Matching Items (12)

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Context-aware adaptive hybrid semantic relatedness in biomedical science

Description

Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language

Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1–6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Automatic tracking of linguistic changes for monitoring cognitive-linguistic health

Description

Many neurological disorders, especially those that result in dementia, impact speech and language production. A number of studies have shown that there exist subtle changes in linguistic complexity in these

Many neurological disorders, especially those that result in dementia, impact speech and language production. A number of studies have shown that there exist subtle changes in linguistic complexity in these individuals that precede disease onset. However, these studies are conducted on controlled speech samples from a specific task. This thesis explores the possibility of using natural language processing in order to detect declining linguistic complexity from more natural discourse. We use existing data from public figures suspected (or at risk) of suffering from cognitive-linguistic decline, downloaded from the Internet, to detect changes in linguistic complexity. In particular, we focus on two case studies. The first case study analyzes President Ronald Reagan’s transcribed spontaneous speech samples during his presidency. President Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease in 1994, however my results showed declining linguistic complexity during the span of the 8 years he was in office. President George Herbert Walker Bush, who has no known diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, shows no decline in the same measures. In the second case study, we analyze transcribed spontaneous speech samples from the news conferences of 10 current NFL players and 18 non-player personnel since 2007. The non-player personnel have never played professional football. Longitudinal analysis of linguistic complexity showed contrasting patterns in the two groups. The majority (6 of 10) of current players showed decline in at least one measure of linguistic complexity over time. In contrast, the majority (11 out of 18) of non-player personnel showed an increase in at least one linguistic complexity measure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Detecting Frames and Causal Relationships in Climate Change Related Text Databases Based on Semantic Features

Description

The subliminal impact of framing of social, political and environmental issues such as climate change has been studied for decades in political science and communications research. Media framing offers an

The subliminal impact of framing of social, political and environmental issues such as climate change has been studied for decades in political science and communications research. Media framing offers an “interpretative package" for average citizens on how to make sense of climate change and its consequences to their livelihoods, how to deal with its negative impacts, and which mitigation or adaptation policies to support. A line of related work has used bag of words and word-level features to detect frames automatically in text. Such works face limitations since standard keyword based features may not generalize well to accommodate surface variations in text when different keywords are used for similar concepts.

This thesis develops a unique type of textual features that generalize triplets extracted from text, by clustering them into high-level concepts. These concepts are utilized as features to detect frames in text. Compared to uni-gram and bi-gram based models, classification and clustering using generalized concepts yield better discriminating features and a higher classification accuracy with a 12% boost (i.e. from 74% to 83% F-measure) and 0.91 clustering purity for Frame/Non-Frame detection.

The automatic discovery of complex causal chains among interlinked events and their participating actors has not yet been thoroughly studied. Previous studies related to extracting causal relationships from text were based on laborious and incomplete hand-developed lists of explicit causal verbs, such as “causes" and “results in." Such approaches result in limited recall because standard causal verbs may not generalize well to accommodate surface variations in texts when different keywords and phrases are used to express similar causal effects. Therefore, I present a system that utilizes generalized concepts to extract causal relationships. The proposed algorithms overcome surface variations in written expressions of causal relationships and discover the domino effects between climate events and human security. This semi-supervised approach alleviates the need for labor intensive keyword list development and annotated datasets. Experimental evaluations by domain experts achieve an average precision of 82%. Qualitative assessments of causal chains show that results are consistent with the 2014 IPCC report illuminating causal mechanisms underlying the linkages between climatic stresses and social instability.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Video2Vec: learning semantic spatio-temporal embedding for video representations

Description

High-level inference tasks in video applications such as recognition, video retrieval, and zero-shot classification have become an active research area in recent years. One fundamental requirement for such applications is

High-level inference tasks in video applications such as recognition, video retrieval, and zero-shot classification have become an active research area in recent years. One fundamental requirement for such applications is to extract high-quality features that maintain high-level information in the videos.

Many video feature extraction algorithms have been purposed, such as STIP, HOG3D, and Dense Trajectories. These algorithms are often referred to as “handcrafted” features as they were deliberately designed based on some reasonable considerations. However, these algorithms may fail when dealing with high-level tasks or complex scene videos. Due to the success of using deep convolution neural networks (CNNs) to extract global representations for static images, researchers have been using similar techniques to tackle video contents. Typical techniques first extract spatial features by processing raw images using deep convolution architectures designed for static image classifications. Then simple average, concatenation or classifier-based fusion/pooling methods are applied to the extracted features. I argue that features extracted in such ways do not acquire enough representative information since videos, unlike images, should be characterized as a temporal sequence of semantically coherent visual contents and thus need to be represented in a manner considering both semantic and spatio-temporal information.

In this thesis, I propose a novel architecture to learn semantic spatio-temporal embedding for videos to support high-level video analysis. The proposed method encodes video spatial and temporal information separately by employing a deep architecture consisting of two channels of convolutional neural networks (capturing appearance and local motion) followed by their corresponding Fully Connected Gated Recurrent Unit (FC-GRU) encoders for capturing longer-term temporal structure of the CNN features. The resultant spatio-temporal representation (a vector) is used to learn a mapping via a Fully Connected Multilayer Perceptron (FC-MLP) to the word2vec semantic embedding space, leading to a semantic interpretation of the video vector that supports high-level analysis. I evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of this new video representation by conducting experiments on action recognition, zero-shot video classification, and semantic video retrieval (word-to-video) retrieval, using the UCF101 action recognition dataset.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Towards robust semantic attribute learning in visual computing

Description

The rapid growth of social media in recent years provides a large amount of user-generated visual objects, e.g., images and videos. Advanced semantic understanding approaches on such visual objects are

The rapid growth of social media in recent years provides a large amount of user-generated visual objects, e.g., images and videos. Advanced semantic understanding approaches on such visual objects are desired to better serve applications such as human-machine interaction, image retrieval, etc. Semantic visual attributes have been proposed and utilized in multiple visual computing tasks to bridge the so-called "semantic gap" between extractable low-level feature representations and high-level semantic understanding of the visual objects.

Despite years of research, there are still some unsolved problems on semantic attribute learning. First, real-world applications usually involve hundreds of attributes which requires great effort to acquire sufficient amount of labeled data for model learning. Second, existing attribute learning work for visual objects focuses primarily on images, with semantic analysis on videos left largely unexplored.

In this dissertation I conduct innovative research and propose novel approaches to tackling the aforementioned problems. In particular, I propose robust and accurate learning frameworks on both attribute ranking and prediction by exploring the correlation among multiple attributes and utilizing various types of label information. Furthermore, I propose a video-based skill coaching framework by extending attribute learning to the video domain for robust motion skill analysis. Experiments on various types of applications and datasets and comparisons with multiple state-of-the-art baseline approaches confirm that my proposed approaches can achieve significant performance improvements for the general attribute learning problem.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Bridging cyber and physical programming classes: an application of semantic visual analytics for programming exams

Description

With the advent of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) educators have the opportunity to collect data from students and use it to derive insightful information about the students. Specifically, for

With the advent of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) educators have the opportunity to collect data from students and use it to derive insightful information about the students. Specifically, for programming based courses the ability to identify the specific areas or topics that need more attention from the students can be of immense help. But the majority of traditional, non-virtual classes lack the ability to uncover such information that can serve as a feedback to the effectiveness of teaching. In majority of the schools paper exams and assignments provide the only form of assessment to measure the success of the students in achieving the course objectives. The overall grade obtained in paper exams and assignments need not present a complete picture of a student’s strengths and weaknesses. In part, this can be addressed by incorporating research-based technology into the classrooms to obtain real-time updates on students' progress. But introducing technology to provide real-time, class-wide engagement involves a considerable investment both academically and financially. This prevents the adoption of such technology thereby preventing the ideal, technology-enabled classrooms. With increasing class sizes, it is becoming impossible for teachers to keep a persistent track of their students progress and to provide personalized feedback. What if we can we provide technology support without adding more burden to the existing pedagogical approach? How can we enable semantic enrichment of exams that can translate to students' understanding of the topics taught in the class? Can we provide feedback to students that goes beyond only numbers and reveal areas that need their focus. In this research I focus on bringing the capability of conducting insightful analysis to paper exams with a less intrusive learning analytics approach that taps into the generic classrooms with minimum technology introduction. Specifically, the work focuses on automatic indexing of programming exam questions with ontological semantics. The thesis also focuses on designing and evaluating a novel semantic visual analytics suite for in-depth course monitoring. By visualizing the semantic information to illustrate the areas that need a student’s focus and enable teachers to visualize class level progress, the system provides a richer feedback to both sides for improvement.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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A semantic triplet based story classifier

Description

Text classification, in the artificial intelligence domain, is an activity in which text documents are automatically classified into predefined categories using machine learning techniques. An example of this is classifying

Text classification, in the artificial intelligence domain, is an activity in which text documents are automatically classified into predefined categories using machine learning techniques. An example of this is classifying uncategorized news articles into different predefined categories such as "Business", "Politics", "Education", "Technology" , etc. In this thesis, supervised machine learning approach is followed, in which a module is first trained with pre-classified training data and then class of test data is predicted. Good feature extraction is an important step in the machine learning approach and hence the main component of this text classifier is semantic triplet based features in addition to traditional features like standard keyword based features and statistical features based on shallow-parsing (such as density of POS tags and named entities). Triplet {Subject, Verb, Object} in a sentence is defined as a relation between subject and object, the relation being the predicate (verb). Triplet extraction process, is a 5 step process which takes input corpus as a web text document(s), each consisting of one or many paragraphs, from RSS feeds to lists of extremist website. Input corpus feeds into the "Pronoun Resolution" step, which uses an heuristic approach to identify the noun phrases referenced by the pronouns. The next step "SRL Parser" is a shallow semantic parser and converts the incoming pronoun resolved paragraphs into annotated predicate argument format. The output of SRL parser is processed by "Triplet Extractor" algorithm which forms the triplet in the form {Subject, Verb, Object}. Generalization and reduction of triplet features is the next step. Reduced feature representation reduces computing time, yields better discriminatory behavior and handles curse of dimensionality phenomena. For training and testing, a ten- fold cross validation approach is followed. In each round SVM classifier is trained with 90% of labeled (training) data and in the testing phase, classes of remaining 10% unlabeled (testing) data are predicted. Concluding, this paper proposes a model with semantic triplet based features for story classification. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated against other traditional features used in the literature for text classification tasks.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Semantic sparse learning in images and videos

Description

Many learning models have been proposed for various tasks in visual computing. Popular examples include hidden Markov models and support vector machines. Recently, sparse-representation-based learning methods have attracted a lot

Many learning models have been proposed for various tasks in visual computing. Popular examples include hidden Markov models and support vector machines. Recently, sparse-representation-based learning methods have attracted a lot of attention in the computer vision field, largely because of their impressive performance in many applications. In the literature, many of such sparse learning methods focus on designing or application of some learning techniques for certain feature space without much explicit consideration on possible interaction between the underlying semantics of the visual data and the employed learning technique. Rich semantic information in most visual data, if properly incorporated into algorithm design, should help achieving improved performance while delivering intuitive interpretation of the algorithmic outcomes. My study addresses the problem of how to explicitly consider the semantic information of the visual data in the sparse learning algorithms. In this work, we identify four problems which are of great importance and broad interest to the community. Specifically, a novel approach is proposed to incorporate label information to learn a dictionary which is not only reconstructive but also discriminative; considering the formation process of face images, a novel image decomposition approach for an ensemble of correlated images is proposed, where a subspace is built from the decomposition and applied to face recognition; based on the observation that, the foreground (or salient) objects are sparse in input domain and the background is sparse in frequency domain, a novel and efficient spatio-temporal saliency detection algorithm is proposed to identify the salient regions in video; and a novel hidden Markov model learning approach is proposed by utilizing a sparse set of pairwise comparisons among the data, which is easier to obtain and more meaningful, consistent than tradition labels, in many scenarios, e.g., evaluating motion skills in surgical simulations. In those four problems, different types of semantic information are modeled and incorporated in designing sparse learning algorithms for the corresponding visual computing tasks. Several real world applications are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, including, face recognition, spatio-temporal saliency detection, abnormality detection, spatio-temporal interest point detection, motion analysis and emotion recognition. In those applications, data of different modalities are involved, ranging from audio signal, image to video. Experiments on large scale real world data with comparisons to state-of-art methods confirm the proposed approaches deliver salient advantages, showing adding those semantic information dramatically improve the performances of the general sparse learning methods.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Enhanced topic-based modeling for Twitter sentiment analysis

Description

In this thesis multiple approaches are explored to enhance sentiment analysis of tweets. A standard sentiment analysis model with customized features is first trained and tested to establish a baseline.

In this thesis multiple approaches are explored to enhance sentiment analysis of tweets. A standard sentiment analysis model with customized features is first trained and tested to establish a baseline. This is compared to an existing topic based mixture model and a new proposed topic based vector model both of which use Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for topic modeling. The proposed topic based vector model has higher accuracies in terms of averaged F scores than the other two models.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Mining semantics from low-level features in multimedia computing

Description

Bridging semantic gap is one of the fundamental problems in multimedia computing and pattern recognition. The challenge of associating low-level signal with their high-level semantic interpretation is mainly due to

Bridging semantic gap is one of the fundamental problems in multimedia computing and pattern recognition. The challenge of associating low-level signal with their high-level semantic interpretation is mainly due to the fact that semantics are often conveyed implicitly in a context, relying on interactions among multiple levels of concepts or low-level data entities. Also, additional domain knowledge may often be indispensable for uncovering the underlying semantics, but in most cases such domain knowledge is not readily available from the acquired media streams. Thus, making use of various types of contextual information and leveraging corresponding domain knowledge are vital for effectively associating high-level semantics with low-level signals with higher accuracies in multimedia computing problems. In this work, novel computational methods are explored and developed for incorporating contextual information/domain knowledge in different forms for multimedia computing and pattern recognition problems. Specifically, a novel Bayesian approach with statistical-sampling-based inference is proposed for incorporating a special type of domain knowledge, spatial prior for the underlying shapes; cross-modality correlations via Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis is explored and the learnt space is then used for associating multimedia contents in different forms; model contextual information as a graph is leveraged for regulating interactions among high-level semantic concepts (e.g., category labels), low-level input signal (e.g., spatial/temporal structure). Four real-world applications, including visual-to-tactile face conversion, photo tag recommendation, wild web video classification and unconstrained consumer video summarization, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches. These applications range from classic research challenges to emerging tasks in multimedia computing. Results from experiments on large-scale real-world data with comparisons to other state-of-the-art methods and subjective evaluations with end users confirmed that the developed approaches exhibit salient advantages, suggesting that they are promising for leveraging contextual information/domain knowledge for a wide range of multimedia computing and pattern recognition problems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011