Matching Items (45)

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Design and Development of High Performance III-Nitrides Photovoltaics

Description

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits include continuously tunable wide band gap from 0.70 eV to 3.4 eV, strong absorption coefficient on the order of ∼105 cm−1, superior radiation resistance under harsh environment, and high saturation velocities and high mobility. Calculation from the detailed balance model also revealed that in multi-junction (MJ) solar cell device, materials with band gaps higher than 2.4 eV are required to achieve PV efficiencies greater than 50%, which is practically and easily feasible for InGaN materials. Other state-of-art modeling on InGaN solar cells also demonstrate great potential for applications of III-nitride solar cells in four-junction solar cell devices as well as in the integration with a non-III-nitride junction in multi-junction devices.

This dissertation first theoretically analyzed loss mechanisms and studied the theoretical limit of PV performance of InGaN solar cells with a semi-analytical model. Then three device design strategies are proposed to study and improve PV performance: band polarization engineering, structural design and band engineering. Moreover, three physical mechanisms related to high temperature performance of InGaN solar cells have been thoroughly investigated: thermal reliability issue, enhanced external quantum efficiency (EQE) and conversion efficiency with rising temperatures and carrier dynamics and localization effects inside nonpolar m-plane InGaN quantum wells (QWs) at high temperatures. In the end several future work will also be proposed.

Although still in its infancy, past and projected future progress of device design will ultimately achieve this very goal that III-nitride based solar cells will be indispensable for today and future’s society, technologies and society.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Lateral Programmable Metallization Cells: Materials, Devices and Mechanisms

Description

Lateral programmable metallization cells (PMC) utilize the properties of electrodeposits grown over a solid electrolyte channel. Such devices have an active anode and an inert cathode separated by a long

Lateral programmable metallization cells (PMC) utilize the properties of electrodeposits grown over a solid electrolyte channel. Such devices have an active anode and an inert cathode separated by a long electrodeposit channel in a coplanar arrangement. The ability to transport large amount of metallic mass across the channel makes these devices attractive for various More-Than-Moore applications. Existing literature lacks a comprehensive study of electrodeposit growth kinetics in lateral PMCs. Moreover, the morphology of electrodeposit growth in larger, planar devices is also not understood. Despite the variety of applications, lateral PMCs are not embraced by the semiconductor industry due to incompatible materials and high operating voltages needed for such devices. In this work, a numerical model based on the basic processes in PMCs – cation drift and redox reactions – is proposed, and the effect of various materials parameters on the electrodeposit growth kinetics is reported. The morphology of the electrodeposit growth and kinetics of the electrodeposition process are also studied in devices based on Ag-Ge30Se70 materials system. It was observed that the electrodeposition process mainly consists of two regimes of growth – cation drift limited regime and mixed regime. The electrodeposition starts in cation drift limited regime at low electric fields and transitions into mixed regime as the field increases. The onset of mixed regime can be controlled by applied voltage which also affects the morphology of electrodeposit growth. The numerical model was then used to successfully predict the device kinetics and onset of mixed regime. The problem of materials incompatibility with semiconductor manufacturing was solved by proposing a novel device structure. A bilayer structure using semiconductor foundry friendly materials was suggested as a candidate for solid electrolyte. The bilayer structure consists of a low resistivity oxide shunt layer on top of a high resistivity ion carrying oxide layer. Devices using Cu2O as the low resistivity shunt on top of Cu doped WO3 oxide were fabricated. The bilayer devices provided orders of magnitude improvement in device performance in the context of operating voltage and switching time. Electrical and materials characterization revealed the structure of bilayers and the mechanism of electrodeposition in these devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Injection methods and instrumentation for serial X-ray free electron laser experiments

Description

Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These

Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These new methods include serial femtosecond crystallography, single particle imaging, solution scattering, and time resolved techniques.

The XFEL is characterized by high intensity pulses, which are only about 50 femtoseconds in duration. The intensity allows for scattering from microscopic particles, while the short pulses offer a way to outrun radiation damage. XFELs are powerful enough to obliterate most samples in a single pulse. While this allows for a “diffract and destroy” methodology, it also requires instrumentation that can position microscopic particles into the X-ray beam (which may also be microscopic), continuously renew the sample after each pulse, and maintain sample viability during data collection.

Typically these experiments have used liquid microjets to continuously renew sample. The high flow rate associated with liquid microjets requires large amounts of sample, most of which runs to waste between pulses. An injector designed to stream a viscous gel-like material called lipidic cubic phase (LCP) was developed to address this problem. LCP, commonly used as a growth medium for membrane protein crystals, lends itself to low flow rate jetting and so reduces the amount of sample wasted significantly.

This work discusses sample delivery and injection for XFEL experiments. It reviews the liquid microjet method extensively, and presents the LCP injector as a novel device for serial crystallography, including detailed protocols for the LCP injector and anti-settler operation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Analysis and Modeling of Foundry Compatible Programmable Metallization Cell Materials

Description

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) devices are, in essence, redox-based

solid-state resistive switching devices that rely on ion transport through a solid electrolyte (SE) layer from anode to cathode. Analysis and modeling

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) devices are, in essence, redox-based

solid-state resistive switching devices that rely on ion transport through a solid electrolyte (SE) layer from anode to cathode. Analysis and modeling of the effect of different fabrication and processing parameter/conditions on PMC devices are crucial for future electronics. Furthermore, this work is even more significant for devices utilizing back-end- of-line (BEOL) compatible materials such as Cu, W, their oxides and SiOx as these devices offer cost effectiveness thanks to their inherent foundry-ready nature. In this dissertation, effect of annealing conditions and cathode material on the performance of Cu-SiOx vertical devices is investigated which shows that W-based devices have much lower forming voltage and initial resistance values. Also, higher annealing temperatures first lead to an increase in forming voltage from 400 °C to 500 °C, then a drastic decrease at 550 °C due to Cu island formation at the Cu/SiOx interface. Next, the characterization and modeling of the bilayer Cu2O/Cu-WO3 obtained by annealing the deposited Cu/WO3 stacks in air at BEOL-compatible temperatures is presented that display unique characteristics for lateral PMC devices. First, thin film oxidation kinetics of Cu is studied which show a parabolic relationship with annealing time and an activation energy of 0.70 eV. Grown Cu2O shows a cauliflower-like morphology where feature size on the surface increase with annealing time and temperature. Then, diffusion kinetics of Cu in WO3 is examined where the activation energy of diffusion of Cu into WO3 is calculated to be 0.74 eV. Cu was found to form clusters in the WO3 host which was revealed by imaging. Moreover, using the oxidation and diffusion analyses, a Matlab model is established for modeling the bilayer for process and annealing-condition optimization. The model is built to produce the resulting Cu2O thickness and Cu concentration in Cu-WO3. Additionally, material characterization, preliminary electrical results along with modeling of lateral PMC devices utilizing the bilayer is also demonstrated. By tuning the process parameters such as deposited Cu thickness and annealing conditions, a low-resistive Cu2O layer was achieved which dramatically enhanced the electrodeposition growth rate for lateral PMC devices.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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On the rigidity of disordered networks

Description

The rigidity of a material is the property that enables it to preserve its structure when deformed. In a rigid body, no internal motion is possible since the degrees of

The rigidity of a material is the property that enables it to preserve its structure when deformed. In a rigid body, no internal motion is possible since the degrees of freedom of the system are limited to translations and rotations only. In the macroscopic scale, the rigidity and response of a material to external load can be studied using continuum elasticity theory. But when it comes to the microscopic scale, a simple yet powerful approach is to model the structure of the material and its interparticle interactions as a ball$-$and$-$spring network. This model allows a full description of rigidity in terms of the vibrational modes and the balance between degrees of freedom and constraints in the system.

In the present work, we aim to establish a microscopic description of rigidity in \emph{disordered} networks. The studied networks can be designed to have a specific number of degrees of freedom and/or elastic properties. We first look into the rigidity transition in three types of networks including randomly diluted triangular networks, stress diluted triangular networks and jammed networks. It appears that the rigidity and linear response of these three types of systems are significantly different. In particular, jammed networks display higher levels of self-organization and a non-zero bulk modulus near the transition point. This is a unique set of properties that have not been observed in any other types of disordered networks. We incorporate these properties into a new definition of jamming that requires a network to hold one extra constraint in excess of isostaticity and have a finite non-zero bulk modulus. We then follow this definition by using a tuning by pruning algorithm to build spring networks that have both these properties and show that they behave exactly like jammed networks. We finally step into designing new disordered materials with desired elastic properties and show how disordered auxetic materials with a fully convex geometry can be produced.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Nonlinear dielectric effects and modification of supramolecular structures in monohydroxy alcohols

Description

A driving force for studies of water, alcohols, and amides is the determination of the role of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can break and reform, consequently creating supramolecular structures. Understanding

A driving force for studies of water, alcohols, and amides is the determination of the role of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can break and reform, consequently creating supramolecular structures. Understanding the role supramolecular structures play in the dynamics of monohydroxyl alcohols is important to understanding hydrogen bonding in more complex systems such as proteins. Since many monohydroxyl alcohols are good glass formers, dielectric spectroscopy in the supercooled regime is used to gather information about the dynamics of these liquids. Application of high external fields will reversibly alter the polarization responses of the material from the linear response. This results in nonlinear dielectric effects (NDE) such as field induced suppression (saturation) and enhancement of amplitudes (chemical effects) as well as shifts in the time constants toward slower (entropy) and faster (energy absorption) dynamics.

The first part of this thesis describes the nonlinear dielectric experiments on monohydroxyl alcohols, with an emphasis on the time dependence of NDEs. For the first time, time-dependent experiments on monoalcohols were done, the results showed that NDEs occur on the Debye time scale. Furthermore, physical vapor deposition (PVD) is used to modify the supramolecular structure of 4-methyl-3-heptanol. Upon deposition the film cannot form the ring like structures, which are preferred in the bulk material. The as deposited film shows an enhancement of the dielectric peak by a factor of approximately 11 when compared to the bulk material. The conversion from the as deposited material back to the near bulk material was found to occur on the Debye timescale.

The second part of this thesis focuses on the question of what is governing the field induced changes seen in the liquids studied. Here a complete set of high field experiments on highly polar propylene carbonate derivatives were performed. It was demonstrated that these materials exhibit a Debye-like peak and using a combination of Adam-Gibbs and Fröhlich’s definition of entropy, proposed by Johari [G.P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys 138, 154503 (2013)], cannot solely be used to describe a frustration of dynamics. It is important to note that although these material exhibit a Debye like peak, the behavior is much different than monoalcohols.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Zeolites: structural properties and benchmarks of feasibility

Description

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit a flexibility window, and it is thus proposed that this simple geometric property, the existence of a flexibility window, provides a reliable benchmark for distinguishing potentially realizable hypothetical structures from their infeasible counterparts. As a first approximation of the behavior of real zeolite materials, the flexibility window provides additional useful insights into structure and composition. In this thesis, various methods for locating and exploring the flexibility window are discussed. Also examined is the assumption that the tetrahedral corners are force-free. This is a reasonable approximation in silicates for Si-O-Si angles above ~135°. However, the approximation is poor for germanates, where Ge-O-Ge angles are constrained to the range ~120°-145°. Lastly, a class of interesting low-density hypothetical zeolites is evaluated based on the feasibility criteria introduced.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of quantum wires

Description

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study the properties and the internal electron states of semiconductor quantum wires with the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. PIMC is a tool for simulating many-body quantum systems at finite temperature. Its ability to calculate thermodynamic properties and various correlation functions makes it an ideal tool in bridging experiments with theories. A general study of the features interpreted by the Luttinger liquid theory and observed in experiments is first presented, showing the need for new PIMC calculations in this field. I calculate the DC conductance at finite temperature for both noninteracting and interacting electrons. The quantized conductance is identified in PIMC simulations without making the same approximation in the Luttinger model. The low electron density regime is subject to strong interactions, since the kinetic energy decreases faster than the Coulomb interaction at low density. An electron state called the Wigner crystal has been proposed in this regime for quasi-1D wires. By using PIMC, I observe the zig-zag structure of the Wigner crystal. The quantum fluctuations suppress the long range correla- tions, making the order short-ranged. Spin correlations are calculated and used to evaluate the spin coupling strength in a zig-zag state. I also find that as the density increases, electrons undergo a structural phase transition to a dimer state, in which two electrons of opposite spins are coupled across the two rows of the zig-zag. A phase diagram is sketched for a range of densities and transverse confinements. The quantum point contact (QPC) is a typical realization of quantum wires. I study the QPC by explicitly simulating a system of electrons in and around a Timp potential (Timp, 1992). Localization of a single electron in the middle of the channel is observed at 5 K, as the split gate voltage increases. The DC conductance is calculated, which shows the effect of the Coulomb interaction. At 1 K and low electron density, a state similar to the Wigner crystal is found inside the channel.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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A Fundamental Study of Bulk, Layered, and Monolayers of Hybrid Perovskites

Description

A Fundamental study of bulk, layered, and monolayers bromide lead perovskites structural, optical, and electrical properties have been studied as thickness changes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measures the

A Fundamental study of bulk, layered, and monolayers bromide lead perovskites structural, optical, and electrical properties have been studied as thickness changes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measures the structural parameter showing how the difference in the thicknesses changes the crystal structures through observing changes in average lattice constant, atomic spacing, and lattice vibrations.

Optical and electrical properties have also been studied mainly focusing on the thickness effect on different properties where the Photoluminescence (PL) and exciton binding energies show energy shift as thickness of the material changes. Temperature dependent PL has shown different characteristics when comparing methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) to butylammonium lead bromide (BA2PbBr4) and comparing the two layered n=1 materials butylammonium lead bromide (BA2PbBr4) to butylammonium lead iodide (BA2PbI4). Time-resolved spectroscopy displays different lifetimes as thickness of bromide-based perovskite changes. Finally, thickness dependence (starting from monolayers) Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) of the layered materials BA2PbBr4, Butylammonium(methylammonium)lead bromide (BA2MAPb2Br7), and molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) were studied showing an exponential relation between the thickness of the materials and their surface potentials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A study of two high efficiency energy conversion processes: semiconductor photovoltaics and semiconductor luminescence refrigeration

Description

As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation

As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation and usage. In this dissertation, novel multi-junction solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are proposed and studied for high energy conversion efficiency in both processes, respectively. The first half of this dissertation discusses the practically achievable energy conversion efficiency limit of solar cells. Since the demonstration of the Si solar cell in 1954, the performance of solar cells has been improved tremendously and recently reached 41.6% energy conversion efficiency. However, it seems rather challenging to further increase the solar cell efficiency. The state-of-the-art triple junction solar cells are analyzed to help understand the limiting factors. To address these issues, the monolithically integrated II-VI and III-V material system is proposed for solar cell applications. This material system covers the entire solar spectrum with a continuous selection of energy bandgaps and can be grown lattice matched on a GaSb substrate. Moreover, six four-junction solar cells are designed for AM0 and AM1.5D solar spectra based on this material system, and new design rules are proposed. The achievable conversion efficiencies for these designs are calculated using the commercial software package Silvaco with real material parameters. The second half of this dissertation studies the semiconductor luminescence refrigeration, which corresponds to over 100% energy usage efficiency. Although cooling has been realized in rare-earth doped glass by laser pumping, semiconductor based cooling is yet to be realized. In this work, a device structure that monolithically integrates a GaAs hemisphere with an InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well thin slab LED is proposed to realize cooling in semiconductor. The device electrical and optical performance is calculated. The proposed device then is fabricated using nine times photolithography and eight masks. The critical process steps, such as photoresist reflow and dry etch, are simulated to insure successful processing. Optical testing is done with the devices at various laser injection levels and the internal quantum efficiency, external quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency are measured.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010