Matching Items (11)

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Efficient implementation of a low cost object tracking system

Description

Object tracking is an important topic in multimedia, particularly in applications such as teleconferencing, surveillance and human-computer interface. Its goal is to determine the position of objects in images continuously

Object tracking is an important topic in multimedia, particularly in applications such as teleconferencing, surveillance and human-computer interface. Its goal is to determine the position of objects in images continuously and reliably. The key steps involved in object tracking are foreground detection to detect moving objects, clustering to enable representation of an object by its centroid, and tracking the centroids to determine the motion parameters.

In this thesis, a low cost object tracking system is implemented on a hardware accelerator that is a warp based processor for SIMD/Vector style computations. First, the different foreground detection techniques are explored to figure out the best technique that involves the least number of computations without compromising on the performance. It is found that the Gaussian Mixture Model proposed by Zivkovic gives the best performance with respect to both accuracy and number of computations. Pixel level parallelization is applied to this algorithm and it is mapped onto the hardware accelerator.

Next, the different clustering algorithms are studied and it is found that while DBSCAN is highly accurate and robust to outliers, it is very computationally intensive. In contrast, K-means is computationally simple, but it requires that the number of means to be specified beforehand. So, a new clustering algorithm is proposed that uses a combination of both DBSCAN and K-means algorithm along with a diagnostic algorithm on K-means to estimate the right number of centroids. The proposed hybrid algorithm is shown to be faster than the DBSCAN algorithm by ~2.5x with minimal loss in accuracy. Also, the 1D Kalman filter is implemented assuming constant acceleration model. Since the computations involved in Kalman filter is just a set of recursive equations, the sequential model in itself exhibits good performance, thereby alleviating the need for parallelization. The tracking performance of the low cost implementation is evaluated against the sequential version. It is found that the proposed hybrid algorithm performs very close to the reference algorithm based on the DBSCAN algorithm.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Distinct feature learning and nonlinear variation pattern discovery using regularized autoencoders

Description

Feature learning and the discovery of nonlinear variation patterns in high-dimensional data is an important task in many problem domains, such as imaging, streaming data from sensors, and manufacturing. This

Feature learning and the discovery of nonlinear variation patterns in high-dimensional data is an important task in many problem domains, such as imaging, streaming data from sensors, and manufacturing. This dissertation presents several methods for learning and visualizing nonlinear variation in high-dimensional data. First, an automated method for discovering nonlinear variation patterns using deep learning autoencoders is proposed. The approach provides a functional mapping from a low-dimensional representation to the original spatially-dense data that is both interpretable and efficient with respect to preserving information. Experimental results indicate that deep learning autoencoders outperform manifold learning and principal component analysis in reproducing the original data from the learned variation sources.

A key issue in using autoencoders for nonlinear variation pattern discovery is to encourage the learning of solutions where each feature represents a unique variation source, which we define as distinct features. This problem of learning distinct features is also referred to as disentangling factors of variation in the representation learning literature. The remainder of this dissertation highlights and provides solutions for this important problem.

An alternating autoencoder training method is presented and a new measure motivated by orthogonal loadings in linear models is proposed to quantify feature distinctness in the nonlinear models. Simulated point cloud data and handwritten digit images illustrate that standard training methods for autoencoders consistently mix the true variation sources in the learned low-dimensional representation, whereas the alternating method produces solutions with more distinct patterns.

Finally, a new regularization method for learning distinct nonlinear features using autoencoders is proposed. Motivated in-part by the properties of linear solutions, a series of learning constraints are implemented via regularization penalties during stochastic gradient descent training. These include the orthogonality of tangent vectors to the manifold, the correlation between learned features, and the distributions of the learned features. This regularized learning approach yields low-dimensional representations which can be better interpreted and used to identify the true sources of variation impacting a high-dimensional feature space. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for nonlinear variation pattern discovery on both simulated and real data sets.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Grassmannian learning for facial expression recognition from video

Description

In this thesis we consider the problem of facial expression recognition (FER) from video sequences. Our method is based on subspace representations and Grassmann manifold based learning. We use Local

In this thesis we consider the problem of facial expression recognition (FER) from video sequences. Our method is based on subspace representations and Grassmann manifold based learning. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) at the frame level for representing the facial features. Next we develop a model to represent the video sequence in a lower dimensional expression subspace and also as a linear dynamical system using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. As these subspaces lie on Grassmann space, we use Grassmann manifold based learning techniques such as kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis with Grassmann kernels for classification. We consider six expressions namely, Angry (AN), Disgust (Di), Fear (Fe), Happy (Ha), Sadness (Sa) and Surprise (Su) for classification. We perform experiments on extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression database to evaluate the expression recognition performance. Our method demonstrates good expression recognition performance outperforming other state of the art FER algorithms. We achieve an average recognition accuracy of 97.41% using a method based on expression subspace, kernel-FDA and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier. By using a simpler classifier, 1-Nearest Neighbor (1-NN) along with kernel-FDA, we achieve a recognition accuracy of 97.09%. We find that to process a group of 19 frames in a video sequence, LBP feature extraction requires majority of computation time (97 %) which is about 1.662 seconds on the Intel Core i3, dual core platform. However when only 3 frames (onset, middle and peak) of a video sequence are used, the computational complexity is reduced by about 83.75 % to 260 milliseconds at the expense of drop in the recognition accuracy to 92.88 %.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Non-linear variation patterns and kernel preimages

Description

Identifying important variation patterns is a key step to identifying root causes of process variability. This gives rise to a number of challenges. First, the variation patterns might be non-linear

Identifying important variation patterns is a key step to identifying root causes of process variability. This gives rise to a number of challenges. First, the variation patterns might be non-linear in the measured variables, while the existing research literature has focused on linear relationships. Second, it is important to remove noise from the dataset in order to visualize the true nature of the underlying patterns. Third, in addition to visualizing the pattern (preimage), it is also essential to understand the relevant features that define the process variation pattern. This dissertation considers these variation challenges. A base kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) algorithm transforms the measurements to a high-dimensional feature space where non-linear patterns in the original measurement can be handled through linear methods. However, the principal component subspace in feature space might not be well estimated (especially from noisy training data). An ensemble procedure is constructed where the final preimage is estimated as the average from bagged samples drawn from the original dataset to attenuate noise in kernel subspace estimation. This improves the robustness of any base KPCA algorithm. In a second method, successive iterations of denoising a convex combination of the training data and the corresponding denoised preimage are used to produce a more accurate estimate of the actual denoised preimage for noisy training data. The number of primary eigenvectors chosen in each iteration is also decreased at a constant rate. An efficient stopping rule criterion is used to reduce the number of iterations. A feature selection procedure for KPCA is constructed to find the set of relevant features from noisy training data. Data points are projected onto sparse random vectors. Pairs of such projections are then matched, and the differences in variation patterns within pairs are used to identify the relevant features. This approach provides robustness to irrelevant features by calculating the final variation pattern from an ensemble of feature subsets. Experiments are conducted using several simulated as well as real-life data sets. The proposed methods show significant improvement over the competitive methods.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Large scale analytical insights of email communication patterns

Description

This thesis research attempts to observe, measure and visualize the communication patterns among developers of an open source community and analyze how this can be inferred in terms of progress

This thesis research attempts to observe, measure and visualize the communication patterns among developers of an open source community and analyze how this can be inferred in terms of progress of that open source project. Here I attempted to analyze the Ubuntu open source project's email data (9 subproject log archives over a period of five years) and focused on drawing more precise metrics from different perspectives of the communication data. Also, I attempted to overcome the scalability issue by using Apache Pig libraries, which run on a MapReduce framework based Hadoop Cluster. I described four metrics based on which I observed and analyzed the data and also presented the results which show the required patterns and anomalies to better understand and infer the communication. Also described the usage experience with Pig Latin (scripting language of Apache Pig Libraries) for this research and how they brought the feature of scalability, simplicity, and visibility in this data intensive research work. These approaches are useful in project monitoring, to augment human observation and reporting, in social network analysis, to track individual contributions.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Batch mode active learning for multimedia pattern recognition

Description

The rapid escalation of technology and the widespread emergence of modern technological equipments have resulted in the generation of humongous amounts of digital data (in the form of images, videos

The rapid escalation of technology and the widespread emergence of modern technological equipments have resulted in the generation of humongous amounts of digital data (in the form of images, videos and text). This has expanded the possibility of solving real world problems using computational learning frameworks. However, while gathering a large amount of data is cheap and easy, annotating them with class labels is an expensive process in terms of time, labor and human expertise. This has paved the way for research in the field of active learning. Such algorithms automatically select the salient and exemplar instances from large quantities of unlabeled data and are effective in reducing human labeling effort in inducing classification models. To utilize the possible presence of multiple labeling agents, there have been attempts towards a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data instances is selected simultaneously for manual annotation. This dissertation is aimed at the development of novel batch mode active learning algorithms to reduce manual effort in training classification models in real world multimedia pattern recognition applications. Four major contributions are proposed in this work: $(i)$ a framework for dynamic batch mode active learning, where the batch size and the specific data instances to be queried are selected adaptively through a single formulation, based on the complexity of the data stream in question, $(ii)$ a batch mode active learning strategy for fuzzy label classification problems, where there is an inherent imprecision and vagueness in the class label definitions, $(iii)$ batch mode active learning algorithms based on convex relaxations of an NP-hard integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem, with guaranteed bounds on the solution quality and $(iv)$ an active matrix completion algorithm and its application to solve several variants of the active learning problem (transductive active learning, multi-label active learning, active feature acquisition and active learning for regression). These contributions are validated on the face recognition and facial expression recognition problems (which are commonly encountered in real world applications like robotics, security and assistive technology for the blind and the visually impaired) and also on collaborative filtering applications like movie recommendation.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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CPR complex pattern ranking for evaluating top-k pattern queries over event streams

Description

Most existing approaches to complex event processing over streaming data rely on the assumption that the matches to the queries are rare and that the goal of the system is

Most existing approaches to complex event processing over streaming data rely on the assumption that the matches to the queries are rare and that the goal of the system is to identify these few matches within the incoming deluge of data. In many applications, such as stock market analysis and user credit card purchase pattern monitoring, however the matches to the user queries are in fact plentiful and the system has to efficiently sift through these many matches to locate only the few most preferable matches. In this work, we propose a complex pattern ranking (CPR) framework for specifying top-k pattern queries over streaming data, present new algorithms to support top-k pattern queries in data streaming environments, and verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms. The developed algorithms identify top-k matching results satisfying both patterns as well as additional criteria. To support real-time processing of the data streams, instead of computing top-k results from scratch for each time window, we maintain top-k results dynamically as new events come and old ones expire. We also develop new top-k join execution strategies that are able to adapt to the changing situations (e.g., sorted and random access costs, join rates) without having to assume a priori presence of data statistics. Experiments show significant improvements over existing approaches.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Advancing microfluidic-based protein biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics

Description

Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic

Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This dissertation is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics. Four areas of work are discussed: The first involved work to develop reusable/reconfigurable biosensors that are useful in applications like biochemical science and analytical chemistry that require detailed sensor calibration. This work resulted in a prototype sensor and an in-situ electrochemical surface regeneration technique that can be used to produce microfluidic-based reusable biosensors. The second area of work looked at non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules, which is a persistent challenge in conventional microfluidic biosensors. The results of this work produced design methods that reduce the NSA. The third area of work involved a novel microfluidic sensing platform that was designed to detect target biomarkers using competitive protein adsorption. This technique uses physical adsorption of proteins to a surface rather than complex and time-consuming immobilization procedures. This method enabled us to selectively detect a thyroid cancer biomarker, thyroglobulin, in a controlled-proteins cocktail and a cardiovascular biomarker, fibrinogen, in undiluted human serum. The fourth area of work involved expanding the technique to produce a unique protein identification method; Pattern-recognition. A sample mixture of proteins generates a distinctive composite pattern upon interaction with a sensing platform consisting of multiple surfaces whereby each surface consists of a distinct type of protein pre-adsorbed on the surface. The utility of the "pattern-recognition" sensing mechanism was then verified via recognition of a particular biomarker, C-reactive protein, in the cocktail sample mixture.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Mining semantics from low-level features in multimedia computing

Description

Bridging semantic gap is one of the fundamental problems in multimedia computing and pattern recognition. The challenge of associating low-level signal with their high-level semantic interpretation is mainly due to

Bridging semantic gap is one of the fundamental problems in multimedia computing and pattern recognition. The challenge of associating low-level signal with their high-level semantic interpretation is mainly due to the fact that semantics are often conveyed implicitly in a context, relying on interactions among multiple levels of concepts or low-level data entities. Also, additional domain knowledge may often be indispensable for uncovering the underlying semantics, but in most cases such domain knowledge is not readily available from the acquired media streams. Thus, making use of various types of contextual information and leveraging corresponding domain knowledge are vital for effectively associating high-level semantics with low-level signals with higher accuracies in multimedia computing problems. In this work, novel computational methods are explored and developed for incorporating contextual information/domain knowledge in different forms for multimedia computing and pattern recognition problems. Specifically, a novel Bayesian approach with statistical-sampling-based inference is proposed for incorporating a special type of domain knowledge, spatial prior for the underlying shapes; cross-modality correlations via Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis is explored and the learnt space is then used for associating multimedia contents in different forms; model contextual information as a graph is leveraged for regulating interactions among high-level semantic concepts (e.g., category labels), low-level input signal (e.g., spatial/temporal structure). Four real-world applications, including visual-to-tactile face conversion, photo tag recommendation, wild web video classification and unconstrained consumer video summarization, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches. These applications range from classic research challenges to emerging tasks in multimedia computing. Results from experiments on large-scale real-world data with comparisons to other state-of-the-art methods and subjective evaluations with end users confirmed that the developed approaches exhibit salient advantages, suggesting that they are promising for leveraging contextual information/domain knowledge for a wide range of multimedia computing and pattern recognition problems.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Multi-task learning via structured regularization: formulations, algorithms, and applications

Description

Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the generalization performance (of the resulting classifiers) by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously. Specifically, MTL exploits the intrinsic task relatedness, based on which the

Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the generalization performance (of the resulting classifiers) by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously. Specifically, MTL exploits the intrinsic task relatedness, based on which the informative domain knowledge from each task can be shared across multiple tasks and thus facilitate the individual task learning. It is particularly desirable to share the domain knowledge (among the tasks) when there are a number of related tasks but only limited training data is available for each task. Modeling the relationship of multiple tasks is critical to the generalization performance of the MTL algorithms. In this dissertation, I propose a series of MTL approaches which assume that multiple tasks are intrinsically related via a shared low-dimensional feature space. The proposed MTL approaches are developed to deal with different scenarios and settings; they are respectively formulated as mathematical optimization problems of minimizing the empirical loss regularized by different structures. For all proposed MTL formulations, I develop the associated optimization algorithms to find their globally optimal solution efficiently. I also conduct theoretical analysis for certain MTL approaches by deriving the globally optimal solution recovery condition and the performance bound. To demonstrate the practical performance, I apply the proposed MTL approaches on different real-world applications: (1) Automated annotation of the Drosophila gene expression pattern images; (2) Categorization of the Yahoo web pages. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011