Matching Items (9)

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Self-regulated strategy development writing instruction with elementary-aged students learning English

Description

With Common Core State Standards (CCSS), all students are held to the same high expectations, including students learning English and other learners who may have academic difficulties. Many students learning

With Common Core State Standards (CCSS), all students are held to the same high expectations, including students learning English and other learners who may have academic difficulties. Many students learning English have trouble writing and need effective writing strategies to meet the demands the standards present. Ten fourth and fifth grade students learning English (6 girls and 4 boys), whose home language was Spanish, participated in a multiple baseline design across three small groups of participants with multiple probes during baseline. In this study, self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for opinion writing using students’ own ideas was evaluated. Students who participated in this study demonstrated an increase in: the number of persuasive elements (e.g. premise, reasons, elaborations, and conclusion) included in their essays, overall essay quality, and the number of linking words used when writing opinion essays using their own ideas. Additionally, students’ knowledge of the writing process and opinion-writing genre improved. Students found the instruction to be socially acceptable. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Inhibitory control, negative emotionality, and threat appraisals as predictors of children's status in the context of bullying

Description

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the hypothesis that negative emotionality and passive victim versus bully-victim status would be mediated by threat appraisals, and that mediated effect would be moderated by levels of inhibitory control. The study used a sample of 56 early adolescents ages 7–16. Temperament characteristics were measured using the EATQ–R (Capaldi & Rothbart, 1992). Threat appraisals were assessed using items from Hunter, Boyle, and Warden (2004). Bullying and victimization were measured using items created for this study and additional cyber bullying items (Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tippett, 2006). A multinomial logistic regression and test of moderated mediation were analyzed to examine the model (Hayes, 2012). Higher levels of negative emotionality were correlated with being a victim of bullying. The moderated mediation model was not statistically significant, however the direction of the patterns fit the hypotheses. Future directions and limitations are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The relations of household chaos to children's language development: the mediating roles of children's effortful control and parenting

Description

This study drew upon a bioecological framework to empirically investigate the relations between environmental chaos and preschoolers' language across time, including the potentially mediating roles of children's effortful control and

This study drew upon a bioecological framework to empirically investigate the relations between environmental chaos and preschoolers' language across time, including the potentially mediating roles of children's effortful control and parenting. Child sex also was examined as a moderator of these relations. For this study, the following data were collected at 30, 42, and 54 months of age. Household chaos and (at 30 months) socioeconomic status (SES) were reported by mothers. Children's effortful control (EC) was rated by mothers and nonparental caregivers, and was observed during a number of laboratory tasks. Maternal vocalizations were assessed during free play sessions with their children (at 30 and 42 months), and supportive and unsupportive parenting behaviors and affect were observed during free play and teaching tasks at each age. Mothers also reported on their own reactions to children's negative emotions. Finally, (at 54 months) children's expressive and receptive language was measured with a standard assessment. Structural equation modeling and path analyses indicated that SES at 30 months and greater levels of household chaos at 42 months predicted not only poorer language skills, but also deficits in children's EC and less supportive parenting in low-income mothers at 54 months, even when controlling for stability in these constructs. Children's effortful control at 42 months, but not parenting, positively predicted later language, suggesting that EC may play a mediating role in the relations between household chaos, as well as SES, and preschoolers' language abilities. Child sex did not moderate the pattern of relations. Post-hoc analyses also indicated that the negative relation between chaos and language was significant only for children who had low EC at 42 months. This study represents a much-needed addition to the currently limited longitudinal research examining environmental chaos and children's developmental outcomes. Importantly, findings from this study elucidate an important process underlying the links between chaos and children's language development, which can inform interventions and policies designed to support families and children living in chaotic home environments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The contribution of effortful control to reading growth in early childhood

Description

This longitudinal study examined the relations between self-regulation and reading achievement from kindergarten through second grade. In addition to the broader concept of effortful control, this study looked at various

This longitudinal study examined the relations between self-regulation and reading achievement from kindergarten through second grade. In addition to the broader concept of effortful control, this study looked at various sub-components, including attention focusing and inhibitory control. A series of unconditional latent growth curve models were estimated to assess the initial level and growth of children’s parent- and teacher-reported effortful control and reading skills. In addition, parallel-process latent-growth curve models were estimated to examine the relations between the growth parameters (e.g., how the initial level and growth in self-regulation relates to the initial level and growth in reading). Parent-reported inhibitory control and effortful control displayed linear growth over this time period. Teacher-reported self-regulation did not change significantly. Reading achievement increased across all three time points, but the rate of growth was steeper from kindergarten through first grade than from first to second grade. Results from the parallel-process models showed that the kindergarten scores for parent-reported attention focusing and inhibitory control were negatively related to growth in Letter Word abilities from first through second grade, whereas initial teacher-reported attention focusing, inhibitory control, and effortful control were negatively related to growth in Passage Comprehension abilities from first to second grade. This study illustrates important relations between self-regulation and reading abilities throughout the first few years of elementary school.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Effortful control and emotion understanding: relations with children's maladjustment, social competence, and adult-child relationships

Description

The present study examined the relations of children's effortful control (EC), emotion understanding, maladjustment, social competence, and relationship quality with nonparental caregivers in a sample of 30-, 42-, and 54-month

The present study examined the relations of children's effortful control (EC), emotion understanding, maladjustment, social competence, and relationship quality with nonparental caregivers in a sample of 30-, 42-, and 54-month olds. EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, as well as observed behavioral tasks. Emotion understanding was assessed by asking children to identify emotions during a puppet task. Mothers and caregivers also reported on children's problem behaviors and social competence. Caregivers provided reports of the quality of their relationship with children. Results from longitudinal structural equation models indicated that even after controlling for sex, SES, language ability, and previous levels of constructs, emotion understanding predicted EC one year later at 42 and 54 months. In addition, children with higher EC had more positive relationships with caregivers at 42 and 54 months. Although EC and EU were not significantly related to maladjustment and social competence after accounting for within time covariation among constructs and longitudinal stability, marginal findings were in expected directions and suggested that more regulated children with better emotion understanding skills had fewer behavioral problems and were more socially skilled. Findings are discussed in terms of the strengths and limitations of the present study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Observed parenting practices in early childhood as predictors of child weight status and behavioral problems at age 10

Description

Pediatric obesity is a public health concern due to its elevated prevalence rates and its relation to concurrent and long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. Pediatric obesity has been found to

Pediatric obesity is a public health concern due to its elevated prevalence rates and its relation to concurrent and long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. Pediatric obesity has been found to be associated with problem behaviors, albeit with inconsistent findings. The mechanism of this relation is unclear. It is possible that they have a shared etiology. Self-regulation and parenting practices are two factors that have been implicated in the development of problem behaviors and are garnering evidence for their relation with pediatric obesity. The goal of the present study was to examine whether self-regulation (SREC), positive behavior support (PBSEC), and coercive limit-setting (CLSEC) in early childhood are shared etiological factors of pediatric obesity and problem behaviors. Using multinomial logistic regression the likelihood of belonging to four outcome groups (Comorbid, Problem behavior only, Overweight only, and Typically developing) at age 10 based on these factors was assessed. Analyses controlled for intervention group assignment, child gender, child African-American or Bi-racial, child Hispanic, cumulative risk, child body size impression at age 2, and parent body size impression at baseline. In the models examining SREC alone, for every 1 standard deviation increase in SREC, there was a reliable reduction in the odds of the child belonging to the comorbid and problem behavior only groups at age 10, compared to the typically developing group (OR = 0.386, 95% CI [0.237, 0.628], OR = 0.281, 95% CI [0.157, 0.503], respectively). This relation was maintained when SREC was in the same model as PBSEC and CLSEC. PBSEC and CLSEC alone did not impact the likelihood of belonging to any of the outcome groups. A significant interaction was found between SREC and CLSEC, such that at high levels of both SREC and CLSEC the odds of a child belonging to the overweight only group at age 10 increased, compared to the typically developing group. Results highlight CLSEC as a parenting practice that may place a highly regulated child at risk for becoming overweight. Overall, the findings suggest that problem behaviors and pediatric obesity do not have a shared etiology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Contributions of children's or teachers' effortful control to academic functioning in early schooling

Description

I examined the role of children's or teacher's effortful control (EC) in children's academic functioning in early elementary school in two separate studies. In Study 1, I tested longitudinal relations

I examined the role of children's or teacher's effortful control (EC) in children's academic functioning in early elementary school in two separate studies. In Study 1, I tested longitudinal relations between parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions in kindergarten, children's EC in first grade, and children's reading or math achievement in second grade (N = 291). In the fall of each school year, parents reported their positive or negative reactions and parents and teachers reported on children's EC. Standardized achievement tests assessed achievement each spring. Results from autoregressive panel mediation models demonstrated that constructs exhibited consistency across study years. In addition, first-grade EC mediated relations between parents' reactions (i.e., a difference composite of positive minus negative reactions) at kindergarten and second-grade math, but not reading, achievement. Findings suggest that one method of promoting math achievement in early school is through the socialization of children's EC. In Study 2, I examined relations between teachers' EC, teachers' reactions to children's negative emotions, the student-teacher relationship (STR), and children's externalizing behaviors or achievement among 289 second-graders and their 116 teachers. Results from mixed-model regressions showed that negative reactions and teacher-reported STR mediated relations between teachers' EC and math achievement. In addition, teacher-reported STR mediated links between teachers' EC and externalizing problems across reporters and between teachers' EC and reading achievement. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that a high-quality STR was negatively associated with externalizing problems and high levels of teachers' negative reactions were negatively related to math achievement only for students low in EC. In tests of moderation by social competence, teachers' reports of high-quality STRs tended to be negatively associated with externalizing problems, but relations were strongest for students not high in social competence. For students low in social competence only, children's reports of a high-quality STR was related to lower reading achievement. These results highlight the utility of considering whether and how teachers' own intrinsic characteristics influence classroom dynamics and students' academic functioning outcomes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Forged through association: the moderating influence of peer context on the development and behavior of temperamentally-dysregulated children

Description

The moderating effects of five characteristics of peers--their effortful control, anger, sadness, aggression, and positive peer behavior--were investigated in two separate series of analyses of preschooler's social behavior: (a) the

The moderating effects of five characteristics of peers--their effortful control, anger, sadness, aggression, and positive peer behavior--were investigated in two separate series of analyses of preschooler's social behavior: (a) the relation between children's own effortful control and social behavior, and (b) the relation between children's shyness and reticent behavior. Latent variable interactions were conducted in a structural equation framework. Peer context anger and effortful control, albeit with unexpected results, interacted with children's own characteristics to predict their behavior in both the EC and shy model series; these were the only significant interactions obtained for the EC model series. The relation between shyness and reticent behavior, however, showed the greatest impact of peer context and, conversely, the greatest susceptibility to environmental variations; significant interactions were obtained in all five models, despite the limited range of peer context sadness and aggression observed in this study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Effects of a self-monitoring strategy on independent work behavior

Description

The following study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-monitoring strategy on independent work behavior. The three subjects were in first grade, seven years old, identified with mild mental retardation

The following study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-monitoring strategy on independent work behavior. The three subjects were in first grade, seven years old, identified with mild mental retardation (MIMR), and had an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) with targeted functional academic and behavior goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a self-monitoring strategy on on-task independent work behavior and task completion. The research sought to determine whether or not a self-monitoring strategy would affect on-task independent work behavior and task completion. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Data were collected using a frequency count of off-task behavior. The self-monitoring strategy was found to be successful with all three subjects in the study. Overall, the subjects demonstrated a decrease in off-task behavior during independent work time after the intervention was introduced.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010