Matching Items (31)

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Network reduction for system planning

Description

Due to great challenges from aggressive environmental regulations, increased demand due to new technologies and the integration of renewable energy sources, the energy industry may radically change the way the power system is operated and designed. With the motivation of

Due to great challenges from aggressive environmental regulations, increased demand due to new technologies and the integration of renewable energy sources, the energy industry may radically change the way the power system is operated and designed. With the motivation of studying and planning the future power system under these new challenges, the development of the new tools is required. A network equivalent that can be used in such planning tools needs to be generated based on an accurate power flow model and an equivalencing procedure that preserves the key characteristics of the original system. Considering the pervasive use of the dc power flow models, their accuracy is of great concern. The industry seems to be sanguine about the performance of dc power flow models, but recent research has shown that the performance of different formulations is highly variable. In this thesis, several dc power-flow models are analyzed theoretically and evaluated numerically in IEEE 118-bus system and Eastern Interconnection 62,000-bus system. As shown in the numerical example, the alpha-matching dc power flow model performs best in matching the original ac power flow solution. Also, the possibility of applying these dc models in the various applications has been explored and demonstrated. Furthermore, a novel hot-start optimal dc power-flow model based on ac power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) is proposed, implemented and tested. This optimal-reactance-only dc model not only matches the original ac PF solution well, but also preserves the congestion pattern obtain from the OPF results of the original ac model. Three improved strategies were proposed for applying the bus-aggregation technique to the large-scale systems, like EI and ERCOT, to improve the execution time, and memory requirements when building a reduced equivalent model. Speed improvements of up to a factor of 200 were observed.

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2013

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Analysis of synchronization and accuracy of synchrophasor measurements

Description

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy.

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy. These measurements are known as synchrophasor measurements. Considerable research work has been done on the applications of PMU measurements based on the as-sumption that a high level of accuracy is obtained in the field. The study in this dissertation is conducted to address the basic issue concerning the accuracy of actual PMU measurements in the field. Synchronization is one of the important features of PMU measurements. However, the study presented in this dissertation reveals that the problem of faulty synchronization between measurements with the same time stamps from different PMUs exists. A Kalman filter model is proposed to analyze and calcu-late the time skew error caused by faulty synchronization. In order to achieve a high level of accuracy of PMU measurements, inno-vative methods are proposed to detect and identify system state changes or bad data which are reflected by changes in the measurements. This procedure is ap-plied as a key step in adaptive Kalman filtering of PMU measurements to over-come the insensitivity of a conventional Kalman filter. Calibration of PMU measurements is implemented in specific PMU instal-lation scenarios using transmission line (TL) parameters from operation planning data. The voltage and current correction factors calculated from the calibration procedure indicate the possible errors in PMU measurements. Correction factors can be applied in on-line calibration of PMU measurements. A study is conducted to address an important issue when integrating PMU measurements into state estimation. The reporting rate of PMU measurements is much higher than that of the measurements collected by the SCADA. The ques-tion of how to buffer PMU measurements is raised. The impact of PMU meas-urement buffer length on state estimation is discussed. A method based on hy-pothesis testing is proposed to determine the optimal buffer length of PMU meas-urements considering the two conflicting features of PMU measurements, i. e. un-certainty and variability. Results are presented for actual PMU synchrophasor measurements.

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2012

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Engineering the implementation of pumped hydro energy storage in the Arizona power grid

Description

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies.

For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated.

The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

The thesis builds on the work of another recent researcher with the objectives of strengthening the assumptions used, checking the solutions obtained, utilizing higher level simulation languages to affirm results, and expanding the results and conclusions.

One important point not fully discussed in the present thesis is the impact of efficiency in the pumped hydro cycle. The efficiency of the cycle for modern units is estimated at higher than 90%. Inclusion of pumped hydro losses is relegated to future work.

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2014

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Impact of distributed photovoltaic generation and customer loads on power quality of a distribution system

Description

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits for system operations and enhance opera-tional performance of the distribution system. However, high penetration of PV resources can give rise to operating conditions which do not arise in traditional systems and one of the potential issues that needs to be addressed involves impact on power quality of the system with respect to the spectral distortion in voltages and currents.

The test bed feeder model representing a real operational distribution feeder is developed in OpenDSS and the feeder modeling takes into consideration the ob-jective of analysis and frequency of interest. Extensive metering infrastructure and measurements are utilized for validation of the model at harmonic frequencies. The harmonic study performed is divided into two sections: study of impact of non-linear loads on total harmonic voltage and current distortions and study of impact of PV resources on high frequency spectral distortion in voltages and cur-rents. The research work incorporates different harmonic study methodologies such as harmonic and high frequency power flow, and frequency scan study. The general conclusions are presented based on the simulation results and in addition, scope for future work is discussed.

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2014

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Development of improved dc network model for contingency analysis

Description

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy markets and transmission/generation expansion planning has created a niche for development of new computationally efficient and yet reliable, simple and robust power flow tools for such studies. The so called dc power flow algorithm is an important power flow tool currently in use. However, the accuracy and performance of dc power flow results is highly variable due to the various formulations which are in use. This has thus intensified the interest of researchers in coming up with better equivalent dc models that can closely match the performance of ac power flow solution.

This thesis involves the development of novel hot start dc model using a power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) approach. This document also discusses the problems of ill-conditioning / rank deficiency encountered while deriving this model. This model is then compared to several dc power flow models using the IEEE 118-bus system and ERCOT interconnection both as the base case ac solution and during single-line outage contingency analysis. The proposed model matches the base case ac solution better than contemporary dc power flow models used in the industry.

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2014

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Cluster-and-connect: an algorithmic approach to generating synthetic electric power network graphs

Description

Understanding the graphical structure of the electric power system is important

in assessing reliability, robustness, and the risk of failure of operations of this criti-

cal infrastructure network. Statistical graph models of complex networks yield much

insight into the underlying processes that are

Understanding the graphical structure of the electric power system is important

in assessing reliability, robustness, and the risk of failure of operations of this criti-

cal infrastructure network. Statistical graph models of complex networks yield much

insight into the underlying processes that are supported by the network. Such gen-

erative graph models are also capable of generating synthetic graphs representative

of the real network. This is particularly important since the smaller number of tradi-

tionally available test systems, such as the IEEE systems, have been largely deemed

to be insucient for supporting large-scale simulation studies and commercial-grade

algorithm development. Thus, there is a need for statistical generative models of

electric power network that capture both topological and electrical properties of the

network and are scalable.

Generating synthetic network graphs that capture key topological and electrical

characteristics of real-world electric power systems is important in aiding widespread

and accurate analysis of these systems. Classical statistical models of graphs, such as

small-world networks or Erd}os-Renyi graphs, are unable to generate synthetic graphs

that accurately represent the topology of real electric power networks { networks

characterized by highly dense local connectivity and clustering and sparse long-haul

links.

This thesis presents a parametrized model that captures the above-mentioned

unique topological properties of electric power networks. Specically, a new Cluster-

and-Connect model is introduced to generate synthetic graphs using these parameters.

Using a uniform set of metrics proposed in the literature, the accuracy of the proposed

model is evaluated by comparing the synthetic models generated for specic real

electric network graphs. In addition to topological properties, the electrical properties

are captured via line impedances that have been shown to be modeled reliably by well-studied heavy tailed distributions. The details of the research, results obtained and

conclusions drawn are presented in this document.

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Date Created
2015

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Energy market transparency: analyzing the impacts of constraint relaxation and out-of-market correction practices in electric energy markets

Description

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated.

Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

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2016

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Impacts of base-case and post-contingency constraint relaxations on static and dynamic operational security

Description

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC real-time systems and analyzes how relaxations in market models propagate to real-time systems. This information can be used not only to assess the criticality of constraint relaxations, but also as a basis for determining penalty prices more accurately.

Constraint relaxations practice was replicated in this work using a test case and a real-life large-scale system, while capturing both energy market aspects and AC real-time system performance. System performance investigation included static and dynamic security analysis for base-case and post-contingency operating conditions. PJM peak hour loads were dynamically modeled in order to capture delayed voltage recovery and sustained depressed voltage profiles as a result of reactive power deficiency caused by constraint relaxations. Moreover, impacts of constraint relaxations on operational system security were investigated when risk based penalty prices are used. Transmission lines in the PJM system were categorized according to their risk index and each category was as-signed a different penalty price accordingly in order to avoid real-time overloads on high risk lines.

This work also extends the investigation of constraint relaxations to post-contingency relaxations, where emergency limits are allowed to be relaxed in energy market models. Various scenarios were investigated to capture and compare between the impacts of base-case and post-contingency relaxations on real-time system performance, including the presence of both relaxations simultaneously. The effect of penalty prices on the number and magnitude of relaxations was investigated as well.

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Date Created
2016

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Pricing schemes in electric energy markets

Description

Two thirds of the U.S. power systems are operated under market structures. A good market design should maximize social welfare and give market participants proper incentives to follow market solutions. Pricing schemes play very important roles in market design.

Locational marginal

Two thirds of the U.S. power systems are operated under market structures. A good market design should maximize social welfare and give market participants proper incentives to follow market solutions. Pricing schemes play very important roles in market design.

Locational marginal pricing scheme is the core pricing scheme in energy markets. Locational marginal prices are good pricing signals for dispatch marginal costs. However, the locational marginal prices alone are not incentive compatible since energy markets are non-convex markets. Locational marginal prices capture dispatch costs but fail to capture commitment costs such as startup cost, no-load cost, and shutdown cost. As a result, uplift payments are paid to generators in markets in order to provide incentives for generators to follow market solutions. The uplift payments distort pricing signals.

In this thesis, pricing schemes in electric energy markets are studied. In the first part, convex hull pricing scheme is studied and the pricing model is extended with network constraints. The subgradient algorithm is applied to solve the pricing model. In the second part, a stochastic dispatchable pricing model is proposed to better address the non-convexity and uncertainty issues in day-ahead energy markets. In the third part, an energy storage arbitrage model with the current locational marginal price scheme is studied. Numerical test cases are studied to show the arguments in this thesis.

The overall market and pricing scheme design is a very complex problem. This thesis gives a thorough overview of pricing schemes in day-ahead energy markets and addressed several key issues in the markets. New pricing schemes are proposed to improve market efficiency.

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Date Created
2016

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Optimum corona ring design for high voltage compact transmission lines using Gaussian process model

Description

Electric utilities are exploring new technologies to cope up with the in-crease in electricity demand and power transfer capabilities of transmission lines. Compact transmission lines and high phase order systems are few of the techniques which enhance the power transfer

Electric utilities are exploring new technologies to cope up with the in-crease in electricity demand and power transfer capabilities of transmission lines. Compact transmission lines and high phase order systems are few of the techniques which enhance the power transfer capability of transmission lines without requiring any additional right-of-way. This research work investigates the impact of compacting high voltage transmission lines and high phase order systems on the surface electric field of composite insulators, a key factor deciding service performance of insulators. The electric field analysis was done using COULOMB 9.0, a 3D software package which uses a numerical analysis technique based on Boundary Element Method (BEM). 3D models of various types of standard transmission towers used for 230 kV, 345 kV and 500 kV level were modeled with different insulators con-figurations and number of circuits. Standard tower configuration models were compacted by reducing the clearance from live parts in steps of 10%. It was found that the standard tower configuration can be compacted to 30% without violating the minimum safety clearance mandated by NESC standards. The study shows that surface electric field on insulators for few of the compact structures exceeded the maximum allowable limit even if corona rings were installed. As a part of this study, a Gaussian process model based optimization pro-gram was developed to find the optimum corona ring dimensions to limit the electric field within stipulated values. The optimization program provides the dimen-sions of corona ring, its placement from the high voltage end for a given dry arc length of insulator and system voltage. JMP, a statistical computer package and AMPL, a computer language widely used form optimization was used for optimi-zation program. The results obtained from optimization program validated the industrial standards.

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2012