Matching Items (9)

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Mathematics in a second grade classroom: the effects of cognitively guided problem solving

Description

The need for improved mathematics education in many of America's schools that serve students from low income households has been extensively documented. This practical action research study, set in a

The need for improved mathematics education in many of America's schools that serve students from low income households has been extensively documented. This practical action research study, set in a suburban Title I school with a primarily Hispanic, non-native English speaking population, is designed to explore the effects of the progression through a set of problem solving solution strategies on the mathematics problem solving abilities of 2nd grade students. Students worked in class with partners to complete a Cognitively Guided Instruction-style (CGI) mathematics word problem using a dictated solution strategy five days a week for twelve weeks, three or four weeks for each of four solution strategies. The phases included acting out the problem using realia, representing the problem using standard mathematics manipulatives, modeling the problem using a schematic representation, and solving the problem using a number sentence. Data were collected using a five question problem solving pre- and post-assessment, video recorded observations, and Daily Answer Recording Slips or Mathematics Problem Solving Journals. Findings showed that this problem solving innovation was effective in increasing the problem solving abilities of all participants in this study, with an average increase of 63% in the number of pre-assessment to post-assessment questions answered correctly. Additionally, students increased the complexity of solutions used to solve problems and decreased the rate of guessing at answers to word problems. Further rounds of research looking into the direct effects of the MKO are suggested as next steps of research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The effect of cognitively guided instruction on primary students' math achievement, problem-solving abilities and teacher questioning

Description

The purpose of this study is to impact the teaching and learning of math of 2nd through 4th grade math students at Porfirio H. Gonzales Elementary School. The Cognitively Guided

The purpose of this study is to impact the teaching and learning of math of 2nd through 4th grade math students at Porfirio H. Gonzales Elementary School. The Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) model serves as the independent variable for this study. Its intent is to promote math instruction that emphasizes problem-solving to a greater degree and facilitates higher level questioning of teachers during their instructional dialogue with students. A mixed methods approach is being employed to see how the use of the CGI model of instruction impacts the math achievement of 2nd through 4th grade students on quarterly benchmark assessments administered at this school, to see how students problem-solving abilities progress over the duration of the study, and to see how teacher practices in questioning progress. Quantitative methods are used to answer the first of these research questions using archival time series (Amrein & Berliner, 2002) to view trends in achievement before and after the implementation of the CGI model. Qualitative methods are being used to answer questions around students' progression in their problem-solving abilities and teacher questioning to get richer descriptions of how these constructs evolve over the course of the study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Isolated text as design method for signaling learners in a multimedia learning task

Description

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes present and necessary for learners to engage in effective learning with multimedia learning material. Signaling learners towards important information between images and corresponding text has been shown to be an effective method for providing learners a way to quickly find information between the two parts of the learning material. However, not all signaling methods are equally effective in all applications. This study investigates a novel signaling method, using spatial isolation of text, as a way to signal learners in a web-based format compared to a traditional highlighting method and a non-signaled control group. Improved learning performance was observed for knowledge retention using text isolation as the signaling method, but no other significant effects were observed between the other conditions. Additionally, transfer of knowledge across all conditions showed no significant differences either. While minimal support for the effectiveness of isolated text signaling was demonstrated, the statistical means trend across all post-test knowledge assessments suggest that further evaluation of the novel signaling method is justified.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Assessing cognitive learning of analytical problem solving

Description

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS).

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts - abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance - in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Effects of text, audio and learner control on text-sound association and cognitive load of EFL learners

Description

This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and

This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and aural forms of target vocabulary words. The study also looked at the effects of learner control over an audio sequence on the association of textual and aural forms of target words. Attitudes towards experimental treatments and reported level of cognitive load were also examined in the context of a computer-based multimedia instructional program. A total of 200 college students took part in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions in a 2 x 3 factorial design with level of learner control (learner-controlled vs. not-learner-controlled) and format of presentation of information (audio + no text vs. audio + full text vs. audio + keyword text) as factors. The subjects completed a pretest, a posttest, cognitive load questions, and an attitude questionnaire. The results revealed the following findings: (a) groups in the audio + keyword text conditions outperformed those in the audio + no text and audio + full text conditions on text-sound association, (b) within the audio + keyword text conditions, the learner-controlled group outperformed the not-learner-controlled group on text-sound association, (c) within the learner-controlled conditions, the audio + keyword group outperformed the audio + no text and audio + full text groups on text-sound association, (d) a redundancy effect was not found for any treatment condition, and (e) overall, participants had positive attitudes towards the treatments. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed within the frameworks of cognitive load theory and cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Measuring the effectiveness of enterprise application training: a comparative analysis of dynamic and integrated instruction

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of three types of instructional presentation methods on learning, efficiency, cognitive load, and learner attitude. A total of 67

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of three types of instructional presentation methods on learning, efficiency, cognitive load, and learner attitude. A total of 67 employees of a large southwestern university working in the field of research administration were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Each condition presented instructional materials using a different method, namely dynamic integrated, dynamic non-integrated, or non-dynamic non-integrated. Participants completed a short survey, pre-test, cognitive load questions, learner attitude questions, and a post-test during their experience. The results reveal that users of the dynamic integrated condition treatment showed significant improvement in both learning and efficiency. The dynamic non-integrated participants had a faster mean time to complete an assigned task, however, they also had significantly lower average test scores. There were no other significant findings in terms of cognitive load or learner attitude. Limitations, implications and future studies are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Neuromuscular control contributes to incidental learning: head orientation during visual statistical learning

Description

Incidental learning of sequential information occurs in visual, auditory and tactile domains. It occurs throughout our lifetime and even in nonhuman species. It is likely to be one of the

Incidental learning of sequential information occurs in visual, auditory and tactile domains. It occurs throughout our lifetime and even in nonhuman species. It is likely to be one of the most important foundations for the development of normal learning. To date, there is no agreement as to how incidental learning occurs. The goal of the present set of experiments is to determine if visual sequential information is learned in terms of abstract rules or stimulus-specific details. Two experiments test the extent to which interaction with the stimuli can influence the information that is encoded by the learner. The results of both experiments support the claim that stimulus and domain specific details directly shape what is learned, through a process of tuning the neuromuscular systems involved in the interaction between the learner and the materials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of the presence of audio and type of game controller on learning of rhythmic accuracy

Description

Guitar Hero III and similar games potentially offer a vehicle for improvement of musical rhythmic accuracy with training delivered in both visual and auditory formats and by use of its

Guitar Hero III and similar games potentially offer a vehicle for improvement of musical rhythmic accuracy with training delivered in both visual and auditory formats and by use of its novel guitar-shaped interface; however, some theories regarding multimedia learning suggest sound is a possible source of extraneous cognitive load while playing so players may score higher with sound turned off. Also, existing studies have shown that differences in the physical format of interfaces affect learning outcomes. This study sought to determine whether (a) the game’s audio content affects rhythmic accuracy, and (b) the type of game controller used affects learning of rhythmic accuracy. One hundred participants were randomly assigned in approximately equal numbers (ns = 25) to the four cells of a 2x2 between-subjects design. The first variable was the audio content of the game with two levels: on or off. The second variable was the type of game controller: the standard guitar-style controller or tablet interface. Participants across all conditions completed a pre- and post-test with a system that required them to tap along with repeated rhythmic patterns on an electronic drum pad. Statistical evidence showed better outcomes with a tablet controller with respect to input time error, reduction of extra notes played, and reduction of missed notes; however, the guitar-style controller produced superior outcomes in terms of avoiding missed notes and was associated with higher satisfaction by participants. When audio was present better outcomes were achieved at multiple factor-levels of reduction of missed responses, but superior outcomes in input time error were seen without audio. There was no evidence to suggest an interaction between controller type and the presence or absence of audio.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The effects of visual and textual annotations on Spanish listening comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and cognitive load

Description

The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of textual and visual annotations on Spanish listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in the context of an online multimedia

The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of textual and visual annotations on Spanish listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in the context of an online multimedia listening activity. 95 students who were enrolled in different sections of first year Spanish classes at a community college and a large southwestern university were randomly assigned to one of four versions of an online multimedia listening activity that contained textual and visual annotations of several key words. Students then took a comprehension and vocabulary posttest and a survey to measure cognitive load and general attitudes towards the program. Results indicated that textual annotations had a significant positive effect on listening comprehension and that visual annotations had a significant positive effect on how successful students felt. No statistically significant differences were found for other variables. Participants also reported positive attitudes towards vocabulary annotations and expressed a desire to see more annotations during multimedia listening activities of this type. These findings provide further evidence of the impact that multimedia may have on language acquisition. These findings have implications for multimedia design and for future research. Language listening activities should include a variety of vocabulary annotations that may help students to understand what they hear and to help them learn new vocabulary. Further research is needed outside of the laboratory, in the online and increasingly-mobile language learning environment in order to align the research with the environment in which many students currently study. The incorporation of motivation into multimedia learning theory and cognitive load should be explored, as well as new measures of cognitive load.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010