Development of a monitoring and maintenance program for residential wells used for groundwater abstraction in Lagos State, Nigeria
In rural and urban areas of Nigeria, dependence on groundwater is increasing since the population is growing and high quality, treated municipal water is scarce. Municipal drinking water is often compromised because of old and leaking distribution pipes. About 58% of the water consumed in Lagos State, Nigeria, comes from residential wells. However, a majority of residential wells are shallow wells that are constructed relatively close to septic tanks or pit latrines and are therefore subject to contamination. In certain parts of Africa, there is high potential of severe epidemic if water quality is not improved. With increasing reliance on groundwater, a need exists to monitor the quality of groundwater. This thesis develops a plan for a monitoring program for residential wells in Lagos State, Nigeria. The program focuses on ways by which owners can maintain reasonably good water quality, and on the role of government in implementing water quality requirements. In addition, this thesis describes a survey conducted in various areas of Lagos State to assess community awareness of the importance of groundwater quality and its impact on individuals and the community at large. The survey shows that 30% to 40% of the households have located their wells and septic tanks in the same general area. Various templates have been created to help the staff of a future monitoring program team to effectively gather information during site characterization. A "Questions and Answers" leaflet has been developed to educate citizens about the need for monitoring residential wells.