Matching Items (5)

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Multimodal movement sensing using motion capture and inertial sensors for mixed-reality rehabilitation

Description

This thesis presents a multi-modal motion tracking system for stroke patient rehabilitation. This system deploys two sensor modules: marker-based motion capture system and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The integrated system provides real-time measurement of the right arm and trunk movement,

This thesis presents a multi-modal motion tracking system for stroke patient rehabilitation. This system deploys two sensor modules: marker-based motion capture system and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The integrated system provides real-time measurement of the right arm and trunk movement, even in the presence of marker occlusion. The information from the two sensors is fused through quaternion-based recursive filters to promise robust detection of torso compensation (undesired body motion). Since this algorithm allows flexible sensor configurations, it presents a framework for fusing the IMU data and vision data that can adapt to various sensor selection scenarios. The proposed system consequently has the potential to improve both the robustness and flexibility of the sensing process. Through comparison between the complementary filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF), the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the particle filter (PF), the experimental part evaluated the performance of the quaternion-based complementary filter for 10 sensor combination scenarios. Experimental results demonstrate the favorable performance of the proposed system in case of occlusion. Such investigation also provides valuable information for filtering algorithm and strategy selection in specific sensor applications.

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Created

Date Created
2010

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A multi-sensor data fusion approach for real-time lane-based traffic estimation

Description

Modern intelligent transportation systems (ITS) make driving more efficient, easier, and safer. Knowledge of real-time traffic conditions is a critical input for operating ITS. Real-time freeway traffic state estimation approaches have been used to quantify traffic conditions given limited amount

Modern intelligent transportation systems (ITS) make driving more efficient, easier, and safer. Knowledge of real-time traffic conditions is a critical input for operating ITS. Real-time freeway traffic state estimation approaches have been used to quantify traffic conditions given limited amount of data collected by traffic sensors. Currently, almost all real-time estimation methods have been developed for estimating laterally aggregated traffic conditions in a roadway segment using link-based models which assume homogeneous conditions across multiple lanes. However, with new advances and applications of ITS, knowledge of lane-based traffic conditions is becoming important, where the traffic condition differences among lanes are recognized. In addition, most of the current real-time freeway traffic estimators consider only data from loop detectors. This dissertation develops a bi-level data fusion approach using heterogeneous multi-sensor measurements to estimate real-time lane-based freeway traffic conditions, which integrates a link-level model-based estimator and a lane-level data-driven estimator.

Macroscopic traffic flow models describe the evolution of aggregated traffic characteristics over time and space, which are required by model-based traffic estimation approaches. Since current first-order Lagrangian macroscopic traffic flow model has some unrealistic implicit assumptions (e.g., infinite acceleration), a second-order Lagrangian macroscopic traffic flow model has been developed by incorporating drivers’ anticipation and reaction delay. A multi-sensor extended Kalman filter (MEKF) algorithm has been developed to combine heterogeneous measurements from multiple sources. A MEKF-based traffic estimator, explicitly using the developed second-order traffic flow model and measurements from loop detectors as well as GPS trajectories for given fractions of vehicles, has been proposed which gives real-time link-level traffic estimates in the bi-level estimation system.

The lane-level estimation in the bi-level data fusion system uses the link-level estimates as priors and adopts a data-driven approach to obtain lane-based estimates, where now heterogeneous multi-sensor measurements are combined using parallel spatial-temporal filters.

Experimental analysis shows that the second-order model can more realistically reproduce real world traffic flow patterns (e.g., stop-and-go waves). The MEKF-based link-level estimator exhibits more accurate results than the estimator that uses only a single data source. Evaluation of the lane-level estimator demonstrates that the proposed new bi-level multi-sensor data fusion system can provide very good estimates of real-time lane-based traffic conditions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Multimodal data fusion as a predictior of missing information in social networks

Description

Over 2 billion people are using online social network services, such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, and Pinterest. Users update their status, post their photos, share their information, and chat with others in these social network sites every day; however,

Over 2 billion people are using online social network services, such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, and Pinterest. Users update their status, post their photos, share their information, and chat with others in these social network sites every day; however, not everyone shares the same amount of information. This thesis explores methods of linking publicly available data sources as a means of extrapolating missing information of Facebook. An application named "Visual Friends Income Map" has been created on Facebook to collect social network data and explore geodemographic properties to link publicly available data, such as the US census data. Multiple predictors are implemented to link data sets and extrapolate missing information from Facebook with accurate predictions. The location based predictor matches Facebook users' locations with census data at the city level for income and demographic predictions. Age and relationship based predictors are created to improve the accuracy of the proposed location based predictor utilizing social network link information. In the case where a user does not share any location information on their Facebook profile, a kernel density estimation location predictor is created. This predictor utilizes publicly available telephone record information of all people with the same surname of this user in the US to create a likelihood distribution of the user's location. This is combined with the user's IP level information in order to narrow the probability estimation down to a local regional constraint.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Numerical computation of Wishart eigenvalue distributions for multistatic radar detection

Description

Eigenvalues of the Gram matrix formed from received data frequently appear in sufficient detection statistics for multi-channel detection with Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLRT) and Bayesian tests. In a frequently presented model for passive radar, in which the null hypothesis is

Eigenvalues of the Gram matrix formed from received data frequently appear in sufficient detection statistics for multi-channel detection with Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLRT) and Bayesian tests. In a frequently presented model for passive radar, in which the null hypothesis is that the channels are independent and contain only complex white Gaussian noise and the alternative hypothesis is that the channels contain a common rank-one signal in the mean, the GLRT statistic is the largest eigenvalue $\lambda_1$ of the Gram matrix formed from data. This Gram matrix has a Wishart distribution. Although exact expressions for the distribution of $\lambda_1$ are known under both hypotheses, numerically calculating values of these distribution functions presents difficulties in cases where the dimension of the data vectors is large. This dissertation presents tractable methods for computing the distribution of $\lambda_1$ under both the null and alternative hypotheses through a technique of expanding known expressions for the distribution of $\lambda_1$ as inner products of orthogonal polynomials. These newly presented expressions for the distribution allow for computation of detection thresholds and receiver operating characteristic curves to arbitrary precision in floating point arithmetic. This represents a significant advancement over the state of the art in a problem that could previously only be addressed by Monte Carlo methods.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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Methods for calibration, registration, and change detection in robot mapping applications

Description

Multi-sensor fusion is a fundamental problem in Robot Perception. For a robot to operate in a real world environment, multiple sensors are often needed. Thus, fusing data from various sensors accurately is vital for robot perception. In the first part

Multi-sensor fusion is a fundamental problem in Robot Perception. For a robot to operate in a real world environment, multiple sensors are often needed. Thus, fusing data from various sensors accurately is vital for robot perception. In the first part of this thesis, the problem of fusing information from a LIDAR, a color camera and a thermal camera to build RGB-Depth-Thermal (RGBDT) maps is investigated. An algorithm that solves a non-linear optimization problem to compute the relative pose between the cameras and the LIDAR is presented. The relative pose estimate is then used to find the color and thermal texture of each LIDAR point. Next, the various sources of error that can cause the mis-coloring of a LIDAR point after the cross- calibration are identified. Theoretical analyses of these errors reveal that the coloring errors due to noisy LIDAR points, errors in the estimation of the camera matrix, and errors in the estimation of translation between the sensors disappear with distance. But errors in the estimation of the rotation between the sensors causes the coloring error to increase with distance.

On a robot (vehicle) with multiple sensors, sensor fusion algorithms allow us to represent the data in the vehicle frame. But data acquired temporally in the vehicle frame needs to be registered in a global frame to obtain a map of the environment. Mapping techniques involving the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and the Normal Distributions Transform (NDT) assume that a good initial estimate of the transformation between the 3D scans is available. This restricts the ability to stitch maps that were acquired at different times. Mapping can become flexible if maps that were acquired temporally can be merged later. To this end, the second part of this thesis focuses on developing an automated algorithm that fuses two maps by finding a congruent set of five points forming a pyramid.

Mapping has various application domains beyond Robot Navigation. The third part of this thesis considers a unique application domain where the surface displace- ments caused by an earthquake are to be recovered using pre- and post-earthquake LIDAR data. A technique to recover the 3D surface displacements is developed and the results are presented on real earthquake datasets: El Mayur Cucupa earthquake, Mexico, 2010 and Fukushima earthquake, Japan, 2011.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016