Matching Items (14)

158089-Thumbnail Image.png

Design and Development of High Performance III-Nitrides Photovoltaics

Description

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits include continuously tunable wide band gap from 0.70 eV to 3.4 eV, strong absorption coefficient on the order of ∼105 cm−1, superior radiation resistance under harsh environment, and high saturation velocities and high mobility. Calculation from the detailed balance model also revealed that in multi-junction (MJ) solar cell device, materials with band gaps higher than 2.4 eV are required to achieve PV efficiencies greater than 50%, which is practically and easily feasible for InGaN materials. Other state-of-art modeling on InGaN solar cells also demonstrate great potential for applications of III-nitride solar cells in four-junction solar cell devices as well as in the integration with a non-III-nitride junction in multi-junction devices.

This dissertation first theoretically analyzed loss mechanisms and studied the theoretical limit of PV performance of InGaN solar cells with a semi-analytical model. Then three device design strategies are proposed to study and improve PV performance: band polarization engineering, structural design and band engineering. Moreover, three physical mechanisms related to high temperature performance of InGaN solar cells have been thoroughly investigated: thermal reliability issue, enhanced external quantum efficiency (EQE) and conversion efficiency with rising temperatures and carrier dynamics and localization effects inside nonpolar m-plane InGaN quantum wells (QWs) at high temperatures. In the end several future work will also be proposed.

Although still in its infancy, past and projected future progress of device design will ultimately achieve this very goal that III-nitride based solar cells will be indispensable for today and future’s society, technologies and society.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158737-Thumbnail Image.png

MBE Growth and Characterization of III-V Bismide Semiconductor Alloys for Mid- and Long-Wave Infrared Applications

Description

The molecular beam epitaxy growth of the III-V semiconductor alloy indium arsenide antimonide bismide (InAsSbBi) is investigated over a range of growth temperatures and V/III flux ratios. Bulk and quantum

The molecular beam epitaxy growth of the III-V semiconductor alloy indium arsenide antimonide bismide (InAsSbBi) is investigated over a range of growth temperatures and V/III flux ratios. Bulk and quantum well structures grown on gallium antimonide (GaSb) substrates are examined. The relationships between Bi incorporation, surface morphology, growth temperature, and group-V flux are explored. A growth model is developed based on the kinetics of atomic desorption, incorporation, surface accumulation, and droplet formation. The model is applied to InAsSbBi, where the various process are fit to the Bi, Sb, and As mole fractions. The model predicts a Bi incorporation limit for lattice matched InAsSbBi grown on GaSb.The optical performance and bandgap energy of InAsSbBi is examined using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Emission is observed from low to room temperature with peaks ranging from 3.7 to 4.6 μm. The bandgap as function of temperature is determined from the first derivative maxima of the spectra fit to an Einstein single oscillator model. The photoluminescence spectra is observed to significantly broaden with Bi content as a result of lateral composition variations and the highly mismatched nature of Bi atoms, pairs, and clusters in the group-V sublattice.
A bowing model is developed for the bandgap and band offsets of the quinary alloy GaInAsSbBi and its quaternary constituents InAsSbBi and GaAsSbBi. The band anticrossing interaction due to the highly mismatched Bi atoms is incorporated into the relevant bowing terms. An algorithm is developed for the design of mid infrared GaInAsSbBi
quantum wells, with three degrees freedom to independently tune transition energy, in plane strain, and band edge offsets for desired electron and hole confinement.
The physical characteristics of the fundamental absorption edge of the relevant III-V binaries GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb are examined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. A five parameter model is developed that describes the key physical characteristics of the absorption edge, including the bandgap energy, the Urbach tail, and the absorption coefficient at the bandgap.
The quantum efficiency and recombination lifetimes of bulk InAs0.911Sb0.089 grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated using excitation and temperature dependent steady state photoluminescence. The Shockley-Read-Hall, radiative, and Auger recombination lifetimes are determined.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

149792-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigation of light absorption and emission in Ge and GeSn films grown on Si substrates

Description

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing Sn content, mainly due to the compositional dependence of the direct band gap E0. With only 2 % Sn, all of the telecommunication bands are covered by a single detector. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed from GeSn films with Sn content up to 4 %. The peak wavelength of the emission was found to shift to lower energies with increasing Sn content, corresponding to the decrease in the direct band gap E0 of the material. An additional peak in the spectrum was assigned to the indirect band gap. The separation between the direct and indirect peaks was found to decrease with increasing Sn concentration, as expected. Electroluminescence was also observed from Ge/Si and Ge0.98Sn0.02 photodiodes under forward bias, and the luminescence spectra were found to match well with the observed photoluminescence spectra. A theoretical expression was developed for the luminescence due to the direct band gap and fit to the data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

157733-Thumbnail Image.png

A Fundamental Study of Bulk, Layered, and Monolayers of Hybrid Perovskites

Description

A Fundamental study of bulk, layered, and monolayers bromide lead perovskites structural, optical, and electrical properties have been studied as thickness changes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measures the

A Fundamental study of bulk, layered, and monolayers bromide lead perovskites structural, optical, and electrical properties have been studied as thickness changes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measures the structural parameter showing how the difference in the thicknesses changes the crystal structures through observing changes in average lattice constant, atomic spacing, and lattice vibrations.

Optical and electrical properties have also been studied mainly focusing on the thickness effect on different properties where the Photoluminescence (PL) and exciton binding energies show energy shift as thickness of the material changes. Temperature dependent PL has shown different characteristics when comparing methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) to butylammonium lead bromide (BA2PbBr4) and comparing the two layered n=1 materials butylammonium lead bromide (BA2PbBr4) to butylammonium lead iodide (BA2PbI4). Time-resolved spectroscopy displays different lifetimes as thickness of bromide-based perovskite changes. Finally, thickness dependence (starting from monolayers) Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) of the layered materials BA2PbBr4, Butylammonium(methylammonium)lead bromide (BA2MAPb2Br7), and molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) were studied showing an exponential relation between the thickness of the materials and their surface potentials.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

158605-Thumbnail Image.png

Wave-packet Phase-space Monte Carlo approach to the Modeling of Quantum Devices

Description

Advanced and mature computer simulation methods exist in fluid dynamics, elec-

tromagnetics, semiconductors, chemical transport, and even chemical and material

electronic structure. However, few general or accurate methods have been developed

for quantum

Advanced and mature computer simulation methods exist in fluid dynamics, elec-

tromagnetics, semiconductors, chemical transport, and even chemical and material

electronic structure. However, few general or accurate methods have been developed

for quantum photonic devices. Here, a novel approach utilizing phase-space quantum

mechanics is developed to model photon transport in ring resonators, a form of en-

tangled pair source. The key features the model needs to illustrate are the emergence

of non-classicality and entanglement between photons due to nonlinear effects in the

ring. The quantum trajectory method is subsequently demonstrated on a sequence

of elementary models and multiple aspects of the ring resonator itself.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158681-Thumbnail Image.png

Metasurface-Based Optoelectronic Devices for Polarization Detection and Ultrafast Optical Modulation

Description

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes polarimetry and all-optical modulation with ultra-compact footprint and chip-integrability.

Optical chirality is essential for generation, manipulation and detection of circularly polarized light (CPL), thus finds many applications in quantum computing, communication, spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis, imaging and sensing. Compared to natural chiral materials, chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces enable much stronger chirality on subwavelength scale; therefore, they are ideal for device miniaturization and system integration. However, they are usually associated with low performance due to limited fabrication tolerance and high dissipation mainly caused by plasmonic materials. Here, a bio-inspired submicron-thick chiral metamaterial structure was designed and demonstrated experimentally with high contrast (extinction ratio >35) detection of CPL with different handedness and high efficiency (>80%) of the overall device. Furthermore, integration of left- and right-handed CPL detection units with nanograting linear polarization filters enabled full-Stokes polarimetry of arbitrarily input polarization states with high accuracy and very low insertion loss, all on a submillimeter single chip. These unprecedented highly efficient and high extinction ratio devices pave the way for on-chip polarimetric measurements.

All-optical modulation is widely used for optical interconnects, communication, information processing, and ultrafast spectroscopy. Yet, there’s deficiency of ultrafast, compact and energy-efficient solutions all in one device. Here, all-optical modulation of light in the near- and mid-infrared regimes were experimentally demonstrated based on a graphene-integrated plasmonic nanoantenna array. The remarkable feature of the device design is its simultaneous near-field enhancement for pump and probe (signal) beams, owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance excitation, while preserving the ultrafast photocarrier relaxation in graphene. Hence, a distinct modulation at 1560nm with record-low pump fluence (<8μJ/cm^2) was reported with ~1ps response time. Besides, relying on broadband interaction of graphene with incident light, a first-time demonstration of graphene-based all-optical modulation in mid-infrared spectral region (6-7μm) was reported based on the above double-enhancement design concept. Relying on the tunability of metasurface design, the proposed device can be used for ultrafast optical modulation from near-infrared to terahertz regime.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

156600-Thumbnail Image.png

Microstructure of BAlN and InGaN epilayers for optoelectronic applications

Description

In this dissertation, various characterization techniques have been used to investigate many aspects of the properties of III-nitride materials and devices for optoelectronic applications.

The first part of this work

In this dissertation, various characterization techniques have been used to investigate many aspects of the properties of III-nitride materials and devices for optoelectronic applications.

The first part of this work is focused on the evolution of microstructures of BAlN thin films. The films were grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09, while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measures x = 0.06 to 0.16. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of the wurtzite crystal structure in the BAlN films, and a tendency towards twin formation and finer microstructure for B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios greater than 0.15. The RBS data suggest that the incorporation of B is highly efficient, while the XRD data indicate that the epitaxial growth may be limited by a solubility limit in the crystal phase at about 9%. Electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to profile spatial variations in the composition of the films. It has also located point defects in the films with nanometer resolution. The defects are identified as B and Al interstitials and N vacancies by comparison of the observed energy thresholds with results of density functional theory calculations.

The second part of this work investigates dislocation clusters observed in thick InxGa1-xN films with 0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.12. The clusters resemble baskets with a higher indium content at their interior. Threading dislocations at the basket boundaries are of the misfit edge type, and their separation is consistent with misfit strain relaxation due the difference in indium content between the baskets and the surrounding matrix. The base of the baskets exhibits no observable misfit dislocations connected to the threading dislocations, and often no net displacements like those due to stacking faults. It is argued that the origin of these threading dislocation arrays is associated with misfit dislocations at the basal plane that dissociate, forming stacking faults. When the stacking faults form simultaneously satisfying the crystal symmetry, the sum of their translation vectors does add up to zero, consistent with our experimental observations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

155906-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigation and Analysis of Thermal Performance of InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes

Description

Light Emitting Diodes even with their longer life, robust build and low power consumption, they are still plagued by some problems the most significant of which are the current droo

Light Emitting Diodes even with their longer life, robust build and low power consumption, they are still plagued by some problems the most significant of which are the current droop and thermal droop. Current droop causes a lowering in the Internal Quantum Efficiency with increased current injection while thermal droop lowers the whole Internal Quantum Efficiency curve with increase in temperature. The focus here was understanding effects of thermal droop and develop a method to control it.

Shockley Read Hall recombination plays a dominant role in the thermal droop effect when the current injection is low. Since the blue light emitting diode is based on Gallium Nitride, we need to take into consideration the effect of piezoelectric polarization in the quantum wells. The effects of the piezoelectric fields were studied based on the Gallium Nitride plane orientations. It was found in a Gallium Nitride light emitting diodes simulation study that more the number of quantum wells, lower would be the Radiative recombination rate. The problem of exacerbated spatial separation of electron hole wavefunctions in a thick single quantum well structure lead to the development of a dual well structure where one well assisted the other during high temperature operations. The Electron Blocking Layer was reduced in thickness and was made only 10 nm thick with a 5 nm Gallium Nitride buffer between it and the active region wells. The main reason for reducing the electron blocking layer thickness was to reduce the valance band offset and improve hole transport into the active region. Three different dual well designs were simulated of 3nm, 6nm and 9nm wide wells. The output parameters like the Power Spectral Density, Electron bound density, Light Output Power and Electron-Hole wavefunction overlaps were calculated. It was found that one of the wells acted as an assisting well where it had very little radiative recombination activity in it at room temperature.

As the temperature increased, it was observed that the electrons in the main well started to overflow out of it and into the assisting well where the radiative recombination rate increased significantly. This lead to a boost in Internal Quantum Efficiency.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154865-Thumbnail Image.png

Structural and optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown inAsBi bulk layers and quantum wells

Description

InAsBi is a narrow direct gap III-V semiconductor that has recently attracted considerable attention because its bandgap is tunable over a wide range of mid- and long-wave infrared wavelengths for

InAsBi is a narrow direct gap III-V semiconductor that has recently attracted considerable attention because its bandgap is tunable over a wide range of mid- and long-wave infrared wavelengths for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, InAsBi can be integrated with other III-V materials and is potentially an alternative to commercial II-VI photodetector materials such as HgCdTe.

Several 1 μm thick, nearly lattice-matched InAsBi layers grown on GaSb are examined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Random Rutherford backscattering measurements indicate that the average Bi mole fraction ranges from 0.0503 to 0.0645 for the sample set, and ion channeling measurements indicate that the Bi atoms are substitutional. The X-ray diffraction measurements show a diffraction sideband near the main (004) diffraction peak, indicating that the Bi mole fraction is not laterally uniform in the layer. The average out of plane tetragonal distortion is determined by modeling the main and sideband diffraction peaks, from which the average unstrained lattice constant of each sample is determined. By comparing the Bi mole fraction measured by random Rutherford backscattering with the InAsBi lattice constant for the sample set, the lattice constant of zinc blende InBi is determined to be 6.6107 Å.

Several InAsBi quantum wells tensilely strained to the GaSb lattice constant with dilute quantities of Bi are characterized using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Investigation of the integrated intensity as a function of carrier excitation density spanning 5×1025 to 5×1026 cm-3 s-1 indicates radiative dominated recombination and high quantum efficiency over the 12 to 250 K temperature range. The bandgap of InAsBi is ascertained from the photoluminescence spectra and parameterized as a function of temperature using the Einstein single oscillator model. The dilute Bi mole fraction of the InAsBi quantum wells is determined by comparing the measured bandgap energy to that predicted by the valence band anticrossing model. The Bi mole fraction determined by photoluminescence agrees reasonably well with that estimated using secondary ion mass spectrometry.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

150075-Thumbnail Image.png

One dimensional modeling of mercury cadmium telluride photodetectors operated at low temperatures

Description

The long wavelength infrared region (LWIR) and mid wavelength infrared region (MWIR) are of great interest as detection in this region offers a wide range of real time applications. Optoelectronic

The long wavelength infrared region (LWIR) and mid wavelength infrared region (MWIR) are of great interest as detection in this region offers a wide range of real time applications. Optoelectronic devices operating in the LWIR and MWIR region offer potential applications such as; optical gas sensing, free-space optical communications, infrared counter-measures, biomedical and thermal imaging etc. HgCdTe is a prominent narrow bandgap material that operates in the LWIR region. The focus of this research work is to simulate and analyze the characteristics of a Hg1-xCdxTe photodetector. To achieve this, the tool `OPTODET' has been developed, where various device parameters can be varied and the resultant output can be analyzed. By the study of output characteristics in response to various changes in device parameters will allow users to understand the considerations that must be made in order to reach the optimum working point of an infrared detector. The tool which has been developed is a 1-D drift diffusion based simulator which solves the 1-D Poisson equation to determine potentials and utilizes the results of the 1-D electron and hole continuity equations to determine current. Parameters such as absorption co-efficient, quantum efficiency, dark current, noise, Transit time and detectivity can be simulated. All major recombination mechanisms such as SRH, Radiative and Auger recombination have been considered. Effects of band to band tunnelling have also been considered to correctly model the dark current characteristics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011