Matching Items (8)

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Simultaneous signaling and channel estimation for in-band full-duplex communications employing adaptive spatial protection

Description

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers increased spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex relays that transmit and receive at different frequencies or times. The practical implementation of full-duplex relays is limited by the strong self-interference caused by the coupling of relay's own transit signals to its desired received signals. Several techniques have been proposed in literature to mitigate the relay self-interference. In this thesis, the performance of in-band full-duplex multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relays is considered in the context of simultaneous communications and channel estimation. In particular, adaptive spatial transmit techniques is considered to protect the full-duplex radio's receive array. It is assumed that relay's transmit and receive antenna phase centers are physically distinct. This allows the radio to employ adaptive spatial transmit and receive processing to mitigate self-interference.

The performance of this protection is dependent upon numerous factors, including channel estimation accuracy, which is the focus of this thesis. In particular, the concentration is on estimating the self-interference channel. A novel approach of simultaneous signaling to estimate the self-interference channel in MIMO full-duplex relays is proposed. To achieve this simultaneous communications

and channel estimation, a full-rank pilot signal at a reduced relative power is transmitted simultaneously with a low rank communication waveform. The self-interference mitigation is investigated in the context of eigenvalue spread of spatial relay receive co-variance matrix. Performance is demonstrated by using simulations,

in which orthogonal-frequency division-multiplexing communications and pilot sequences are employed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Estimation of subspace occupancy

Description

The ability to identify unoccupied resources in the radio spectrum is a key capability for opportunistic users in a cognitive radio environment. This paper draws upon and extends geometrically based

The ability to identify unoccupied resources in the radio spectrum is a key capability for opportunistic users in a cognitive radio environment. This paper draws upon and extends geometrically based ideas in statistical signal processing to develop estimators for the rank and the occupied subspace in a multi-user environment from multiple temporal samples of the signal received at a single antenna. These estimators enable identification of resources, such as the orthogonal complement of the occupied subspace, that may be exploitable by an opportunistic user. This concept is supported by simulations showing the estimation of the number of users in a simple CDMA system using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the rank. It was found that with suitable parameters, such as high SNR, sufficient number of time epochs and codes of appropriate length, the number of users could be correctly estimated using the MAP estimator even when the noise variance is unknown. Additionally, the process of identifying the maximum likelihood estimate of the orthogonal projector onto the unoccupied subspace is discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Spectral efficiency of MIMO ad hoc networks with partial channel state information

Description

As the number of devices with wireless capabilities and the proximity of these devices to each other increases, better ways to handle the interference they cause need to be

As the number of devices with wireless capabilities and the proximity of these devices to each other increases, better ways to handle the interference they cause need to be explored. Also important is for these devices to keep up with the demand for data rates while not compromising on industry established expectations of power consumption and mobility. Current methods of distributing the spectrum among all participants are expected to not cope with the demand in a very near future. In this thesis, the effect of employing sophisticated multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems in this regard is explored. The efficacy of systems which can make intelligent decisions on the transmission mode usage and power allocation to these modes becomes relevant in the current scenario, where the need for performance far exceeds the cost expendable on hardware. The effect of adding multiple antennas at either ends will be examined, the capacity of such systems and of networks comprised of many such participants will be evaluated. Methods of simulating said networks, and ways to achieve better performance by making intelligent transmission decisions will be proposed. Finally, a way of access control closer to the physical layer (a 'statistical MAC') and a possible metric to be used for such a MAC is suggested.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Multi-carrier communications over underwater acoustic channels

Description

Underwater acoustic communications face significant challenges unprecedented in radio terrestrial communications including long multipath delay spreads, strong Doppler effects, and stringent bandwidth requirements. Recently, multi-carrier communications based on orthogonal frequency

Underwater acoustic communications face significant challenges unprecedented in radio terrestrial communications including long multipath delay spreads, strong Doppler effects, and stringent bandwidth requirements. Recently, multi-carrier communications based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) have seen significant growth in underwater acoustic (UWA) communications, thanks to their well well-known robustness against severely time-dispersive channels. However, the performance of OFDM systems over UWA channels significantly deteriorates due to severe intercarrier interference (ICI) resulting from rapid time variations of the channel. With the motivation of developing enabling techniques for OFDM over UWA channels, the major contributions of this thesis include (1) two effective frequencydomain equalizers that provide general means to counteract the ICI; (2) a family of multiple-resampling receiver designs dealing with distortions caused by user and/or path specific Doppler scaling effects; (3) proposal of using orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as an effective multiple access scheme for UWA communications; (4) the capacity evaluation for single-resampling versus multiple-resampling receiver designs. All of the proposed receiver designs have been verified both through simulations and emulations based on data collected in real-life UWA communications experiments. Particularly, the frequency domain equalizers are shown to be effective with significantly reduced pilot overhead and offer robustness against Doppler and timing estimation errors. The multiple-resampling designs, where each branch is tasked with the Doppler distortion of different paths and/or users, overcome the disadvantages of the commonly-used single-resampling receivers and yield significant performance gains. Multiple-resampling receivers are also demonstrated to be necessary for UWA OFDMA systems. The unique design effectively mitigates interuser interference (IUI), opening up the possibility to exploit advanced user subcarrier assignment schemes. Finally, the benefits of the multiple-resampling receivers are further demonstrated through channel capacity evaluation results.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Multi-user diversity systems with application to cognitive radio

Description

This thesis aims to investigate the capacity and bit error rate (BER) performance of multi-user diversity systems with random number of users and considers its application to cognitive radio systems.

This thesis aims to investigate the capacity and bit error rate (BER) performance of multi-user diversity systems with random number of users and considers its application to cognitive radio systems. Ergodic capacity, normalized capacity, outage capacity, and average bit error rate metrics are studied. It has been found that the randomization of the number of users will reduce the ergodic capacity. A stochastic ordering framework is adopted to order user distributions, for example, Laplace transform ordering. The ergodic capacity under different user distributions will follow their corresponding Laplace transform order. The scaling law of ergodic capacity with mean number of users under Poisson and negative binomial user distributions are studied for large mean number of users and these two random distributions are ordered in Laplace transform ordering sense. The ergodic capacity per user is defined and is shown to increase when the total number of users is randomized, which is the opposite to the case of unnormalized ergodic capacity metric. Outage probability under slow fading is also considered and shown to decrease when the total number of users is randomized. The bit error rate (BER) in a general multi-user diversity system has a completely monotonic derivative, which implies that, according to the Jensen's inequality, the randomization of the total number of users will decrease the average BER performance. The special case of Poisson number of users and Rayleigh fading is studied. Combining with the knowledge of regular variation, the average BER is shown to achieve tightness in the Jensen's inequality. This is followed by the extension to the negative binomial number of users, for which the BER is derived and shown to be decreasing in the number of users. A single primary user cognitive radio system with multi-user diversity at the secondary users is proposed. Comparing to the general multi-user diversity system, there exists an interference constraint between secondary and primary users, which is independent of the secondary users' transmission. The secondary user with high- est transmitted SNR which also satisfies the interference constraint is selected to communicate. The active number of secondary users is a binomial random variable. This is then followed by a derivation of the scaling law of the ergodic capacity with mean number of users and the closed form expression of average BER under this situation. The ergodic capacity under binomial user distribution is shown to outperform the Poisson case. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to supplement our analytical results and compare the performance of different user distributions.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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H-infinity control design via convex optimization: toward a comprehensive design environment

Description

The problem of systematically designing a control system continues to remain a subject of intense research. In this thesis, a very powerful control system design environment for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI)

The problem of systematically designing a control system continues to remain a subject of intense research. In this thesis, a very powerful control system design environment for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) plants is presented. The environment has been designed to address a broad set of closed loop metrics and constraints; e.g. weighted H-infinity closed loop performance subject to closed loop frequency and/or time domain constraints (e.g. peak frequency response, peak overshoot, peak controls, etc.). The general problem considered - a generalized weighted mixed-sensitivity problem subject to constraints - permits designers to directly address and tradeoff multivariable properties at distinct loop breaking points; e.g. at plant outputs and at plant inputs. As such, the environment is particularly powerful for (poorly conditioned) multivariable plants. The Youla parameterization is used to parameterize the set of all stabilizing LTI proper controllers. This is used to convexify the general problem being addressed. Several bases are used to turn the resulting infinite-dimensional problem into a finite-dimensional problem for which there exist many efficient convex optimization algorithms. A simple cutting plane algorithm is used within the environment. Academic and physical examples are presented to illustrate the utility of the environment.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Performance analysis of MIMO relay networks with beamforming

Description

This dissertation considers two different kinds of two-hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks with beamforming (BF). First, "one-way" amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) MIMO BF relay networks are considered, in

This dissertation considers two different kinds of two-hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks with beamforming (BF). First, "one-way" amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) MIMO BF relay networks are considered, in which the relay amplifies or decodes the received signal from the source and forwards it to the destination, respectively, where all nodes beamform with multiple antennas to obtain gains in performance with reduced power consumption. A direct link from source to destination is included in performance analysis. Novel systematic upper-bounds and lower-bounds to average bit or symbol error rates (BERs or SERs) are proposed. Second, "two-way" AF MIMO BF relay networks are investigated, in which two sources exchange their data through a relay, to improve the spectral efficiency compared with one-way relay networks. Novel unified performance analysis is carried out for five different relaying schemes using two, three, and four time slots in sum-BER, the sum of two BERs at both sources, in two-way relay networks with and without direct links. For both kinds of relay networks, when any node is beamforming simultaneously to two nodes (i.e. from source to relay and destination in one-way relay networks, and from relay to both sources in two-way relay networks), the selection of the BF coefficients at a beamforming node becomes a challenging problem since it has to balance the needs of both receiving nodes. Although this "BF optimization" is performed for BER, SER, and sum-BER in this dissertation, the solution for optimal BF coefficients not only is difficult to implement, it also does not lend itself to performance analysis because the optimal BF coefficients cannot be expressed in closed-form. Therefore, the performance of optimal schemes through bounds, as well as suboptimal ones such as strong-path BF, which beamforms to the stronger path of two links based on their received signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), is provided for BERs or SERs, for the first time. Since different channel state information (CSI) assumptions at the source, relay, and destination provide different error performance, various CSI assumptions are also considered.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Asymptotic techniques for space and multi-user diversity analysis in wireless communications

Description

To establish reliable wireless communication links it is critical to devise schemes to mitigate the effects of the fading channel. In this regard, this dissertation analyzes two types of systems:

To establish reliable wireless communication links it is critical to devise schemes to mitigate the effects of the fading channel. In this regard, this dissertation analyzes two types of systems: point-to-point, and multiuser systems. For point-to-point systems with multiple antennas, switch and stay diversity combining offers a substantial complexity reduction for a modest loss in performance as compared to systems that implement selection diversity. For the first time, the design and performance of space-time coded multiple antenna systems that employ switch and stay combining at the receiver is considered. Novel switching algorithms are proposed and upper bounds on the pairwise error probability are derived for different assumptions on channel availability at the receiver. It is proved that full spatial diversity is achieved when the optimal switching threshold is used. Power distribution between training and data codewords is optimized to minimize the loss suffered due to channel estimation error. Further, code design criteria are developed for differential systems. Also, for the special case of two transmit antennas, new codes are designed for the differential scheme. These proposed codes are shown to perform significantly better than existing codes. For multiuser systems, unlike the models analyzed in literature, multiuser diversity is studied when the number of users in the system is random. The error rate is proved to be a completely monotone function of the number of users, while the throughput is shown to have a completely monotone derivative. Using this it is shown that randomization of the number of users always leads to deterioration of performance. Further, using Laplace transform ordering of random variables, a method for comparison of system performance for different user distributions is provided. For Poisson users, the error rates of the fixed and random number of users are shown to asymptotically approach each other for large average number of users. In contrast, for a finite average number of users and high SNR, it is found that randomization of the number of users deteriorates performance significantly.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010