Matching Items (7)

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Early detection and treatment of breast cancer by random peptide array in neuN transgenic mouse model

Description

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and currently the second leading cause of death among women in the United States. Patients’ five-year relative survival rate decreases from 99% to

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and currently the second leading cause of death among women in the United States. Patients’ five-year relative survival rate decreases from 99% to 25% when breast cancer is diagnosed late. Immune checkpoint blockage has shown to be a promising therapy to improve patients’ outcome in many other cancers. However, due to the lack of early diagnosis, the treatment is normally given in the later stages. An early diagnosis system for breast cancer could potentially revolutionize current treatment strategies, improve patients’ outcomes and even eradicate the disease. The current breast cancer diagnostic methods cannot meet this demand. A simple, effective, noninvasive and inexpensive early diagnostic technology is needed. Immunosignature technology leverages the power of the immune system to find cancer early. Antibodies targeting tumor antigens in the blood are probed on a high-throughput random peptide array and generate a specific binding pattern called the immunosignature.

In this dissertation, I propose a scenario for using immunosignature technology to detect breast cancer early and to implement an early treatment strategy by using the PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor. I develop a methodology to describe the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in a FVB/N neuN breast cancer mouse model. By comparing FVB/N neuN transgenic mice and age-matched wild type controls, I have found and validated specific immunosignatures at multiple time points before tumors are palpable. Immunosignatures change along with tumor development. Using a late-stage immunosignature to predict early samples, or vice versa, cannot achieve high prediction performance. By using the immunosignature of early breast cancer, I show that at the time of diagnosis, early treatment with the checkpoint blockade, anti-PD-L1, inhibits tumor growth in FVB/N neuN transgenic mouse model. The mRNA analysis of the PD-L1 level in mice mammary glands suggests that it is more effective to have treatment early.

Novel discoveries are changing understanding of breast cancer and improving strategies in clinical treatment. Researchers and healthcare professionals are actively working in the early diagnosis and early treatment fields. This dissertation provides a step along the road for better diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Immunosignature of Alzheimer's disease

Description

The goal of this thesis is to test whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with distinctive humoral immune changes that can be detected in plasma and tracked across time. This

The goal of this thesis is to test whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with distinctive humoral immune changes that can be detected in plasma and tracked across time. This is relevant because AD is the principal cause of dementia, and yet, no specific diagnostic tests are universally employed in clinical practice to predict, diagnose or monitor disease progression. In particular, I describe herein a proteomic platform developed at the Center for Innovations in Medicine (CIM) consisting of a slide with 10.000 random-sequence peptides printed on its surface, which is used as the solid phase of an immunoassay where antibodies of interest are allowed to react and subsequently detected with a labeled secondary antibody. The pattern of antibody binding to the microarray is unique for each individual animal or person. This thesis will evaluate the versatility of the microarray platform and how it can be used to detect and characterize the binding patterns of antibodies relevant to the pathophysiology of AD as well as the plasma samples of animal models of AD and elderly humans with or without dementia. My specific aims were to evaluate the emergence and stability of immunosignature in mice with cerebral amyloidosis, and characterize the immunosignature of humans with AD. Plasma samples from APPswe/PSEN1-dE9 transgenic mice were evaluated longitudinally from 2 to 15 months of age to compare the evolving immunosignature with non-transgenic control mice. Immunological variation across different time-points was assessed, with particular emphasis on time of emergence of a characteristic pattern. In addition, plasma samples from AD patients and age-matched individuals without dementia were assayed on the peptide microarray and binding patterns were compared. It is hoped that these experiments will be the basis for a larger study of the diagnostic merits of the microarray-based immunoassay in dementia clinics.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Characterization and analysis of a novel platform for profiling the antibody response

Description

Immunosignaturing is a new immunodiagnostic technology that uses random-sequence peptide microarrays to profile the humoral immune response. Though the peptides have little sequence homology to any known protein, binding of

Immunosignaturing is a new immunodiagnostic technology that uses random-sequence peptide microarrays to profile the humoral immune response. Though the peptides have little sequence homology to any known protein, binding of serum antibodies may be detected, and the pattern correlated to disease states. The aim of my dissertation is to analyze the factors affecting the binding patterns using monoclonal antibodies and determine how much information may be extracted from the sequences. Specifically, I examined the effects of antibody concentration, competition, peptide density, and antibody valence. Peptide binding could be detected at the low concentrations relevant to immunosignaturing, and a monoclonal's signature could even be detected in the presences of 100 fold excess naive IgG. I also found that peptide density was important, but this effect was not due to bivalent binding. Next, I examined in more detail how a polyreactive antibody binds to the random sequence peptides compared to protein sequence derived peptides, and found that it bound to many peptides from both sets, but with low apparent affinity. An in depth look at how the peptide physicochemical properties and sequence complexity revealed that there were some correlations with properties, but they were generally small and varied greatly between antibodies. However, on a limited diversity but larger peptide library, I found that sequence complexity was important for antibody binding. The redundancy on that library did enable the identification of specific sub-sequences recognized by an antibody. The current immunosignaturing platform has little repetition of sub-sequences, so I evaluated several methods to infer antibody epitopes. I found two methods that had modest prediction accuracy, and I developed a software application called GuiTope to facilitate the epitope prediction analysis. None of the methods had sufficient accuracy to identify an unknown antigen from a database. In conclusion, the characteristics of the immunosignaturing platform observed through monoclonal antibody experiments demonstrate its promise as a new diagnostic technology. However, a major limitation is the difficulty in connecting the signature back to the original antigen, though larger peptide libraries could facilitate these predictions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Novel Plasmonic Imaging Techniques for Measuring Protein Kinetics

Description

Proteins play a central role to human body and biological activities. As powerful tools for protein detections, many surface plasmon resonance based techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity.

Proteins play a central role to human body and biological activities. As powerful tools for protein detections, many surface plasmon resonance based techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity. However, sensitivity is not the only final goal. As a biosensor, four things really matter: sensitivity, specificity, resolution (temporal/spatial) and throughput.

This dissertation presents several works on developing novel plasmonic based techniques for protein detections on the last two aspects to extend the application field. A fast electrochemically controlled plasmonic detection technique is first developed with the capability of monitoring electrochemical signal with nanosecond response time. The study reveals that the conformational gating of electron transfer in a redox protein (cytochrome c) takes place over a broad range of time scales (sub-µs to ms). The second platform integrates ultra-low volume piezoelectric liquid dispensing and plasmonic imaging detection to monitor different protein binding processes simultaneously with low sample cost. Experiment demonstrates the system can observe binding kinetics in 10×10 microarray of 6 nL droplet, with variations of kinetic rate constants among spots less than ±5%. A focused plasmonic imaging system with bi-cell algorithm is also proposed for spatial resolution enhancement. The two operation modes, scanning mode and focus mode, can be applied for different purposes. Measurement of bacterial aggregation demonstrates the higher spatial resolution. Detections of polystyrene beads binding and 50 nm gold nanoparticles oscillation show a high signal to noise ratio of the system.

The real properties of protein rely on its dynamic personalities. The above works shed light upon fast and high throughput detection of protein kinetics, and enable more applications for plasmonic imaging techniques. It is anticipated that such methods will help to invoke a new surge to unveil the mysteries of biological activities and chemical process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Specific amino acid substitutions improve the activity and specificity of an antimicrobial peptide & serodiagnosis by immunosignature: a multiplexing tool for monitoring the humoral immune response to dengue

Description

Random peptide microarrays are a powerful tool for both the treatment and diagnostics of infectious diseases. On the treatment side, selected random peptides on the microarray have either binding or

Random peptide microarrays are a powerful tool for both the treatment and diagnostics of infectious diseases. On the treatment side, selected random peptides on the microarray have either binding or lytic potency against certain pathogens cells, thus they can be synthesized into new antimicrobial agents, denoted as synbodies (synthetic antibodies). On the diagnostic side, serum containing specific infection-related antibodies create unique and distinct "pathogen-immunosignatures" on the random peptide microarray distinct from the healthy control serum, and this different mode of binding can be used as a more precise measurement than traditional ELISA tests. My thesis project is separated into these two parts: the first part falls into the treatment side and the second one focuses on the diagnostic side. My first chapter shows that a substitution amino acid peptide library helps to improve the activity of a recently reported synthetic antimicrobial peptide selected by the random peptide microarray. By substituting one or two amino acids of the original lead peptide, the new substitutes show changed hemolytic effects against mouse red blood cells and changed potency against two pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two new substitutes are then combined together to form the synbody, which shows a significantly antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus aureus (<0.5uM). In the second chapter, I explore the possibility of using the 10K Ver.2 random peptide microarray to monitor the humoral immune response of dengue. Over 2.5 billion people (40% of the world's population) live in dengue transmitting areas. However, currently there is no efficient dengue treatment or vaccine. Here, with limited dengue patient serum samples, we show that the immunosignature has the potential to not only distinguish the dengue infection from non-infected people, but also the primary dengue infection from the secondary dengue infections, dengue infection from West Nile Virus (WNV) infection, and even between different dengue serotypes. By further bioinformatic analysis, we demonstrate that the significant peptides selected to distinguish dengue infected and normal samples may indicate the epitopes responsible for the immune response.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Exploring peptide space for enzyme modulators

Description

Enzymes which regulate the metabolic reactions for sustaining all living things, are the engines of life. The discovery of molecules that are able to control enzyme activity is of great

Enzymes which regulate the metabolic reactions for sustaining all living things, are the engines of life. The discovery of molecules that are able to control enzyme activity is of great interest for therapeutics and the biocatalysis industry. Peptides are promising enzyme modulators due to their large chemical diversity and the existence of well-established methods for library synthesis. Microarrays represent a powerful tool for screening thousands of molecules, on a small chip, for candidates that interact with enzymes and modulate their functions. In this work, a method is presented for screening high-density arrays to discover peptides that bind and modulate enzyme activity. A viscous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution was applied to array surfaces to limit the diffusion of product molecules released from enzymatic reactions, allowing the simultaneous measurement of enzyme activity and binding at each peptide feature. For proof of concept, it was possible to identify peptides that bound to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), alkaline phosphatase (APase) and â-galactosidase (â-Gal) and substantially alter their activities by comparing the peptide-enzyme binding levels and bound enzyme activity on microarrays. Several peptides, selected from microarrays, were able to inhibit â-Gal in solution, which demonstrates that behaviors selected from surfaces often transfer to solution. A mechanistic study of inhibition revealed that some of the selected peptides inhibited enzyme activity by binding to enzymes and inducing aggregation. PVA-coated peptide slides can be rapidly analyzed, given an appropriate enzyme assay, and they may also be assayed under various conditions (such as temperature, pH and solvent). I have developed a general method to discover molecules that modulate enzyme activity at desired conditions. As demonstrations, some peptides were able to promote the thermal stability of bound enzyme, which were selected by performing the microarray-based enzyme assay at high temperature. For broad applications, selected peptide ligands were used to immobilize enzymes on solid surfaces. Compared to conventional methods, enzymes immobilized on peptide-modified surfaces exhibited higher specific activities and stabilities. Peptide-modified surfaces may prove useful for immobilizing enzymes on surfaces with optimized orientation, location and performance, which are of great interest to the biocatalysis industry.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Mass spectrometry: reverse process for synbody discovery & validation of peptide microarray data : a story of landing lights

Description

A synbody is a newly developed protein binding peptide which can be rapidly produced by chemical methods. The advantages of the synbody producing process make it a potential human proteome

A synbody is a newly developed protein binding peptide which can be rapidly produced by chemical methods. The advantages of the synbody producing process make it a potential human proteome binding reagent. Most of the synbodies are designed to bind to specific proteins. The peptides incorporated in a synbody are discovered with peptide microarray technology. Nevertheless, the targets for unknown synbodies can also be discovered by searching through a protein mixture. The first part of this thesis mainly focuses on the process of target searching, which was performed with immunoprecipitation assays and mass spectrometry analysis. Proteins are pulled down from the cell lysate by certain synbodies, and then these proteins are identified using mass spectrometry. After excluding non-specific bindings, the interaction between a synbody and its real target(s) can be verified with affinity measurements. As a specific example, the binding between 1-4-KCap synbody and actin was discovered. This result proved the feasibility of the mass spectrometry based method and also suggested that a high throughput synbody discovery platform for the human proteome could be developed. Besides the application of synbody development, the peptide microarray technology can also be used for immunosignatures. The composition of all types of antibodies existing in one's blood is related to an individual's health condition. A method, called immunosignaturing, has been developed for early disease diagnosis based on this principle. CIM10K microarray slides work as a platform for blood antibody detection in immunosignaturing. During the analysis of an immunosignature, the data from these slides needs to be validated by using landing light peptides. The second part of this thesis focuses on the validation of the data. A biotinylated peptide was used as a landing light on the new CIM10K slides. The data was collected in several rounds of tests and indicated that the variation among landing lights was significantly reduced by using the newly prepared biotinylated peptide compared with old peptide mixture. Several suggestions for further landing light improvement are proposed based on the results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011