Matching Items (33)

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Parental pressure for academic sucess in India

Description

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students in India were recruited from cities such as Chennai, Kerala, and Delhi totaling 608 (303 male, 301 females). Both online and in class recruitment occurred.

There were three main purposes of this study: 1) to construct a quantitative measure of parental pressure, 2) to evaluate whether self-esteem was a potential buffer of the negative impacts of parental pressure and academic stress, and 3) to understand better the factors impacting suicidality among adolescents in India by testing a path model of possible predictors suggested by the literature. Prevalence data of suicidal ideation and attempt history were also collected. Reporting on their experience over the past six months, 14.5% (n = 82) of the participants endorsed suicidal ideation and 12.3% (n = 69) of the participants admitted to having deliberately attempted to hurt or kill themselves.

Five constructs were explored in this study: parental pressure, academic stress, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem. The Parental Pressure for Success Scale, designed for this study, was used to measure parental pressure. The Educational Stress Scale-Adolescents was used to measure academic stress. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was used to measure depressive symptomology. Two items from the Youth Self-Report Checklist were used as a measure of suicidality in the past six months. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was used to measure global self-esteem.

Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Parental Pressure for Success Scale was found. While self-esteem was not a significant moderator in this study, it was a predictor of both stress and depression. Results of the path analysis indicated that parental pressure predicted academic stress, stress predicted depression, and depression predicted suicidality. Parental pressure indirectly predicted suicidality through academic stress and depression. Results were discussed in the context of cultural influences on study findings such as the central role of parents in the family unit, the impact of cultural valuing of education, collectivistic society, and the Hindu concept of dharma, or duty.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Stress and music on students' mental health: evaluating music as a coping strategy for stress

Description

Stress is an arguably universal phenomenon that has maladaptive effects on individuals’ mental health (i.e., depression). Individuals traditionally deal with stress through various coping strategies that fall under three coping

Stress is an arguably universal phenomenon that has maladaptive effects on individuals’ mental health (i.e., depression). Individuals traditionally deal with stress through various coping strategies that fall under three coping styles: emotion-oriented coping, avoidance/disengagement coping, and problem-oriented coping. Furthermore, numerous studies have focused on the stress-reducing properties of music, but the literature lacks an examination of the use and effectiveness of music as a coping strategy. The current thesis examined the moderating role of music as a coping strategy in the link between stress and depression. Based on existing research, the author predicted that for participants who endorsed music coping as emotion-oriented or avoidance /disengagement-oriented, there would be an exacerbation of the stress-depression link. However, for participants who endorsed music coping as problem-oriented, there would be an attenuation of the stress-depression link. In an online survey-based study of 207 students attending Arizona State University, the author found that emotion-oriented music coping and avoidance/disengagement music coping exacerbated the relationship between stress and depression. The author, however, did not find support for the prediction that higher endorsement of problem-oriented music coping would buffer the effect of stress on depression. These results suggest that music coping may parallel alternative coping strategies in some respects but not others. Overall, the study findings support the further examination of music as a coping strategy in order to replicate emotion-oriented coping as the primary use of music.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Coping with stress associated with anticipated stigma: the role of dyadic coping for married undergraduate students

Description

Being married as an undergraduate student is uncommon, considering the average age people marry in the U.S. is 28-years-old. Given that the “traditional” undergraduate student is unmarried, being a married

Being married as an undergraduate student is uncommon, considering the average age people marry in the U.S. is 28-years-old. Given that the “traditional” undergraduate student is unmarried, being a married undergraduate student may be associated with the anticipation of stigma due to their marital status, which may be a stressful experience (hereafter-anticipated stigma stress) and have harmful effects on one’s well-being, particularly symptoms of anxiety. As such, it is important to identify ways in which romantic partners can help one another cope with this unique stressor by engaging in positive or negative dyadic coping (DC). Using cross-sectional data from 151 married undergraduate students, this project examined whether perceptions of partner’s positive and negative DC moderated the association between anticipated stigma stress and symptoms of anxiety. There was a significant main effect of anticipated stigma stress on anxiety, such that higher anticipated stigma stress was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety. Delegated DC moderated this association, such that when participants reported high levels of anticipated stigma stress, those who reported higher partner’s use of delegated DC also reported higher symptoms of anxiety as compared to those who reported low partner’s use of delegated DC. Implications for future research and mental health counselors are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Emerging adults and their helicopter parents: communication quality as mediator between affect and stress

Description

With the establishment of the emerging adult developmental period and the rise of helicopter parents, attachment theory provides foundation for conceptualizing the continued involvement of helicopter parents in their emerging

With the establishment of the emerging adult developmental period and the rise of helicopter parents, attachment theory provides foundation for conceptualizing the continued involvement of helicopter parents in their emerging adults’ emotion regulation processes. This study utilized dyadic data from 66 emerging adult children and their helicopter parents to examine the association of helicopter parent-emerging adult communication in mitigating the associations between experiences of affect and stress. Specifically, the purpose of the present study was to use dyadic data to examine how communication within the helicopter parent-emerging adult relationship associates with emerging adults’ ability to regulate experiences of negative and positive affect. Both associations within the emerging adult and helicopter parent individually (actor effects) and how helicopter parents impact construct associations for emerging adults’ (partner effects) were considered.

Two multilevel mediation models using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models were conducted to assess the relations between affect, stress, and helicopter parent-emerging adult communication quality for negative and positive affect separately. The positive direct effect between negative affect and stress was statistically significant for emerging adults, but not for helicopter parents, suggesting that, for emerging adults, higher perceptions of negative affect were associated with higher levels of stress. The direct and indirect effects for the mediation model examining actor and partner effects between negative affect, communication quality, and stress were non-significant for both emerging adults and helicopter parents. The direct effect between positive affect and stress was statistically significant for helicopter parents but not for emerging adults; however, the directionality of the significant association was positive and not as hypothesized. Finally, the direct and indirect effects for the mediation model examining actor and partner effects between positive affect, communication quality, and stress were non-significant for emerging adults and helicopter parents. Considerations for future studies examining aspects of attachment within emotion regulation for the helicopter parent-emerging adult relationship and the importance of considering relationship characteristics, such the relational characteristics of social support and conflict, are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Intercultural couples' stress: impact of dyadic coping on relationship satisfaction

Description

Intercultural couples -partners from two different countries- may face increased levels of stress within their relationship (internal stress). Internal stress can negatively impact relationship satisfaction, whereas developing healthy ways to

Intercultural couples -partners from two different countries- may face increased levels of stress within their relationship (internal stress). Internal stress can negatively impact relationship satisfaction, whereas developing healthy ways to cope (dyadic coping; DC) can lower stress levels and improve relationship satisfaction (e.g., Bodenmann, 2005). Specifically, it may be important for partners to perceive that their partner as supporting them during times of stress through engaging in DC. This study examined whether intercultural couples experience internal stress and what effects, if any, perceived partner engagement in DC had on their reported relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional data was gathered from 85 couples and was analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs; Kenny & Cook, 1999). Separate APIMs were conducted to examine the association between the independent variables (perceived partner engagement in: positive DC, negative DC, delegated DC, and supportive DC) and the outcome variables of internal stress and relationship satisfaction, while controlling for years each partner lived in their country of birth, average and differences on identification with individualism-collectivism values and behaviors, and if partners did or did not identify as the same race and/or ethnicity. Additionally, APIMs of internal stress on relationship as moderated by perceived partner positive and negative DC were conducted. Results showed significant associations of all independent variables on internal stress and relationship satisfaction. There were no signification interactions between internal stress and DC on relationship satisfaction. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health professionals working with intercultural couples are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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It's complicated: an examination of emotional complexity and the influence of stress

Description

Objective: The present study sought to 1) examine the measurement of emotional complexity (EC) by examining the associations among different indicators of EC (i.e., covariation between positive affect and negative

Objective: The present study sought to 1) examine the measurement of emotional complexity (EC) by examining the associations among different indicators of EC (i.e., covariation between positive affect and negative affect; overall, negative, and positive granularity; overall, negative, and positive differentiation) derived from the same data set and identifying a latent factor structure; and 2) evaluate the predictive ability of EC on psychological distress, emotional well-being, and physical functioning while accounting for stressful contexts. The utility of assessing emotion diversity (ED) as another aspect of EC was also explored.

Methods: 191 middle-aged adults from a community-based study on resilience were asked to complete 30 daily diaries assessing positive and negative affect. At least 6 months later, participants completed a phone interview that assessed distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), well-being (i.e., WHO-5 well-being, vitality, social functioning), physical functioning, and perceived stress.

Results: A three-factor solution with latent factors representing overall, negative, and positive EC was identified. Overall EC significantly predicted enhanced physical functioning, but was not associated with distress or well-being. Contrary to study hypotheses, positive and negative EC were not associated with future distress, well-being, or physical functioning, though a trend toward improved physical functioning was noted for positive EC. In contrast, positive and negative ED were both associated with less distress, and better well-being and physical functioning. Overall ED was unexpectedly related to worse outcomes (i.e., more distress, less well-being, decreased physical functioning). Stress did not moderate the relationship between emotional complexity and the outcome variables.

Conclusions: Different indicators of EC represent distinct aspects of emotional experience. Partial support of the hypotheses found. Physical functioning was the only outcome influenced by EC. The inclusion of stress did not change the results. The discrepancy between the findings and those in the literature may be related to reliability of EC indicators and absence of contextual factors. Further exploration of ED revealed a potentially important construct of emotional experience that is deserving of further inquiry.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The role of parental expectations and self-beliefs on academic stress and depression among Asian American undergraduates

Description

Despite high levels of academic achievement as a group (Ryan & Bauman, 2016), Asian American students face many challenges, including academic stress (Flatt, 2013; Liu, 2002) and depression (Aczon-Armstrong, Inouye,

Despite high levels of academic achievement as a group (Ryan & Bauman, 2016), Asian American students face many challenges, including academic stress (Flatt, 2013; Liu, 2002) and depression (Aczon-Armstrong, Inouye, & Reyes-Salvail, 2013; Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014). The purpose of this study was to examine self-beliefs (academic self-efficacy and independent self-construal) and family and cultural variables (perceived parental expectations for academic achievement and internalization of the model minority myth) that may affect the academic stress and depression experienced by Asian American undergraduates.

A national sample of 314 participants (221 female, 89 male, 4 nonbinary) who self-identified as Asian American undergraduates were recruited online and through word of mouth. They completed assessments of six constructs: Academic self-efficacy, independent self-construal, perceived parental expectations for academic achievement, internalization of the model minority myth, academic stress, and depression.

Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that of the two self-beliefs, only academic self-efficacy was a predictor of academic stress and depression. The greater the students’ academic self-efficacy, the less academic stress and depression they reported. Independent self-construal was not a significant predictor. Additionally, perceived parental expectations for academic achievement also predicted academic stress and depression. The more students perceived that their parents had high expectations for their academic achievement, the more they experienced academic stress and depression. The cultural variable, internalization of the model minority myth, was not a predictor of academic stress or depression. A moderated hierarchical regression examining whether academic self-efficacy and independent self-construal moderated the relation between perceived parental expectations for academic achievement and academic stress and depression revealed no moderation effects.

The importance of academic self-efficacy is discussed in the context of cognitive theory that posits that thoughts and beliefs affect behaviors and emotions. In addition, cognitive theory is used to explain perceived parental expectations for academic achievement, as these are perceptions and beliefs about others, as related to one’s self. That the internalization of the model minority myth was not related to depression and academic stress is discussed. Limitations and clinical implications for working with Asian Americans with academic stress and depression are also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Mechanisms of recovery from chronic stress

Description

Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the hippocampus. Decades of research has led to insights into the mechanisms underlying the chronic stress-induced deficits in hippocampal-mediated cognition and

Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the hippocampus. Decades of research has led to insights into the mechanisms underlying the chronic stress-induced deficits in hippocampal-mediated cognition and reduction of dendritic complexity of hippocampal neurons. Recently, a considerable focus of chronic stress research has investigated the mechanisms behind the improvements in hippocampal mediated cognition when chronic stress ends and a post-stress rest period is given. Consequently, the goal of this dissertation is to uncover the mechanisms that allow for spatial ability to improve in the aftermath of chronic stress. In chapter 2, the protein brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated as a mechanism that allows for spatial ability to show improvements following the end of chronic stress. It was found that decreasing the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus prevented spatial memory improvements following a post-stress rest period. Chapter 3 was performed to determine whether hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic complexity requires BDNF to show improvements following a post-stress rest period, and whether a receptor for BDNF, TrkB, mediates the improvements of spatial ability and dendritic complexity in a temporal manner, i.e. during the rest period only. These experiments showed that decreased hippocampal BDNF expression prevented improvements in dendritic complexity, and administration of a TrkB antagonist during the rest period also prevented the improvements in spatial ability and dendritic complexity. In chapter 4, the role of the GABAergic system on spatial ability following chronic stress and a post-stress rest period was investigated. Following chronic stress, it was found that male rats showed impairments on the acquisition phase of the RAWM and this correlated with limbic glutamic acid decarboxylase, a marker for GABA. In chapter 5, a transgenic mouse that expresses a permanent marker on all GABAergic interneurons was used to assess the effects of chronic stress and a post-stress rest period on hippocampal GABAergic neurons. While no changes were found on the total number of GABAergic interneurons, specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons were affected by stressor manipulations. Collectively, these studies reveal some mechanisms behind the plasticity seen in the hippocampus in response to a post-stress rest period.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Graduate school stress, dyadic coping, and well-being in asymmetrical graduate student couples

Description

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate school stress, as stress has been found to be negatively associated with both individual and relational well-being. Asymmetrical graduate student couples, wherein one partner is in graduate school and the other is not, may be particularly vulnerable to relationship strain because of differences in their experience of graduate school. However, non-student partners can help the graduate student cope with stress through dyadic coping. This study sought to examine whether: a) there were associations between graduate school stress on individual (life satisfaction) and relational (relationship satisfaction) well-being, and b) whether these associations were moderated by positive and negative dyadic coping behaviors. Cross-sectional data from 62 asymmetrical graduate student couples were gathered using an online survey. Data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook 2006). Separate models were conducted to examine overall associations between graduate stress and well-being, and additional analyses were conducted to examine potential moderation effects of perceptions of partner dyadic coping (actor effects) and partner self-reported dyadic coping (partner effects) on the overall associations between stress and life- and relationship satisfaction mentioned above. Results for the overall model suggested that graduate stress is associated with both individual- and relational well-being. Surprisingly, and against prior literature, positive dyadic coping did not buffer the negative association between graduate stress and well-being, and negative dyadic coping did not exacerbate the association. Implications of the findings for future research and for mental health counselors are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Examining the Influence of Attachment on the Association between Stress and Partner: Emotions among Same-Sex Couples

Description

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals are exposed to specific stressors due to their sexual minority status. One such stressor may result from the negative family reactions to one’s romantic

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals are exposed to specific stressors due to their sexual minority status. One such stressor may result from the negative family reactions to one’s romantic partner. Encountering this stress may be especially harmful for LGB individuals’ emotional well-being, as it could be considered a “double rejection”: that of their partner and possibly their own sexual orientation. The stress surrounding family members’ negative attitudes about their partner may affect how one feels about their partner. Furthermore, there may be individual differences that affect how an individual may perceive and respond to this stress. Specifically, one’s attachment style could either exacerbate (anxious) or weaken (avoidant) the experiences of stress, which may influence the emotions they feel about their partner. Using 14-day daily diary data from 81 same-sex couples, the purpose of this study was to examine whether there was an association between daily perceptions of stress via negative family reactions to partner and negative partner-related emotions, and whether attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) moderated this association. Individuals’ perceptions of stress via negative family reactions was found to be positively associated with their reports of negative emotions about one’s partner. Anxious and avoidant attachment did not moderate the association between perceptions of stress and negative emotions due to one’s partner. The finding suggests this specific stressor on negative emotions due to partner may be an intrapersonal process, in which case couple therapists can increase clients’ awareness of this stress and how it impacts their feelings towards their romantic partner.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017