Matching Items (6)

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Testing of threshold logic latch based hybrid circuits

Description

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a multi-input function with an edge triggered flip-flop, which stands out to improve area and both dynamic and leakage power consumption, providing an appropriate design alternative. Accordingly, the TLL standard cell library is designed. Through technology mapping, hybrid circuit is generated by absorbing the logic cone backward from each flip-flip to get the smallest remaining feeder. With the scan test methodology adopted, design for testability (DFT) is proposed, including scan element design and scan chain insertion. Test synthesis flow is then introduced, according to the Cadence tool, RTL compiler. Test application is the process of applying vectors and the response analysis, which is mainly about the testbench design. A parameterized generic self-checking Verilog testbench is designed for static fault detection. Test development refers to the fault modeling, and test generation. Firstly, functional truth table test generation on TLL cells is proposed. Before the truth table test of the threshold function, the dependence of sequence of vectors applied, i.e., the dependence of current state on the previous state, should be eliminated. Transition test (dynamic pattern) on all weak inputs is proved to be able to test the reset function, which is supposed to erase the history in the reset phase before every evaluation phase. Remaining vectors in the truth table except the weak inputs are then applied statically (static pattern). Secondly, dynamic patterns for all weak inputs are proposed to detect structural transistor level faults analyzed in the TLL cell, with single fault assumption and stuck-at faults, stuck-on faults, and stuck-open faults under consideration. Containing those patterns, the functional test covers all testable structural faults inside the TLL. Thirdly, with the scope of the whole hybrid netlist, the procedure of test generation is proposed with three steps: scan chain test; test of feeders and other scan elements except TLLs; functional pattern test of TLL cells. Implementation of this procedure is discussed in the automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) chapter.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Energy-efficient digital circuit design using threshold logic gates

Description

Improving energy efficiency has always been the prime objective of the custom and automated digital circuit design techniques. As a result, a multitude of methods to reduce power without sacrificing

Improving energy efficiency has always been the prime objective of the custom and automated digital circuit design techniques. As a result, a multitude of methods to reduce power without sacrificing performance have been proposed. However, as the field of design automation has matured over the last few decades, there have been no new automated design techniques, that can provide considerable improvements in circuit power, leakage and area. Although emerging nano-devices are expected to replace the existing MOSFET devices, they are far from being as mature as semiconductor devices and their full potential and promises are many years away from being practical.

The research described in this dissertation consists of four main parts. First is a new circuit architecture of a differential threshold logic flipflop called PNAND. The PNAND gate is an edge-triggered multi-input sequential cell whose next state function is a threshold function of its inputs. Second a new approach, called hybridization, that replaces flipflops and parts of their logic cones with PNAND cells is described. The resulting \hybrid circuit, which consists of conventional logic cells and PNANDs, is shown to have significantly less power consumption, smaller area, less standby power and less power variation.

Third, a new architecture of a field programmable array, called field programmable threshold logic array (FPTLA), in which the standard lookup table (LUT) is replaced by a PNAND is described. The FPTLA is shown to have as much as 50% lower energy-delay product compared to conventional FPGA using well known FPGA modeling tool called VPR.

Fourth, a novel clock skewing technique that makes use of the completion detection feature of the differential mode flipflops is described. This clock skewing method improves the area and power of the ASIC circuits by increasing slack on timing paths. An additional advantage of this method is the elimination of hold time violation on given short paths.

Several circuit design methodologies such as retiming and asynchronous circuit design can use the proposed threshold logic gate effectively. Therefore, the use of threshold logic flipflops in conventional design methodologies opens new avenues of research towards more energy-efficient circuits.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Embedding Logic and Non-volatile Devices in CMOS Digital Circuits for Improving Energy Efficiency

Description

Static CMOS logic has remained the dominant design style of digital systems for

more than four decades due to its robustness and near zero standby current. Static

CMOS logic circuits consist of

Static CMOS logic has remained the dominant design style of digital systems for

more than four decades due to its robustness and near zero standby current. Static

CMOS logic circuits consist of a network of combinational logic cells and clocked sequential

elements, such as latches and flip-flops that are used for sequencing computations

over time. The majority of the digital design techniques to reduce power, area, and

leakage over the past four decades have focused almost entirely on optimizing the

combinational logic. This work explores alternate architectures for the flip-flops for

improving the overall circuit performance, power and area. It consists of three main

sections.

First, is the design of a multi-input configurable flip-flop structure with embedded

logic. A conventional D-type flip-flop may be viewed as realizing an identity function,

in which the output is simply the value of the input sampled at the clock edge. In

contrast, the proposed multi-input flip-flop, named PNAND, can be configured to

realize one of a family of Boolean functions called threshold functions. In essence,

the PNAND is a circuit implementation of the well-known binary perceptron. Unlike

other reconfigurable circuits, a PNAND can be configured by simply changing the

assignment of signals to its inputs. Using a standard cell library of such gates, a technology

mapping algorithm can be applied to transform a given netlist into one with

an optimal mixture of conventional logic gates and threshold gates. This approach

was used to fabricate a 32-bit Wallace Tree multiplier and a 32-bit booth multiplier

in 65nm LP technology. Simulation and chip measurements show more than 30%

improvement in dynamic power and more than 20% reduction in core area.

The functional yield of the PNAND reduces with geometry and voltage scaling.

The second part of this research investigates the use of two mechanisms to improve

the robustness of the PNAND circuit architecture. One is the use of forward and reverse body biases to change the device threshold and the other is the use of RRAM

devices for low voltage operation.

The third part of this research focused on the design of flip-flops with non-volatile

storage. Spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJ) are integrated

with both conventional D-flipflop and the PNAND circuits to implement non-volatile

logic (NVL). These non-volatile storage enhanced flip-flops are able to save the state of

system locally when a power interruption occurs. However, manufacturing variations

in the STT-MTJs and in the CMOS transistors significantly reduce the yield, leading

to an overly pessimistic design and consequently, higher energy consumption. A

detailed analysis of the design trade-offs in the driver circuitry for performing backup

and restore, and a novel method to design the energy optimal driver for a given yield is

presented. Efficient designs of two nonvolatile flip-flop (NVFF) circuits are presented,

in which the backup time is determined on a per-chip basis, resulting in minimizing

the energy wastage and satisfying the yield constraint. To achieve a yield of 98%,

the conventional approach would have to expend nearly 5X more energy than the

minimum required, whereas the proposed tunable approach expends only 26% more

energy than the minimum. A non-volatile threshold gate architecture NV-TLFF are

designed with the same backup and restore circuitry in 65nm technology. The embedded

logic in NV-TLFF compensates performance overhead of NVL. This leads to the

possibility of zero-overhead non-volatile datapath circuits. An 8-bit multiply-and-

accumulate (MAC) unit is designed to demonstrate the performance benefits of the

proposed architecture. Based on the results of HSPICE simulations, the MAC circuit

with the proposed NV-TLFF cells is shown to consume at least 20% less power and

area as compared to the circuit designed with conventional DFFs, without sacrificing

any performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Threshold regression estimation via lasso, elastic-net, and lad-lasso: a simulation study with applications to urban traffic data

Description

Threshold regression is used to model regime switching dynamics where the effects of the explanatory variables in predicting the response variable depend on whether a certain threshold has been crossed.

Threshold regression is used to model regime switching dynamics where the effects of the explanatory variables in predicting the response variable depend on whether a certain threshold has been crossed. When regime-switching dynamics are present, new estimation problems arise related to estimating the value of the threshold. Conventional methods utilize an iterative search procedure, seeking to minimize the sum of squares criterion. However, when unnecessary variables are included in the model or certain variables drop out of the model depending on the regime, this method may have high variability. This paper proposes Lasso-type methods as an alternative to ordinary least squares. By incorporating an L_{1} penalty term, Lasso methods perform variable selection, thus potentially reducing some of the variance in estimating the threshold parameter. This paper discusses the results of a study in which two different underlying model structures were simulated. The first is a regression model with correlated predictors, whereas the second is a self-exciting threshold autoregressive model. Finally the proposed Lasso-type methods are compared to conventional methods in an application to urban traffic data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Threshold logic properties and methods: applications to post-CMOS design automation and gene regulation modeling

Description

Threshold logic has been studied by at least two independent group of researchers. One group of researchers studied threshold logic with the intention of building threshold logic circuits. The earliest

Threshold logic has been studied by at least two independent group of researchers. One group of researchers studied threshold logic with the intention of building threshold logic circuits. The earliest research to this end was done in the 1960's. The major work at that time focused on studying mathematical properties of threshold logic as no efficient circuit implementations of threshold logic were available. Recently many post-CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technologies that implement threshold logic have been proposed along with efficient CMOS implementations. This has renewed the effort to develop efficient threshold logic design automation techniques. This work contributes to this ongoing effort. Another group studying threshold logic did so, because the building block of neural networks - the Perceptron, is identical to the threshold element implementing a threshold function. Neural networks are used for various purposes as data classifiers. This work contributes tangentially to this field by proposing new methods and techniques to study and analyze functions implemented by a Perceptron After completion of the Human Genome Project, it has become evident that most biological phenomenon is not caused by the action of single genes, but due to the complex interaction involving a system of genes. In recent times, the `systems approach' for the study of gene systems is gaining popularity. Many different theories from mathematics and computer science has been used for this purpose. Among the systems approaches, the Boolean logic gene model has emerged as the current most popular discrete gene model. This work proposes a new gene model based on threshold logic functions (which are a subset of Boolean logic functions). The biological relevance and utility of this model is argued illustrated by using it to model different in-vivo as well as in-silico gene systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Modeling and implementation of threshold logic circuits and architectures

Description

Threshold logic has long been studied as a means of achieving higher performance and lower power dissipation, providing improvements by condensing simple logic gates into more complex primitives, effectively reducing

Threshold logic has long been studied as a means of achieving higher performance and lower power dissipation, providing improvements by condensing simple logic gates into more complex primitives, effectively reducing gate count, pipeline depth, and number of interconnects. This work proposes a new physical implementation of threshold logic, the threshold logic latch (TLL), which overcomes the difficulties observed in previous work, particularly with respect to gate reliability in the presence of noise and process variations. Simple but effective models were created to assess the delay, power, and noise margin of TLL gates for the purpose of determining the physical parameters and assignment of input signals that achieves the lowest delay subject to constraints on power and reliability. From these models, an optimized library of standard TLL cells was developed to supplement a commercial library of static CMOS gates. The new cells were then demonstrated on a number of automatically synthesized, placed, and routed designs. A two-stage 2's complement integer multiplier designed with CMOS and TLL gates utilized 19.5% less area, 28.0% less active power, and 61.5% less leakage power than an equivalent design with the same performance using only static CMOS gates. Additionally, a two-stage 32-instruction 4-way issue queue designed with CMOS and TLL gates utilized 30.6% less area, 31.0% less active power, and 58.9% less leakage power than an equivalent design with the same performance using only static CMOS gates.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010