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Oxidative stress and a high fat diet in rats : an intervention study on the effects of an organometallic compound on enzyme function, inflammatory markers, endotoxins and fasting serum glucose and insulin levels

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Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease

Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease is oxidative stress due to free radical accumulation. This intervention study was conducted to evaluate any potential mediation of oxidative stress using a soil-derived organometallic compound (OMC) with suspected antioxidant properties. A 10-week study was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 42) fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) consisting of 60% kcal from fat or a standard Chow diet containing only 6% kcals from fat. Rats from each diet group were then subdivided into 3 subgroups (n = 6-10 each) that received 0.0 mg/mL, 0.6 mg/mL or 3.0 mg/mL OMC. Neither the diet nor OMC significantly changed protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in isolated aortas. Plasma levels of the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were below detection after the 10-week trial. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a scavenger of the free radical, superoxide, was not significantly different following HFD although levels of SOD were significantly higher in Chow rats treated with 0.6 mg/mL OMC compared to HFD rats treated with the same dose (p < 0.05). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were significantly increased following 10 weeks of high fat intake (p < 0.05). This increase in endotoxicity was prevented by the high dose of OMC. HFD significantly increased fasting serum glucose levels at both 6 weeks (p < 0.001) and 10 weeks (p < 0.025) compared to Chow controls. The high dose of OMC significantly prevented the hyperglycemic effects of the HFD in rats at 10 weeks (p = 0.021). HFD-fed rats developed hyperinsulinemia after 10 weeks of feeding (p = 0.009), which was not prevented by OMC. The results of this study indicate that OMC may be an effective strategy to help manage diet-induced hyperglycemia and endotoxemia. However, further research is needed to determine the mechanism by which OMC helps prevent hyperglycemia as measures of inflammation (TNFα) and vascular damage (iNOS) were inconclusive.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Effect of a short term high fat diet on kidney morphology and function

Description

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes

and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes

and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a six week HFD (60% fat) on kidney structure and function in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. Previous studies have shown that these animals develop indices of diabetes compared to rats fed a standard rodent chow (5% fat) for six weeks. The hypothesis of this study is that six weeks of HFD will lead to early stages of kidney disease as evidenced by morphological and functional changes in the kidney. Alterations in morphology were determined by measuring structural changes in the kidneys (changes in mass, fatty acid infiltration, and structural damage). Alterations in kidney function were measured by analyzing urinary biomarkers of oxidative RNA/DNA damage, renal tissue lipid peroxidation, urinary markers of impaired kidney function (urinary protein, creatinine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)), as well as cystatin C, a plasma biomarker of kidney function. The results of these studies determined that short term HFD intake is not sufficient to induce early stage kidney disease. Beyond increases in renal mass, there were no significant differences between the markers of renal structure and function in the HFD and standard rodent chow-fed rats.

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Date Created
  • 2015