Matching Items (7)

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Immersive media environments for special education: developing agency in communication for youth with autism

Description

This dissertation describes the development of a state-of-the-art immersive media environment and its potential to motivate high school youth with autism to vocally express themselves. Due to the limited availability of media environments in public education settings, studies on the

This dissertation describes the development of a state-of-the-art immersive media environment and its potential to motivate high school youth with autism to vocally express themselves. Due to the limited availability of media environments in public education settings, studies on the use of such systems in special education contexts are rare. A study called Sea of Signs utilized the Situated Multimodal Art Learning Lab (SMALLab), to present a custom-designed conversational scenario for pairs of youth with autism. Heuristics for building the scenario were developed following a 4-year design-based research approach that fosters social interaction, communication, and self-expression through embodied design. Sea of Signs implemented these heuristics through an immersive experience, supported by spatial and audio-visual feedback that helped clarify and reinforce students' vocal expressions within a partner-based conversational framework. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to determine the extent to which individuals exhibited observable change as a result of the activity in SMALLab. Teacher interviews were conducted prior to the experimental phase to identify each student's pattern of social interaction, communication, and problem-solving strategies in the classroom. Ethnographic methods and video coding were used throughout the experimental phase to assess whether there were changes in (a) speech duration per session and per turn, (b) turn-taking patterns, and (c) teacher prompting per session. In addition, teacher interviews were conducted daily after every SMALLab session to further triangulate the nature of behaviors observed in each session. Final teacher interviews were conducted after the experimental phase to collect data on possible transfer of behavioral improvements into students' classroom lives beyond SMALLab. Results from this study suggest that the activity successfully increased independently generated speech in some students, while increasing a focus on seeking out social partners in others. Furthermore, the activity indicated a number of future directions in research on the nature of voice and discourse, rooted in the use of aesthetics and phenomenology, to augment, extend, and encourage developments in directed communication skills for youth with autism.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Professional development in the area of autism: effectiveness of collaboration in online and face-to-face learning formats

Description

Effectively educating students with autism is a necessary element in providing all students with a free and appropriate public education, and as the number of students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder continues to increase in both public and private

Effectively educating students with autism is a necessary element in providing all students with a free and appropriate public education, and as the number of students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder continues to increase in both public and private educational settings, providing successful and satisfactory professional development opportunities in the area of autism is becoming increasingly essential. This study explored the experiences of twenty-three educators in a suburban southwest K-12 public school district, as they participated in a fifteen-hour professional development course in an online or face-to-face format, and collaboratively problem-solved their challenges in educating students with autism. Qualitative data was collected from participants' weekly written reflections and comments from a pre- and post-survey on attitudes, to determine quality of and satisfaction with collaboration in relation to course format. Results indicated that the online format produced higher-quality collaboration when it came to presenting one's own situation(s) to the group, finding group discussions helpful, having enough time to collaborate, providing feedback/suggestions to group members, and perceiving suggestions for one's own situation as helpful (as evidenced by the number of suggestions that participants said they would likely implement). The face-to-face format produced higher-quality collaboration when it came to in-depth problem-solving regarding a situation, implementing suggestions for one's own situation, and relating course content to collaborative activities. Participants' attitudes about using technology as a means of collaboration showed little change overall from pre- to post-survey. Though slight increases in positive attitudes concerning technology were found in various areas, many participants still thought highly of a face-to-face format for collaborative purposes, even after participating in the online professional development course. Findings may be of use to educational institutions developing online or face-to-face professional development opportunities in the area of autism.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Effects of alternate format in-service delivery on teacher knowledge base and problem-solving related to autism & adaptations: what teachers need to know

Description

This study's purpose was to explore effectiveness of alternate format in-service delivery for what teachers needed to know to effectively teach their students with Autism Spectrum Disorder/High Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome (ASD/HFA/AS) in the general education setting. The study's research questions

This study's purpose was to explore effectiveness of alternate format in-service delivery for what teachers needed to know to effectively teach their students with Autism Spectrum Disorder/High Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome (ASD/HFA/AS) in the general education setting. The study's research questions included: Did participants learn information they needed as well using asynchronous online in-service format models as when in a traditional face-to-face consultative approach? Did the use of a broad asynchronous online discussion approach to collaboration result in effective student problem-solving for the participants? Did participant attitudes change toward online instruction as a means of collaboration as a result of engaging in alternate in-service delivery models? A fifteen-hour staff development course was developed and taught to 24 teacher/educators in a suburban southwest K-12 public school district. The course content was organized around topics derived from an earlier data collection and included what teachers said they needed to know, from whom, and how. A free, simple asynchronous online environment was created for the course and online participation for learning and collaboration activities was requested of two participant groups, hybrid or online. Quantitative data was collected from Pre-/Post-Tests and survey. Qualitative data was collected from weekly collaborative problem-solving reflections. Results indicated that educators improved knowledge base in ASD/HFA/AS characteristics and adaptations and found collaborative online problem-solving about students effective and personally satisfactory. Results for online participants during the alternate format delivery sessions of the course were stronger than hybrid format although both appeared to profit from the use of technology. All participants changed their view to positively value asynchronous online formats for learning and collaborating with other teachers to find out what they needed to know to implement in the classroom in efficient and economical ways.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

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Joint attention and its relation to social outcomes: typically developing children and children with autism

Description

Previous research has suggested that the social interactions parents engage in with their typically developing children are critical to the relationships children form with peers later in development. Fewer studies, however, have investigated the relation between parent and child interactions

Previous research has suggested that the social interactions parents engage in with their typically developing children are critical to the relationships children form with peers later in development. Fewer studies, however, have investigated the relation between parent and child interactions and peer relations in children with autism. The current study aimed to investigate the relation between parent-child joint attention skills, social competence and friendship quality in children with autism and in typically developing children. A matched sample of 20 preschool-aged children with autism and 20 preschool-aged typically developing children were observed interacting with their parents in a laboratory setting. Approximately one year later, parents filled out a questionnaire assessing their child's social competency and quality of friendships with peers. Results indicated significant group differences between children with autism and typically developing children in all study variables, with children with autism displaying less initiation of joint attention, lower social competence and low quality friendships. Additionally, child initiated joint attention was positively related to social competence for both groups; effects were not moderated by diagnosis status. It is concluded that parent and child interactions during the preschool years are important to the development of social competence with peers. Intervention and policy implications are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

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Friends with autism: a comprehensive approach to building social skills among students with autism and an at-risk peer in the general education classroom

Description

The rise in the number of students found to have autism has been staggering over the past ten years. Accommodating these students effectively and appropriately in a public school is a challenge many teachers are deemed with, sometimes without adequate

The rise in the number of students found to have autism has been staggering over the past ten years. Accommodating these students effectively and appropriately in a public school is a challenge many teachers are deemed with, sometimes without adequate training. This study was aimed at affecting the underlying social misunderstandings inherent to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and an at-risk general education peer through a comprehensive intervention consisting of peer mentoring, interactive social stories and video modeling strategies. Observations, student interviews, vignettes and student and researcher journals served as data sources. Three fourth grade boys, including a student with autism, a peer with behavioral concerns and a model peer, participated in an intervention designed using a multiple baseline across behaviors. The target students, including the student with autism and the peer with behavioral concerns increased their ability to demonstrate three distinctive skills, attending to task, raising hand and academic responding. Analysis of the data also showed an overall increase in levels of engagement and motivation. Strong friendships developed among all three participants. Implications suggest that a comprehensive approach is effective in reducing unwanted social behaviors and promoting positive social skills and gives further insight into the target students' motivation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior (1964), by Bernard Rimland

Description

Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior (hereafter Infantile Autism) is a book written by Bernard Rimland, published in 1964. The book proposed a theory to explain the causes of autism. The book also

Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior (hereafter Infantile Autism) is a book written by Bernard Rimland, published in 1964. The book proposed a theory to explain the causes of autism. The book also synthesized research into autism and used Rimland's neural theory, described in the book, as a theory to explain some aspects of behavior, intelligence, and abnormality. Moreover, Infantile Autism contributed to a debate between Rimland and child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim in the 1960s over whether autism was caused by upbringing (see refrigerator mother theory) or by impaired brain development. Rimland's book convinced many autism researchers to look for abnormal psychological development.

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Created

Date Created
2014-05-23

Early Infantile Autism and the Refrigerator Mother Theory (1943-1970)

Description

In 1943, child psychiatrist Leo Kanner in the US gave the first account of Early Infantile Autism that encouraged psychiatrists to investigate what they called emotionally cold mothers, or refrigerator mothers. In 1949, Kanner published Problems of Nosology and Psychodynamics

In 1943, child psychiatrist Leo Kanner in the US gave the first account of Early Infantile Autism that encouraged psychiatrists to investigate what they called emotionally cold mothers, or refrigerator mothers. In 1949, Kanner published Problems of Nosology and Psychodynamics of Early Infantile Autism. In that article, Kanner described autistic children as reared in emotional refrigerators. US child psychiatrists claimed that some psychological or behavioral conditions might have origins in emotional or mental stress, meaning that they might be psychogenic. Kanner described autism's cause in terms of emotional refrigeration from parents into the early 1960s, often attributing autism to the lack of parental warmth. In the 1960s, Bernard Rimland in the US and Bruno Bettelheim in Austria disagreed on the role of psychogenesis in autism. Rimland suggested that autism's cause was rooted in neurological development, while Bettelheim continued to emphasize the role of nurturing during early childhood. Nevertheless, many mothers reported that they felt a deep sense of anguish and resentment toward child psychiatrists who often made them feel as if they were to blame for their children's autism.

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Created

Date Created
2014-08-19