Matching Items (9)

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The effects of an internet-based self-compassion writing intervention for adults with mental illness

Description

Multiple studies have found that writing with self-compassion about a difficult event helps promote mental health and improve affect in college students and non-clinical populations (Johnson & O'Brien, 2013; Leary

Multiple studies have found that writing with self-compassion about a difficult event helps promote mental health and improve affect in college students and non-clinical populations (Johnson & O'Brien, 2013; Leary et al, 2007; Shapira & Mongrain, 2010). This study investigated whether a self-compassion writing intervention would lead to increases in self-compassion and proactive coping and reductions in depression and physical symptoms in a sample of individuals with different types of mental illness. This study also looked more broadly at the feasibility of conducting an online randomized trial on individuals with mental illness, including psychotic disorders, on Amazon MTurk. Individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and/or depression on Amazon MTurk were recruited and randomly assigned to either a (1) treatment condition in which participants wrote with self-compassion or a (2) neutral condition in which participants wrote about how they spent their time. Participants were asked to write for 20 minutes each day for three consecutive days. Outcome measures were administered at baseline, after the three-day intervention, and one month later. Computerized linguistic analysis (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2015) was also used to analyze participants' writing to determine if the intervention had the intended effect. Both the treatment and control groups showed significant improvements in self-compassion, proactive coping, general mental health and physical health following the intervention and both groups showed significant improvements in self-compassion, proactive coping and general mental health between the post-test and 1-month follow-up. In addition, the self-compassion writing group's positive affect improved significantly more than the control group after the wave 1 writing intervention and the control group's negative affect improved significantly more than the self-compassion writing group after the wave 2 writing intervention. Overall, the results suggest both self-compassion writing and writing about how one spends one's time may be beneficial for individuals with mental illness with different needs. Moreover, it was found Amazon MTurk may not be a reliable platform for recruiting individuals with psychotic disorders, and that the prevalence of individuals with any mental illness on MTurk may be equal or greater than the prevalence of any mental illness in the general population.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Fostering Creative Compassion in Honors Students Through Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy and Mindfulness

Description

This quasi-experimental, concurrent, mixed method, action research study sought to evaluate how an elective 1-credit course informed by mindfulness and culturally sustaining pedagogy influenced honors students’ academic self-efficacy, self-compassion, and

This quasi-experimental, concurrent, mixed method, action research study sought to evaluate how an elective 1-credit course informed by mindfulness and culturally sustaining pedagogy influenced honors students’ academic self-efficacy, self-compassion, and their meaning-making about what it means to be an honors student. Theoretical perspectives and research guiding the study included: academic self-efficacy, culturally sustaining pedagogy, mindfulness, and third space. Drawing from these perspectives, the 9-week Creative Compassion course utilized poetry and rap as a way to enact culturally sustaining pedagogy and also as a vehicle for students to practice mindfulness. Findings from quantitative data from pre- and post- surveys of a treatment and control population, as well as qualitative data (open-ended survey questions, focus groups, and student artifacts) from the treatment population are presented here. This study revealed the following: practices informed by culturally sustaining pedagogy positively impacted students’ mindfulness, these same practices allowed for the creation of a third space within the classroom, and improving student self-compassion should be an increased priority. Additional implications for research and practice are also presented.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Grieving adolescents co-perform collective compassion in a concert of emotions as they stop! in the name of love at Comfort Zone Camp

Description

The death of a parent or sibling for youth under age 18 is life-altering and necessitates support and opportunities for expressing grief. Scholarship from psychology and medical disciplines often equates

The death of a parent or sibling for youth under age 18 is life-altering and necessitates support and opportunities for expressing grief. Scholarship from psychology and medical disciplines often equates youthful grieving as a disease to be cured rather than a natural process to be experienced. Stage-based grief models explain adults coping with loss of loved ones by working through a series of discrete phases mostly tied to deficit-based emotions such as anger or depression. Progressive grief models have been emerging throughout the past 20 years in response to stage-based models; however these models tend to highlight deficit-based emotions and are applied to youth as afterthoughts. Thus, there is a noticeable absence of research exploring positive or strength-based emotions in adolescent grief from a communicative, youth-centered perspective. A communicative approach to exploring adolescent grief narratives offers a practical yet pliable theoretical lens for interpreting meaning from mourning. Using qualitative methods, I conducted full participant research as a volunteer with Comfort Zone Camp, a national organization sponsoring weekend-long grief camps for youth. I engaged in participant observation while volunteering to explore the communicative processes of 26 grieving adolescents and also conducted post-camp follow-up interviews with youth, parents, and adult volunteers. Analysis was based on 192 field work hours, 11 interview hours, artifacts, and camp documents. Findings of the dissertation indicate grieving adolescents use communicative processes, including sharing emotional pieces, co-authoring loss, and naming hurt, to perform a range of emotions. Along with deficit-based emotions, grieving adolescents perform strength-based emotions, including confidence, forgiveness, happiness, deservingness, hope, gratitude, resilience, love, and compassion. Evidence also supports that grieving campers performed compassion individually and in groups. Theoretically, this dissertation expands on existing grief theory by demonstrating that adolescents communicate strength-based emotions in grief, captured visually in the Concert of Emotions model. This study expands on compassion theory by exploring implications of collective compassion expressions. Specifically, this dissertation offers the co-performing sub-process to account for collective compassion extending past compassion models that focus on individual expressions. Practically, this research yields new understanding into how grieving adolescents constitute themselves as compassionate, helpful contributors as they face loss.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Measuring mindfulness-related constructs and the role of meditation in the association between mindfulness-related constructs and mental health among U.S. adults

Description

Mindfulness is a concept derived from the Buddhist discourses of the Satipattana. Interventions that draw on mindfulness have been shown to reduce psychologically distressing symptoms in clinical settings. It has

Mindfulness is a concept derived from the Buddhist discourses of the Satipattana. Interventions that draw on mindfulness have been shown to reduce psychologically distressing symptoms in clinical settings. It has become widely used as a therapeutic technique in counseling, so it is important to develop an instrument measuring mindfulness-related constructs. This study presents a new instrument measuring the importance of mindfulness-related constructs. Results from an exploratory factor analysis revealed a clear two-factor structure, with the factors named "Present Moment Awareness", and "Compassion and Ethical Behavior." These items were positively correlated with each other and, as expected, negatively correlated with depression. Finally, hours of meditation moderated this association such that the association was stronger among participants who reported higher levels of meditation practice.

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Communicating with compassion: the exploratory factor analysis and primary validation process of the Compassionate Communication Scale

Description

The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a Compassionate Communication Scale (CCS) by conducting a series of studies. The first study used qualitative data to identify and develop initial

The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a Compassionate Communication Scale (CCS) by conducting a series of studies. The first study used qualitative data to identify and develop initial scale items. A series of follow-up studies used exploratory factor analysis to investigate the underlying structure of the CCS. A three-factor structure emerged, which included: Compassionate conversation, such as listening, letting the distressed person disclose feelings, and making empathetic remarks; compassionate touch, such as holding someone's hand or patting someone's back; and compassionate messaging, such as posting an encouraging message on a social networking site or sending a sympathetic email. The next study tested convergent and divergent validity by determining how the three forms of compassionate communication associate with various traits. Compassionate conversation was positively related to compassion, empathetic concern, perspective taking, emotional intelligence, social expressivity, emotional expressivity and benevolence, and negatively related to verbal aggressiveness and narcissism. Compassionate touch was positively correlated with compassion, empathetic concern, perspective taking, emotional intelligence, social expressivity, emotional expressivity, and benevolence, and uncorrelated with verbal aggressiveness and benevolence. Finally, compassionate messaging was positively correlated with social expressivity, emotional expressivity, and uncorrelated with verbal aggressiveness and narcissism. The next study focused on cross-validation and criterion-related validity. Correlations showing that self-reports of a person's compassionate communication were positively related to a friend or romantic partner's report of that person's compassionate communication provided cross-validation. The test for criterion-related validity examined whether compassionate communication predicts relational satisfaction. Regression analyses revealed that people were more relationally satisfied when they perceived themselves to use compassionate conversation, when they perceived their partner to use compassionate conversation, and when their partner reported using compassionate conversation. This finding did not extend to compassionate touch or compassionate messaging. In fact, in one regression analysis, people reported more relational satisfaction when they perceived that their partners used high levels of compassionate conversation and low levels of compassionate touch. Overall, the analyses suggest that of the three forms of compassionate communication, compassionate conversation is most strongly related to relational satisfaction. Taken together, this series of studies provides initial evidence for the validity of the CCS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

Film and emotional contagion: audiencing, witnessing, and performing the Lingua Franca of compassion

Description

Utilizing visual semiotics and performance theories as a backdrop to inform a discussion regarding entertainment education and community dialogue, this study explores a unique case of compassionate communication being enacted

Utilizing visual semiotics and performance theories as a backdrop to inform a discussion regarding entertainment education and community dialogue, this study explores a unique case of compassionate communication being enacted at the most crucial moment – facing a school shooter at the height of a critical juncture. Through narrative film techniques and dramatism, a recreation of the real-life event was re-framed and distilled into a documentary-style film to showcase to general audiences for the purpose of dialogue catalyzation and elicitation. The film acts as a provocative statement for the process of conducting a Civil Dialogue® with the viewing audience. Qualitative analysis of 12 dialogue groups and 15 individual interviews (primarily college students) explores the impact film has on viewers’ perceptions, their participation in dialogue, and the role of affect when it comes to communicating with others. Findings suggest a positive correlation between film, emotional engagement, and dialogue participation, with significant impact on viewer’s perceptions and indications of influencing anticipated future behavior. Additional findings and analysis reveal a cultural master narrative of “fight or flight” syndrome, and a tendency toward spectacle or doing things “for show.” Novel concepts such as visual capital and performative cognition emerge to inform a new arts-based method and the development of a theory referred to as the Tuff-Hill Phenomenon.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Organizing compassionate communication: pragmatic fieldwork with nonprofits and homeless young adults

Description

In an effort to understand and improve interactions between homeless young adults and the nonprofit organizations that serve them, I engaged in a long-term, qualitative, participatory action project. My project

In an effort to understand and improve interactions between homeless young adults and the nonprofit organizations that serve them, I engaged in a long-term, qualitative, participatory action project. My project involved input from homeless young adults, nonprofit organizations, volunteers/staff, and communication scholarship. While taking a community-engaged, participatory, and qualitative approach, I focused on the interactions between youth and the organizations. Particularly, I drew on homeless young adult experiences to inform services and illuminate compassion within the context of the nonprofit organizations. In the end, this project extends the individual model of compassion to include presence, identifies potential ruptures in the process of compassion, and models compassionate dynamics in organizations. It also articulates a method I call pragmatic fieldwork, a qualitative and pragmatic approach to participatory action research. Each of these outcomes speaks to varied community interests, from theoretically nuancing scholarly models of compassion to informing policy in the interest of more effectively and compassionately serving homeless youth.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Associations among self-compassion, stress, and eating behavior in college freshmen

Description

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored within the context of various health behaviors. Very few studies have investigated the potential relationship between self-compassion and eating behaviors. Based on literature and the established relationship between negative self-evaluation and abnormal eating behaviors/eating disorders, the current study sought to examine correlations between self-compassion, eating behaviors, and stress in first time college freshmen. The study population consisted of 1478 participants; ages 18-22 years; females = 936 (63%), males = 541 (37%). Participants self-reported measures of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and the Self Compassion Scale (SCS). PSS score, the overall score and individual subscale scores of SCS, and the three subscale scores of the TFEQ (restraint, disinhibiton, hunger) were examined with Pearson correlations. Results of this study indicate significant (p = < .05) differences between males and females in PSS and all three negative SCS subscales. There was a strong and consistent correlation between the eating behavior of disinhibition and all three negative constructs of self-compassion (self-judgment, r = .29; isolation, r = .23; over-identification, r = .28) in females. The eating behavior of restraint was similarly correlated with SCS self-judgment in females (r = .26). More research is needed to understand differences in stress, self-compassion, and eating behaviors between males and females and to better comprehend the weak associations between eating behaviors and the positive psychological constructs of self-compassion (self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness) for males and females. Additionally, future research should focus on the three subscales of disinhibition as they relate to the negative constructs of self-compassion. The preliminary results of this study suggest it would be beneficial, particularly to female college freshmen, to more fully understand the dynamics of the relationship between eating behaviors and self-compassion; this knowledge may help to better structure appropriate coping strategies for the prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Recognizing, relating, and responding: hospice workers and the communication of compassion

Description

In a mere thirty years, hospice has grown from a purely ideological philosophy of care for terminally ill individuals and their families, to a large and well organized healthcare entity.

In a mere thirty years, hospice has grown from a purely ideological philosophy of care for terminally ill individuals and their families, to a large and well organized healthcare entity. And government statistics project that healthcare will generate more new jobs than any other industry in America until at least 2018. While most of the extant literature that has been published on healthcare workers has focused on negative organizational processes, such as stress and burnout, there has been a recent shift in scholarly ideology in which researchers have been challenged to consider the positive aspects of organizational life as well. Compassion, theorized as a three-part interrelated process, is one area that is garnering interest within organizational studies. Utilizing grounded theory, this study engaged literature from organizational studies on emotional labor, stress, and burnout, as well as literature on positive organizational communication. What emerged from the data is a richly detailed picture of the emotional highs and lows that hospice workers experience in their jobs. Research was conducted at two large hospices in the desert southwest, utilized qualitative methods of participant observation (161 hours), and informal and semi-structured interviews (29 interviews) as a means to understand hospice workers--nurses (32), nursing assistants (23), social workers (14), and spiritual care providers (4)--experiences of emotion. Through data analysis, compassion emerged as a salient concept in worker's daily experiences. Yet, my data suggested a reconceptualization of the way in which compassion has been theorized in the past--as noticing, feeling, and responding. Based on my findings, I argue that the three subprocesses could more accurately be described recognizing, relating, and responding.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010