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Design of a twelve bit, four hundred mega-samples-per-second, interpolating dual channel digital to analog converter featuring digital modulation

Description

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and feature on chip digital mixing. Digital mixing offers many benefits concerning I and Q matching but has one major drawback; the update rate of the DAC must be higher than the intermediate frequency (IF) which is most commonly a factor of 4. This drawback motivates the need for interpolation so that a low update rate can be used for components preceding the DACs. In this thesis the design of an interpolating DAC integrated circuit (IC) to be used in a transmitter application for generating a 100MHz IF is presented. Many of the transistor level implementations are provided. The tradeoffs in the design are analyzed and various options are discussed. This thesis provides a basic foundation for designing an IC of this nature and will give the reader insight into potential areas of further research. At the time of this writing the chip is in fabrication therefore this document does not contain test results.

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2013

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Photovoltaic sub-module integrated converter analysis

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With the rapid expansion of the photovoltaic industry over the last decade, there has been a huge demand in the PV installations in the residential sector. This thesis focuses on the analysis and implementation of a dc-dc boost converter at

With the rapid expansion of the photovoltaic industry over the last decade, there has been a huge demand in the PV installations in the residential sector. This thesis focuses on the analysis and implementation of a dc-dc boost converter at photovoltaic sub-module level. The thesis also analyses the various topologies like switched capacitors and extended duty ratio which can be practically implemented in the photovoltaic panels. The results obtained in this work have concentrated on the use of novel strategies to substitute the use of central dc-dc converter used in PV module string connection. The implementation of distributed MPPT at the PV sub-module level is also an integral part of this thesis. Using extensive PLECS simulations, this thesis came to the conclusion that with the design of a proper compensation at the dc interconnection of a series or parallel PV Module Integrated Converter string, the central dc-dc converter can be substituted. The dc-ac interconnection voltage remains regulated at all irradiance level even without a dc-dc central converter at the string end. The foundation work for the hardware implementation has also been carried out. Design of parameters for future hardware implementation has also been presented in detail in this thesis.

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2012

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Design and calibration of a 12-bit current-steering DAC using data-interleaving

Description

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate current-steering DACs. As the resolution increases, more transistor area is required to meet matching requirements for optimal linearity and thus, the overall speed of the DAC is limited.

In this thesis work, a 12-bit current-steering DAC was designed with current sources scaled below the required matching size to decrease the area and increase the overall speed of the DAC. By scaling the current sources, however, errors due to random mismatch between current sources will arise and additional calibration hardware is necessary to ensure 12-bit linearity. This work presents how to implement a self-calibration DAC that works to fix amplitude errors while maintaining a lower overall area. Additionally, the DAC designed in this thesis investigates the implementation feasibility of a data-interleaved architecture. Data interleaving can increase the total bandwidth of the DACs by 2 with an increase in SQNR by an additional 3 dB.

The final results show that the calibration method can effectively improve the linearity of the DAC. The DAC is able to run up to 400 MSPS frequencies with a 75 dB SFDR performance and above 87 dB SFDR performance at update rates of 200 MSPS.

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2014

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DC optimizer for PV module

Description

As residential photovoltaic (PV) systems become more and more common and widespread, their system architectures are being developed to maximize power extraction while keeping the cost of associated electronics to a minimum. An architecture that has become popular in

As residential photovoltaic (PV) systems become more and more common and widespread, their system architectures are being developed to maximize power extraction while keeping the cost of associated electronics to a minimum. An architecture that has become popular in recent years is the "DC optimizer" architecture, wherein one DC-DC converter is connected to the output of each PV module. The DC optimizer architecture has the advantage of performing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) at the module level, without the high cost of using an inverter on each module (the "microinverter" architecture). This work details the design of a proposed DC optimizer. The design incorporates a series-input parallel-output topology to implement MPPT at the sub-module level. This topology has some advantages over the more common series-output DC optimizer, including relaxed requirements for the system's inverter. An autonomous control scheme is proposed for the series-connected converters, so that no external control signals are needed for the system to operate, other than sunlight. The DC optimizer in this work is designed with an emphasis on efficiency, and to that end it uses GaN FETs and an active clamp technique to reduce switching and conduction losses. As with any parallel-output converter, phase interleaving is essential to minimize output RMS current losses. This work proposes a novel phase-locked loop (PLL) technique to achieve interleaving among the series-input converters.

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2014

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Highly integrated switched-mode power converters employing CMOS and GaN technologies for distributed MPPT

Description

The photovoltaic systems used to convert solar energy to electricity pose a multitude of design and implementation challenges, including energy conversion efficiency, partial shading effects, and power converter efficiency. Using power converters for Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) is

The photovoltaic systems used to convert solar energy to electricity pose a multitude of design and implementation challenges, including energy conversion efficiency, partial shading effects, and power converter efficiency. Using power converters for Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) is a well-known architecture to significantly reduce power loss associated with mismatched panels. Sub-panel-level DMPPT is shown to have up to 14.5% more annual energy yield than panel-level DMPPT, and requires an efficient medium power converter.

This research aims at implementing a highly efficient power management system at sub-panel level with focus on system cost and form-factor. Smaller form-factor motivates increased converter switching frequencies to significantly reduce the size of converter passives and substantially improve transient performance. But, currently available power MOSFETs put a constraint on the highest possible switching frequency due to increased switching losses. The solution is Gallium Nitride based power devices, which deliver figure of merit (FOM) performance at least an order of magnitude higher than existing silicon MOSFETs. Low power loss, high power density, low cost and small die sizes are few of the qualities that make e-GaN superior to its Si counterpart. With careful design, e-GaN can enable a 20-30% improvement in power stage efficiency compared to converters using Si MOSFETs.

The main objective of this research is to develop a highly integrated, high efficiency, 20MHz, hybrid GaN-CMOS DC-DC MPPT converter for a 12V/5A sub-panel. Hard and soft switching boost converter topologies are investigated within this research, and an innovative CMOS gate drive technique for efficiently driving an e-GaN power stage is presented in this work. The converter controller also employs a fast converging analog MPPT control technique.

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Date Created
2015