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Small blob detection in medical images

Description

Recent advances in medical imaging technology have greatly enhanced imaging based diagnosis which requires computational effective and accurate algorithms to process the images (e.g., measure the objects) for quantitative assessment.

Recent advances in medical imaging technology have greatly enhanced imaging based diagnosis which requires computational effective and accurate algorithms to process the images (e.g., measure the objects) for quantitative assessment. In this dissertation, one type of imaging objects is of interest: small blobs. Example small blob objects are cells in histopathology images, small breast lesions in ultrasound images, glomeruli in kidney MR images etc. This problem is particularly challenging because the small blobs often have inhomogeneous intensity distribution and indistinct boundary against the background.

This research develops a generalized four-phased system for small blob detections. The system includes (1) raw image transformation, (2) Hessian pre-segmentation, (3) feature extraction and (4) unsupervised clustering for post-pruning. First, detecting blobs from 2D images is studied where a Hessian-based Laplacian of Gaussian (HLoG) detector is proposed. Using the scale space theory as foundation, the image is smoothed via LoG. Hessian analysis is then launched to identify the single optimal scale based on which a pre-segmentation is conducted. Novel Regional features are extracted from pre-segmented blob candidates and fed to Variational Bayesian Gaussian Mixture Models (VBGMM) for post pruning. Sixteen cell histology images and two hundred cell fluorescent images are tested to demonstrate the performances of HLoG. Next, as an extension, Hessian-based Difference of Gaussians (HDoG) is proposed which is capable to identify the small blobs from 3D images. Specifically, kidney glomeruli segmentation from 3D MRI (6 rats, 3 humans) is investigated. The experimental results show that HDoG has the potential to automatically detect glomeruli, enabling new measurements of renal microstructures and pathology in preclinical and clinical studies. Realizing the computation time is a key factor impacting the clinical adoption, the last phase of this research is to investigate the data reduction technique for VBGMM in HDoG to handle large-scale datasets. A new coreset algorithm is developed for variational Bayesian mixture models. Using the same MRI dataset, it is observed that the four-phased system with coreset-VBGMM has similar performance as using the full dataset but about 20 times faster.

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2015

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A model fusion based framework for imbalanced classification problem with noisy dataset

Description

Data imbalance and data noise often coexist in real world datasets. Data imbalance affects the learning classifier by degrading the recognition power of the classifier on the minority class, while

Data imbalance and data noise often coexist in real world datasets. Data imbalance affects the learning classifier by degrading the recognition power of the classifier on the minority class, while data noise affects the learning classifier by providing inaccurate information and thus misleads the classifier. Because of these differences, data imbalance and data noise have been treated separately in the data mining field. Yet, such approach ignores the mutual effects and as a result may lead to new problems. A desirable solution is to tackle these two issues jointly. Noting the complementary nature of generative and discriminative models, this research proposes a unified model fusion based framework to handle the imbalanced classification with noisy dataset.

The phase I study focuses on the imbalanced classification problem. A generative classifier, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is studied which can learn the distribution of the imbalance data to improve the discrimination power on imbalanced classes. By fusing this knowledge into cost SVM (cSVM), a CSG method is proposed. Experimental results show the effectiveness of CSG in dealing with imbalanced classification problems.

The phase II study expands the research scope to include the noisy dataset into the imbalanced classification problem. A model fusion based framework, K Nearest Gaussian (KNG) is proposed. KNG employs a generative modeling method, GMM, to model the training data as Gaussian mixtures and form adjustable confidence regions which are less sensitive to data imbalance and noise. Motivated by the K-nearest neighbor algorithm, the neighboring Gaussians are used to classify the testing instances. Experimental results show KNG method greatly outperforms traditional classification methods in dealing with imbalanced classification problems with noisy dataset.

The phase III study addresses the issues of feature selection and parameter tuning of KNG algorithm. To further improve the performance of KNG algorithm, a Particle Swarm Optimization based method (PSO-KNG) is proposed. PSO-KNG formulates model parameters and data features into the same particle vector and thus can search the best feature and parameter combination jointly. The experimental results show that PSO can greatly improve the performance of KNG with better accuracy and much lower computational cost.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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New statistical transfer learning models for health care applications

Description

Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the

Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the target domain in a mathematically rigorous and intelligent way, to develop a better model for the target domain than a model using the data of the target domain alone. While transfer learning is a promising approach in various application domains, my dissertation research focuses on the particular application in health care, including telemonitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and radiomics for glioblastoma.

The first topic is a Mixed Effects Transfer Learning (METL) model that can flexibly incorporate mixed effects and a general-form covariance matrix to better account for similarity and heterogeneity across subjects. I further develop computationally efficient procedures to handle unknown parameters and large covariance structures. Domain relations, such as domain similarity and domain covariance structure, are automatically quantified in the estimation steps. I demonstrate METL in an application of smartphone-based telemonitoring of PD.

The second topic focuses on an MRI-based transfer learning algorithm for non-invasive surgical guidance of glioblastoma patients. Limited biopsy samples per patient create a challenge to build a patient-specific model for glioblastoma. A transfer learning framework helps to leverage other patient’s knowledge for building a better predictive model. When modeling a target patient, not every patient’s information is helpful. Deciding the subset of other patients from which to transfer information to the modeling of the target patient is an important task to build an accurate predictive model. I define the subset of “transferrable” patients as those who have a positive rCBV-cell density correlation, because a positive correlation is confirmed by imaging theory and the its respective literature.

The last topic is a Privacy-Preserving Positive Transfer Learning (P3TL) model. Although negative transfer has been recognized as an important issue by the transfer learning research community, there is a lack of theoretical studies in evaluating the risk of negative transfer for a transfer learning method and identifying what causes the negative transfer. My work addresses this issue. Driven by the theoretical insights, I extend Bayesian Parameter Transfer (BPT) to a new method, i.e., P3TL. The unique features of P3TL include intelligent selection of patients to transfer in order to avoid negative transfer and maintain patient privacy. These features make P3TL an excellent model for telemonitoring of PD using an At-Home Testing Device.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018