construction. In this research, a novel algorithm is developed for efficient identification of a graph guaranteed to contain the ESP. This new approach is referred to as the convexpath algorithm, and exploits spatial knowledge and GIS functionality to efficiently construct a graph. The convexpath algorithm utilizes the notion of a convex hull to simultaneously identify relevant obstacles and construct the graph. Additionally, a spatial filtering technique based on intermediate shortest path is enhances intelligent identification of relevant obstacles. Empirical applications show that the convexpath algorithm is able to construct a graph and derive the ESP with significantly improved efficiency compared to visibility and local visibility graph approaches. Furthermore, to boost the performance of convexpath in big data environments, a parallelization approach is proposed and applied to exploit computationally intensive spatial operations of convexpath. Multicore CPU parallelization demonstrates noticeable efficiency gain over the sequential convexpath. Finally, spatial representation and approximation issues associated with raster-based approximation of the ESP are assessed. This dissertation provides a comprehensive treatment of the ESP, and details an important approach for deriving an optimal ESP in real time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A new era of spatial interaction: potential and pitfalls

Description

As urban populations become increasingly dense, massive amounts of new 'big' data that characterize human activity are being made available and may be characterized as having a large volume of

As urban populations become increasingly dense, massive amounts of new 'big' data that characterize human activity are being made available and may be characterized as having a large volume of observations, being produced in real-time or near real-time, and including a diverse variety of information. In particular, spatial interaction (SI) data - a collection of human interactions across a set of origins and destination locations - present unique challenges for distilling big data into insight. Therefore, this dissertation identifies some of the potential and pitfalls associated with new sources of big SI data. It also evaluates methods for modeling SI to investigate the relationships that drive SI processes in order to focus on human behavior rather than data description.

A critical review of the existing SI modeling paradigms is first presented, which also highlights features of big data that are particular to SI data. Next, a simulation experiment is carried out to evaluate three different statistical modeling frameworks for SI data that are supported by different underlying conceptual frameworks. Then, two approaches are taken to identify the potential and pitfalls associated with two newer sources of data from New York City - bike-share cycling trips and taxi trips. The first approach builds a model of commuting behavior using a traditional census data set and then compares the results for the same model when it is applied to these newer data sources. The second approach examines how the increased temporal resolution of big SI data may be incorporated into SI models.

Several important results are obtained through this research. First, it is demonstrated that different SI models account for different types of spatial effects and that the Competing Destination framework seems to be the most robust for capturing spatial structure effects. Second, newer sources of big SI data are shown to be very useful for complimenting traditional sources of data, though they are not sufficient substitutions. Finally, it is demonstrated that the increased temporal resolution of new data sources may usher in a new era of SI modeling that allows us to better understand the dynamics of human behavior.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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A data analytics framework for smart grids: spatio-temporal wind power analysis and synchrophasor data mining

Description

Under the framework of intelligent management of power grids by leveraging advanced information, communication and control technologies, a primary objective of this study is to develop novel data mining and

Under the framework of intelligent management of power grids by leveraging advanced information, communication and control technologies, a primary objective of this study is to develop novel data mining and data processing schemes for several critical applications that can enhance the reliability of power systems. Specifically, this study is broadly organized into the following two parts: I) spatio-temporal wind power analysis for wind generation forecast and integration, and II) data mining and information fusion of synchrophasor measurements toward secure power grids. Part I is centered around wind power generation forecast and integration. First, a spatio-temporal analysis approach for short-term wind farm generation forecasting is proposed. Specifically, using extensive measurement data from an actual wind farm, the probability distribution and the level crossing rate of wind farm generation are characterized using tools from graphical learning and time-series analysis. Built on these spatial and temporal characterizations, finite state Markov chain models are developed, and a point forecast of wind farm generation is derived using the Markov chains. Then, multi-timescale scheduling and dispatch with stochastic wind generation and opportunistic demand response is investigated. Part II focuses on incorporating the emerging synchrophasor technology into the security assessment and the post-disturbance fault diagnosis of power systems. First, a data-mining framework is developed for on-line dynamic security assessment by using adaptive ensemble decision tree learning of real-time synchrophasor measurements. Under this framework, novel on-line dynamic security assessment schemes are devised, aiming to handle various factors (including variations of operating conditions, forced system topology change, and loss of critical synchrophasor measurements) that can have significant impact on the performance of conventional data-mining based on-line DSA schemes. Then, in the context of post-disturbance analysis, fault detection and localization of line outage is investigated using a dependency graph approach. It is shown that a dependency graph for voltage phase angles can be built according to the interconnection structure of power system, and line outage events can be detected and localized through networked data fusion of the synchrophasor measurements collected from multiple locations of power grids. Along a more practical avenue, a decentralized networked data fusion scheme is proposed for efficient fault detection and localization.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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A comparison of fuzzy models in similarity assessment of misregistered area class maps

Description

Spatial uncertainty refers to unknown error and vagueness in geographic data. It is relevant to land change and urban growth modelers, soil and biome scientists, geological surveyors and others, who

Spatial uncertainty refers to unknown error and vagueness in geographic data. It is relevant to land change and urban growth modelers, soil and biome scientists, geological surveyors and others, who must assess thematic maps for similarity, or categorical agreement. In this paper I build upon prior map comparison research, testing the effectiveness of similarity measures on misregistered data. Though several methods compare uncertain thematic maps, few methods have been tested on misregistration. My objective is to test five map comparison methods for sensitivity to misregistration, including sub-pixel errors in both position and rotation. Methods included four fuzzy categorical models: fuzzy kappa's model, fuzzy inference, cell aggregation, and the epsilon band. The fifth method used conventional crisp classification. I applied these methods to a case study map and simulated data in two sets: a test set with misregistration error, and a control set with equivalent uniform random error. For all five methods, I used raw accuracy or the kappa statistic to measure similarity. Rough-set epsilon bands report the most similarity increase in test maps relative to control data. Conversely, the fuzzy inference model reports a decrease in test map similarity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010