Matching Items (8)

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Magneto-dielectric wire antennas theory and design

Description

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in airborne applications and reduce the visual and RF signatures of the communication node. This dissertation is concerned with a new class of antennas called Magneto-Dielectric wire antennas (MDWA) that provide an ideal solution to this ever-present and growing need. Magneto-dielectric structures (μr>1;εr>1) can partially guide electromagnetic waves and radiate them by leaking off the structure or by scattering from any discontinuities, much like a metal antenna of the same shape. They are attractive alternatives to conventional whip and blade antennas because they can be placed conformal to a metallic ground plane without any performance penalty. A two pronged approach is taken to analyze MDWAs. In the first, antenna circuit models are derived for the prototypical dipole and loop elements that include the effects of realistic dispersive magneto-dielectric materials of construction. A material selection law results, showing that: (a) The maximum attainable efficiency is determined by a single magnetic material parameter that we term the hesitivity: Closely related to Snoek's product, it measures the maximum magnetic conductivity of the material. (b) The maximum bandwidth is obtained by placing the highest amount of μ" loss in the frequency range of operation. As a result, high radiation efficiency antennas can be obtained not only from the conventional low loss (low μ") materials but also with highly lossy materials (tan(δm)>>1). The second approach used to analyze MDWAs is through solving the Green function problem of the infinite magneto-dielectric cylinder fed by a current loop. This solution sheds light on the leaky and guided waves supported by the magneto-dielectric structure and leads to useful design rules connecting the permeability of the material to the cross sectional area of the antenna in relation to the desired frequency of operation. The Green function problem of the permeable prolate spheroidal antenna is also solved as a good approximation to a finite cylinder.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Analysis, design, simulation, and measurements of flexible high impedance surfaces

Description

High Impedance Surfaces (HISs), which have been investigated extensively, have proven to be very efficient ground planes for low profile antenna applications due to their unique reflection phase characteristics. Another

High Impedance Surfaces (HISs), which have been investigated extensively, have proven to be very efficient ground planes for low profile antenna applications due to their unique reflection phase characteristics. Another emerging research field among the microwave and antenna technologies is the design of flexible antennas and microwave circuits to be utilized in conformal applications. The combination of those two research topics gives birth to a third one, namely the design of Conformal or Flexible HISs (FHISs), which is the main subject of this dissertation. The problems associated with the FHISs are twofold: characterization and physical realization. The characterization involves the analysis of scattering properties of FHISs in the presence of plane wave and localized sources. For this purpose, an approximate analytical method is developed to characterize the reflection properties of a cylindrically curved FHIS. The effects of curvature on the reflection phase of the curved FHISs are examined. Furthermore, the effects of different types of currents, specifically the ones inherent to finite sized periodic structures, on the reflection phase characteristics are observed. After the reflection phase characterization of curved HISs, the performance of dipole antennas located in close proximity to a curved HIS are investigated, and the results are compared with the flat case. Different types of resonances that may occur for such a low-profile antenna application are discussed. The effects of curvature on the radiation performance of antennas are examined. Commercially available flexible materials are relatively thin which degrades the bandwidth of HISs. Another practical aspect, which is related to the substrate thickness, is the compactness of the surface. Because of the design limitations of conventional HISs, it is not possible to miniaturize the HIS and increase the bandwidth, simultaneously. To overcome this drawback, a novel HIS is proposed with a periodically perforated ground plane. Copper plated through holes are extremely vulnerable to bending and should be avoided at the bending parts of flexible circuits. Fortunately, if designed properly, the perforations on the ground plane may result in suppression of surface waves. Hence, metallic posts can be eliminated without hindering the surface wave suppression properties of HISs.

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  • 2013

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Distributed inference over multiple-access channels with wireless sensor networks

Description

Distributed inference has applications in fields as varied as source localization, evaluation of network quality, and remote monitoring of wildlife habitats. In this dissertation, distributed inference algorithms over multiple-access channels

Distributed inference has applications in fields as varied as source localization, evaluation of network quality, and remote monitoring of wildlife habitats. In this dissertation, distributed inference algorithms over multiple-access channels are considered. The performance of these algorithms and the effects of wireless communication channels on the performance are studied. In a first class of problems, distributed inference over fading Gaussian multiple-access channels with amplify-and-forward is considered. Sensors observe a phenomenon and transmit their observations using the amplify-and-forward scheme to a fusion center (FC). Distributed estimation is considered with a single antenna at the FC, where the performance is evaluated using the asymptotic variance of the estimator. The loss in performance due to varying assumptions on the limited amounts of channel information at the sensors is quantified. With multiple antennas at the FC, a distributed detection problem is also considered, where the error exponent is used to evaluate performance. It is shown that for zero-mean channels between the sensors and the FC when there is no channel information at the sensors, arbitrarily large gains in the error exponent can be obtained with sufficient increase in the number of antennas at the FC. In stark contrast, when there is channel information at the sensors, the gain in error exponent due to having multiple antennas at the FC is shown to be no more than a factor of 8/π for Rayleigh fading channels between the sensors and the FC, independent of the number of antennas at the FC, or correlation among noise samples across sensors. In a second class of problems, sensor observations are transmitted to the FC using constant-modulus phase modulation over Gaussian multiple-access-channels. The phase modulation scheme allows for constant transmit power and estimation of moments other than the mean with a single transmission from the sensors. Estimators are developed for the mean, variance and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensor observations. The performance of these estimators is studied for different distributions of the observations. It is proved that the estimator of the mean is asymptotically efficient if and only if the distribution of the sensor observations is Gaussian.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

Description

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, consisting of a remotely interrogating array of dipoles, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002.

In the present work a remotely interrogating slot antenna inside a 60nm silver slab is designed which increases the signal to noise ratio of the original system. The antenna is tuned to resonance at 600nm range by taking advantage of the plasmon resonance properties of the metal’s negative permittivity and judicious shaping of the slot element. Full-physics simulations show the capability of detecting an 8nm particle using red light illumination. The sensitivity to the λ/78 particle is attained by detecting the change induced on the antenna’s far field signature by the proximate particle, a change that is 15dB greater than the scattering signature of the particle by itself.

To verify the capabilities of this technology in a readily accessible experimental environment, a radiofrequency scale model is designed using a meta-material to mimic the optical properties of silver in the 2GHz to 5GHz range. Various approaches to the replication of the metal’s behavior are explored in a trade-off between fidelity to the metal’s natural plasmon response, desired bandwidth of the demonstration, and

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manufacturability of the meta-material. The simulation and experimental results successfully verify the capability of the proposed near-field sensor in sub-wavelength detection and imaging not only as a proof of concept for optical frequencies but also as a potential imaging device for radio frequencies.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Analysis, design and measurements of flat and curved circularly symmetric high impedance surfaces for curvilinear antenna applications

Description

In this dissertation a new wideband circular HIS is proposed. The circular periodicity made it possible to illuminate the surface with a cylindrical TEMz wave and; a novel technique is

In this dissertation a new wideband circular HIS is proposed. The circular periodicity made it possible to illuminate the surface with a cylindrical TEMz wave and; a novel technique is utilized to make it wideband. Two models are developed to analyze the

reflection characteristics of the proposed HIS.

The circularly symmetric high impedance surface is used as a ground plane for the design of a low-profile loop and spiral radiating elements. It is shown that a HIS with circular periodicity provides a wider operational bandwidth for curvilinear radiating elements such, such as loops and spirals, compared to canonical rectangular HISs.

It is also observed that, with the aid of a circular HIS ground plane the gain of a loop and a spiral increases compared to when a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) or rectangular HIS is used as a ground plane. The circular HIS was fabricated and the loop and spiral elements were placed individually in close proximity to it.

Also, due to the growing demand for low-radar signature (RCS) antennas for advanced airborne vehicles, curved and flexible HIS ground planes, which meet both the aerodynamic and low RCS requirements, have recently become popular candidates within the antenna and microwave technology. This encouraged us, to propose a spherical HIS where a 2-D curvature is introduced to the previously designed flat HIS.

The major problem associated with spherical HIS is the impact of the curvature on its reflection properties. After characterization of the flat circular HIS, which is addressed in the first part of this dissertation, a spherical curvature is introduced to the flat circular HIS and its impact on the reflection properties was examined when it was illuminated with the same cylindrical TEMz wave. The same technique, as for the flat HIS ground plane, is utilized to make the spherical HIS wideband. A loop and spiral element were placed in the vicinity of the curved HIS and their performanceswere investigated. The HISs were also fabricated and measurements were conducted to verify the simulations. An excellent agreement was observed.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Gain and bandwidth enhancement of ferrite-loaded CBS antenna using material shaping and positioning

Description

Loading a cavity-backed slot (CBS) antenna with ferrite material and applying a biasing static magnetic field can be used to control its resonant frequency. Such a mechanism results in a

Loading a cavity-backed slot (CBS) antenna with ferrite material and applying a biasing static magnetic field can be used to control its resonant frequency. Such a mechanism results in a frequency reconfigurable antenna. However, placing a lossy ferrite material inside the cavity can reduce the gain or negatively impact the impedance bandwidth. This thesis develops guidelines, based on a non-uniform applied magnetic field and non-uniform magnetic field internal to the ferrite specimen, for the design of ferrite-loaded CBS antennas which enhance their gain and tunable bandwidth by shaping the ferrite specimen and judiciously locating it within the cavity. To achieve these objectives, it is necessary to examine the influence of the shape and relative location of the ferrite material, and also the proximity of the ferrite specimen from the probe on the DC magnetic field and RF electric field distributions inside the cavity. The geometry of the probe and its impacts on figures-of-merit of the antenna is of interest as well. Two common cavity backed-slot antennas (rectangular and circular cross-section) were designed, and corresponding simulations and measurements were performed and compared. The cavities were mounted on 30 cm $\times$ 30 cm perfect electric conductor (PEC) ground planes and partially loaded with ferrite material. The ferrites were biased with an external magnetic field produced by either an electromagnet or permanent magnets. Simulations were performed using FEM-based commercial software, Ansys' Maxwell 3D and HFSS. Maxwell 3D is utilized to model the non-uniform DC applied magnetic field and non-uniform magnetic field internal to the ferrite specimen; HFSS however, is used to simulate and obtain the RF characteristics of the antenna. To validate the simulations they were compared with measurements performed in ASU's EM Anechoic Chamber. After many examinations using simulations and measurements, some optimal designs guidelines with respect to the gain, return loss and tunable impedance bandwidth, were obtained and recommended for ferrite-loaded CBS antennas.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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High impedance surface using a loop with negative impedance elements

Description

Antennas are required now to be compact and mobile. Traditional horizontally polarized antennas are placed in a quarter wave distance from a ground plane making the antenna system quite bulky.

Antennas are required now to be compact and mobile. Traditional horizontally polarized antennas are placed in a quarter wave distance from a ground plane making the antenna system quite bulky. High impedance surfaces are proposed for an antenna ground in close proximity. A new method to achieve a high impedance surface is suggested using a metamaterial comprising an infinite periodic array of conducting loops each of which is loaded with a non-Foster element. The non-Foster element cancels the loop's inductance resulting in a material with high effective permeability. Using this material as a spacer layer, it is possible to achieve a high impedance surface over a broad bandwidth. The proposed structure is different from Sievenpiper's high impedance surface because it has no need for a capacitive layer. As a result, however, it does not suppress the propagation of surface wave modes. The proposed structure is compared to another structure with frequency selective surface loaded with a non-Foster element on a simple spacer layer. In particular, the sensitivity of each structure to component tolerances is considered. The proposed structure shows a high impedance surface over broadband frequency but is much more sensitive than the frequency selective surface structure.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Asymptotic techniques for space and multi-user diversity analysis in wireless communications

Description

To establish reliable wireless communication links it is critical to devise schemes to mitigate the effects of the fading channel. In this regard, this dissertation analyzes two types of systems:

To establish reliable wireless communication links it is critical to devise schemes to mitigate the effects of the fading channel. In this regard, this dissertation analyzes two types of systems: point-to-point, and multiuser systems. For point-to-point systems with multiple antennas, switch and stay diversity combining offers a substantial complexity reduction for a modest loss in performance as compared to systems that implement selection diversity. For the first time, the design and performance of space-time coded multiple antenna systems that employ switch and stay combining at the receiver is considered. Novel switching algorithms are proposed and upper bounds on the pairwise error probability are derived for different assumptions on channel availability at the receiver. It is proved that full spatial diversity is achieved when the optimal switching threshold is used. Power distribution between training and data codewords is optimized to minimize the loss suffered due to channel estimation error. Further, code design criteria are developed for differential systems. Also, for the special case of two transmit antennas, new codes are designed for the differential scheme. These proposed codes are shown to perform significantly better than existing codes. For multiuser systems, unlike the models analyzed in literature, multiuser diversity is studied when the number of users in the system is random. The error rate is proved to be a completely monotone function of the number of users, while the throughput is shown to have a completely monotone derivative. Using this it is shown that randomization of the number of users always leads to deterioration of performance. Further, using Laplace transform ordering of random variables, a method for comparison of system performance for different user distributions is provided. For Poisson users, the error rates of the fixed and random number of users are shown to asymptotically approach each other for large average number of users. In contrast, for a finite average number of users and high SNR, it is found that randomization of the number of users deteriorates performance significantly.

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Date Created
  • 2010