Matching Items (11)

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A study of two high efficiency energy conversion processes: semiconductor photovoltaics and semiconductor luminescence refrigeration

Description

As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation

As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation and usage. In this dissertation, novel multi-junction solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are proposed and studied for high energy conversion efficiency in both processes, respectively. The first half of this dissertation discusses the practically achievable energy conversion efficiency limit of solar cells. Since the demonstration of the Si solar cell in 1954, the performance of solar cells has been improved tremendously and recently reached 41.6% energy conversion efficiency. However, it seems rather challenging to further increase the solar cell efficiency. The state-of-the-art triple junction solar cells are analyzed to help understand the limiting factors. To address these issues, the monolithically integrated II-VI and III-V material system is proposed for solar cell applications. This material system covers the entire solar spectrum with a continuous selection of energy bandgaps and can be grown lattice matched on a GaSb substrate. Moreover, six four-junction solar cells are designed for AM0 and AM1.5D solar spectra based on this material system, and new design rules are proposed. The achievable conversion efficiencies for these designs are calculated using the commercial software package Silvaco with real material parameters. The second half of this dissertation studies the semiconductor luminescence refrigeration, which corresponds to over 100% energy usage efficiency. Although cooling has been realized in rare-earth doped glass by laser pumping, semiconductor based cooling is yet to be realized. In this work, a device structure that monolithically integrates a GaAs hemisphere with an InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well thin slab LED is proposed to realize cooling in semiconductor. The device electrical and optical performance is calculated. The proposed device then is fabricated using nine times photolithography and eight masks. The critical process steps, such as photoresist reflow and dry etch, are simulated to insure successful processing. Optical testing is done with the devices at various laser injection levels and the internal quantum efficiency, external quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency are measured.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Small molecule organic optoelectronic devices

Description

Organic optoelectronics include a class of devices synthesized from carbon containing ‘small molecule’ thin films without long range order crystalline or polymer structure. Novel properties such as low modulus

Organic optoelectronics include a class of devices synthesized from carbon containing ‘small molecule’ thin films without long range order crystalline or polymer structure. Novel properties such as low modulus and flexibility as well as excellent device performance such as photon emission approaching 100% internal quantum efficiency have accelerated research in this area substantially. While optoelectronic organic light emitting devices have already realized commercial application, challenges to obtain extended lifetime for the high energy visible spectrum and the ability to reproduce natural white light with a simple architecture have limited the value of this technology for some display and lighting applications. In this research, novel materials discovered from a systematic analysis of empirical device data are shown to produce high quality white light through combination of monomer and excimer emission from a single molecule: platinum(II) bis(methyl-imidazolyl)toluene chloride (Pt-17). Illumination quality achieved Commission Internationale de L’Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.31, y = 0.38) and color rendering index (CRI) > 75. Further optimization of a device containing Pt-17 resulted in a maximum forward viewing power efficiency of 37.8 lm/W on a plain glass substrate. In addition, accelerated aging tests suggest high energy blue emission from a halogen-free cyclometalated platinum complex could demonstrate degradation rates comparable to known stable emitters. Finally, a buckling based metrology is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of small molecule organic thin films towards understanding the deposition kinetics responsible for an elastic modulus that is both temperature and thickness dependent. These results could contribute to the viability of organic electronic technology in potentially flexible display and lighting applications. The results also provide insight to organic film growth kinetics responsible for optical, mechanical, and water uptake properties relevant to engineering the next generation of optoelectronic devices.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes implementing platinum complexes

Description

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases.

In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated.

Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a microcavity organic light emitting diode (MOLED), significant enhancement in the external quantum efficiency was achieved. The optimized MOLED structure achieved a light out-coupling enhancement of 1.35 compared to the non-cavity structure with a peak EQE of 34.2%. In addition to demonstrating a high light out-coupling enhancement, the microcavity effect of a narrow band emitter in a MOLED was elucidated.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Flexible electronics and display technology for medical, biological, and life science applications

Description

This work explores how flexible electronics and display technology can be applied to develop new biomedical devices for medical, biological, and life science applications. It demonstrates how new biomedical devices

This work explores how flexible electronics and display technology can be applied to develop new biomedical devices for medical, biological, and life science applications. It demonstrates how new biomedical devices can be manufactured by only modifying or personalizing the upper layers of a conventional thin film transistor (TFT) display process. This personalization was applied first to develop and demonstrate the world's largest flexible digital x-ray detector for medical and industrial imaging, and the world's first flexible ISFET pH biosensor using TFT technology. These new, flexible, digital x-ray detectors are more durable than conventional glass substrate x-ray detectors, and also can conform to the surface of the object being imaged. The new flexible ISFET pH biosensors are >10X less expensive to manufacture than comparable CMOS-based ISFETs and provide a sensing area that is orders of magnitude larger than CMOS-based ISFETs. This allows for easier integration with area intensive chemical and biological recognition material as well as allow for a larger number of unique recognition sites for low cost multiple disease and pathogen detection.

The flexible x-ray detector technology was then extended to demonstrate the viability of a new technique to seamlessly combine multiple smaller flexible x-ray detectors into a single very large, ultimately human sized, composite x-ray detector for new medical imaging applications such as single-exposure, low-dose, full-body digital radiography. Also explored, is a new approach to increase the sensitivity of digital x-ray detectors by selectively disabling rows in the active matrix array that are not part of the imaged region. It was then shown how high-resolution, flexible, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) technology can be used to selectively stimulate and/or silence small groups of neurons on the cortical surface or within the deep brain as a potential new tool to diagnose and treat, as well as understand, neurological diseases and conditions. This work also explored the viability of a new miniaturized high sensitivity fluorescence measurement-based lab-on-a-chip optical biosensor using OLED display and a-Si:H PiN photodiode active matrix array technology for point-of-care diagnosis of multiple disease or pathogen biomarkers in a low cost disposable configuration.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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New materials and device designs for organic light-emitting diodes

Description

Research and development of organic materials and devices for electronic applications has become an increasingly active area. Display and solid-state lighting are the most mature applications and, and products have

Research and development of organic materials and devices for electronic applications has become an increasingly active area. Display and solid-state lighting are the most mature applications and, and products have been commercially available for several years as of this writing. Significant efforts also focus on materials for organic photovoltaic applications. Some of the newest work is in devices for medical, sensor and prosthetic applications.

Worldwide energy demand is increasing as the population grows and the standard of living in developing countries improves. Some studies estimate as much as 20% of annual energy usage is consumed by lighting. Improvements are being made in lightweight, flexible, rugged panels that use organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are particularly useful in developing regions with limited energy availability and harsh environments.

Displays also benefit from more efficient materials as well as the lighter weight and ruggedness enabled by flexible substrates. Displays may require different emission characteristics compared with solid-state lighting. Some display technologies use a white OLED (WOLED) backlight with a color filter, but these are more complex and less efficient than displays that use separate emissive materials that produce the saturated colors needed to reproduce the entire color gamut. Saturated colors require narrow-band emitters. Full-color OLED displays up to and including television size are now commercially available from several suppliers, but research continues to develop more efficient and more stable materials.

This research program investigates several topics relevant to solid-state lighting and display applications. One project is development of a device structure to optimize performance of a new stable Pt-based red emitter developed in Prof Jian Li's group. Another project investigates new Pt-based red, green and blue emitters for lighting applications and compares a red/blue structure with a red/green/blue structure to produce light with high color rendering index. Another part of this work describes the fabrication of a 14.7" diagonal full color active-matrix OLED display on plastic substrate. The backplanes were designed and fabricated in the ASU Flexible Display Center and required significant engineering to develop; a discussion of that process is also included.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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A novel boost converter based LED driver chip targeting mobile applications

Description

A novel integrated constant current LED driver design on a single chip is developed in this dissertation. The entire design consists of two sections. The first section is a DC-DC

A novel integrated constant current LED driver design on a single chip is developed in this dissertation. The entire design consists of two sections. The first section is a DC-DC switching regulator (boost regulator) as the frontend power supply; the second section is the constant current LED driver system.

In the first section, a pulse width modulated (PWM) peak current mode boost regulator is utilized. The overall boost regulator system and its related sub-cells are explained. Among them, an original error amplifier design, a current sensing circuit and slope compensation circuit are presented.

In the second section – the focus of this dissertation – a highly accurate constant current LED driver system design is unveiled. The detailed description of this highly accurate LED driver system and its related sub-cells are presented. A hybrid PWM and linear current modulation scheme to adjust the LED driver output currents is explained. The novel design ideas to improve the LED current accuracy and channel-to-channel output current mismatch are also explained in detail. These ideas include a novel LED driver system architecture utilizing 1) a dynamic current mirror structure and 2) a closed loop structure to keep the feedback loop of the LED driver active all the time during both PWM on-duty and PWM off-duty periods. Inside the LED driver structure, the driving amplifier with a novel slew rate enhancement circuit to dramatically accelerate its response time is also presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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White organic light emitting diodes for solid state lighting: a path towards high efficiency and device stability

Description

White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are currently being developed as the next generation of solid state lighting sources. Although, there has been considerable improvements in device efficiency from the

White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are currently being developed as the next generation of solid state lighting sources. Although, there has been considerable improvements in device efficiency from the early days up until now, there are still major drawbacks for the implementation of WOLEDs to commercial markets. These drawbacks include short lifetimes associated with highly efficient and easier to fabricate device structures. Platinum (II) complexes are been explored as emitters for single emissive layer WOLEDs, due to their higher efficiencies and stability in device configurations. These properties have been attributed to their square planar nature. Tetradentate platinum (II) complexes in particular have been shown to be more rigid and thus more stable than their other multidentate counterparts. This thesis aims to explore the different pathways via molecular design of tetradentate platinum II complexes and in particular the percipient engineering of a highly efficient and stable device structure. Previous works have been able to obtain either highly efficient devices or stable devices in different device configurations. In this work, we demonstrate a device structure employing Pt2O2 as the emitter using mCBP as a host with EQE of above 20% and lifetime values (LT80) exceeding 6000hours at practical luminance of 100cd/m2. These results open up the pathway towards the commercialization of white organic light emitting diodes as a solid state lighting source.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Optical simulation and optimization of light extraction efficiency for organic light emitting diodes

Description

Current organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) suffer from the low light extraction efficiency. In this thesis, novel OLED structures including photonic crystal, Fabry-Perot resonance cavity and hyperbolic metamaterials were numerically

Current organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) suffer from the low light extraction efficiency. In this thesis, novel OLED structures including photonic crystal, Fabry-Perot resonance cavity and hyperbolic metamaterials were numerically simulated and theoretically investigated. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed to numerically simulate the light extraction efficiency of various 3D OLED structures. With photonic crystal structures, a maximum of 30% extraction efficiency is achieved. A higher external quantum efficiency of 35% is derived after applying Fabry-Perot resonance cavity into OLEDs. Furthermore, different factors such as material properties, layer thicknesses and dipole polarizations and locations have been studied. Moreover, an upper limit for the light extraction efficiency of 80% is reached theoretically with perfect reflector and single dipole polarization and location. To elucidate the physical mechanism, transfer matrix method is introduced to calculate the spectral-hemispherical reflectance of the multilayer OLED structures. In addition, an attempt of using hyperbolic metamaterial in OLED has been made and resulted in 27% external quantum efficiency, due to the similar mechanism of wave interference as Fabry-Perot structure. The simulation and optimization methods and findings would facilitate the design of next generation, high-efficiency OLED devices.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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High-performance organic light emitting diodes

Description

Organic electronics have remained a research topic of great interest over the past few decades, with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) emerging as a disruptive technology for lighting and display

Organic electronics have remained a research topic of great interest over the past few decades, with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) emerging as a disruptive technology for lighting and display applications. While OLED performance has improved significantly over the past decade, key issues remain unsolved such as the development of stable and efficient blue devices. In order to further the development of OLEDs and increase their commercial potential, innovative device architectures, novel emissive materials and high-energy hosts are designed and reported.

OLEDs employing step-wide graded-doped emissive layers were designed to improve charge balance and center the exciton formation zone leading to improved device performance. A red OLED with a peak efficiency of 16.9% and an estimated LT97 over 2,000 hours at 1,000 cd/m2 was achieved. Employing a similar structure, a sky-blue OLED was demonstrated with a peak efficiency of 17.4% and estimated LT70 over 1,300 hours at 1,000 cd/m2. Furthermore, the sky-blue OLEDs color was improved to CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.25) while maintaining an efficiency of 16.9% and estimated LT70 over 600 hours by incorporating a fluorescent sensitizer. These devices represent literature records at the time of publication for efficient and stable platinum phosphorescent OLEDs.

A newly developed class of emitters, metal-assisted delayed-fluorescence (MADF), are demonstrated to achieve higher-energy emission from a relatively low triplet energy. A green MADF device reaches a peak efficiency of 22% with an estimated LT95 over 350 hours at 1,000 cd/m2. Additionally, a blue charge confined OLED of PtON1a-tBu demonstrated a peak efficiency above 20%, CIE coordinated of (0.16, 0.27), and emission onset at 425 nm.

High triplet energy hosts are required for the realization of stable and efficient deep blue emission. A rigid “M”-type carbazole/fluorene hybrid called mDCzPF and a carbazole/9-silafluorene hybrid called mDCzPSiF are demonstrated to have high triplet energies ET=2.88 eV and 3.03 eV respectively. Both hosts are demonstrated to have reasonable stability and can serve as a template for future material design. The techniques presented here demonstrate alternative approaches for improving the performance of OLED devices and help to bring this technology closer to widespread commercialization.

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Date Created
  • 2019

Novel organic light emitting diodes for optogenetic experiments

Description

Optical Fibers coupled to laser light sources, and Light Emitting Diodes are the two classes of technologies used for optogenetic experiments. Arizona State University's Flexible Display Center fabricates novel flexible

Optical Fibers coupled to laser light sources, and Light Emitting Diodes are the two classes of technologies used for optogenetic experiments. Arizona State University's Flexible Display Center fabricates novel flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes(OLEDs). These OLEDs have the capability of being monolithically fabricated over flexible, transparent plastic substrates and having power efficient ways of addressing high density arrays of LEDs. This thesis critically evaluates the technology by identifying the key advantages, current limitations and experimentally assessing the technology in in-vivo and in-vitro animal models. For in-vivo testing, the emitted light from a flat OLED panel was directly used to stimulate the neo-cortex in the M1 region of transgenic mice expressing ChR2 (B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-ChR2/EYFP) 9Gfng/J). An alternative stimulation paradigm using a collimating optical system coupled with an optical fiber was used for stimulating neurons in layer 5 of the motor cortex in the same transgenic mice. EMG activity was recorded from the contralateral vastus lateralis muscles. In vitro testing of the OLEDs was done in primary cortical neurons in culture transfected with blue light sensitive ChR2. The neurons were cultured on a microelectrode array for taking neuronal recordings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015