Matching Items (5)

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Fuel Cell Integrated Gas Turbine Hybrid System Under Various Conditions

Description

A novel concept for integration of flame-assisted fuel cells (FFC) with a gas turbine is analyzed in this paper. Six different fuels (CH4, C3H8, JP-4, JP-5, JP-10(L), and H2) are

A novel concept for integration of flame-assisted fuel cells (FFC) with a gas turbine is analyzed in this paper. Six different fuels (CH4, C3H8, JP-4, JP-5, JP-10(L), and H2) are investigated for the analytical model of the FFC integrated gas turbine hybrid system. As equivalence ratio increases, the efficiency of the hybrid system increases initially then decreases because the decreasing flow rate of air begins to outweigh the increasing hydrogen concentration. This occurs at an equivalence ratio of 2 for CH4. The thermodynamic cycle is analyzed using a temperature entropy diagram and a pressure volume diagram. These thermodynamic diagrams show as equivalence ratio increases, the power generated by the turbine in the hybrid setup decreases. Thermodynamic analysis was performed to verify that energy is conserved and the total chemical energy going into the system was equal to the heat rejected by the system plus the power generated by the system. Of the six fuels, the hybrid system performs best with H2 as the fuel. The electrical efficiency with H2 is predicted to be 27%, CH4 is 24%, C3H8 is 22%, JP-4 is 21%, JP-5 is 20%, and JP-10(L) is 20%. When H2 fuel is used, the overall integrated system is predicted to be 24.5% more efficient than the standard gas turbine system. The integrated system is predicted to be 23.0% more efficient with CH4, 21.9% more efficient with C3H8, 22.7% more efficient with JP-4, 21.3% more efficient with JP-5, and 20.8% more efficient with JP-10(L). The sensitivity of the model is investigated using various fuel utilizations. When CH4 fuel is used, the integrated system is predicted to be 22.7% more efficient with a fuel utilization efficiency of 90% compared to that of 30%.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Large Eddy Simulations of a reverse flow combustion system

Description

Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines

Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential to have computational tools to help designers. Over the past few decades, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has played a key role in the design of turbomachinary and will be heavily relied upon for the design of future components. In order to design components with the least amount of experimental rig testing, the ensemble of submodels used in simulations must be known to accurately predict the component's performance. The present work aims to validate a CFD model used for a reverse flow, rich-burn, quick quench, lean-burn combustor being developed at Honeywell. Initially, simulations are performed to establish a baseline which will help to assess impact to combustor performance made by changing CFD models. Rig test data from Honeywell is compared to these baseline simulation results. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models are both used with the presumption that the LES turbulence model will better predict combustor performance. One specific model, the fuel spray model, is evaluated next. Experimental data of the fuel spray in an isolated environment is used to evaluate models for the fuel spray and a new, simpler approach for inputting the spray boundary conditions (BC) in the combustor is developed. The combustor is simulated once more to evaluate changes from the new fuel spray boundary conditions. This CFD model is then used in a predictive simulation of eight other combustor configurations. All computer simulations in this work were preformed with the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT. NOx pollutant emissions are predicted reasonably well across the range of configurations tested using the RANS turbulence model. However, in LES, significant under predictions are seen. Causes of the under prediction in NOx concentrations are investigated. Temperature metrics at the exit of the combustor, however, are seen to be better predicted with LES.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Experimental study of main gas ingestion and purge gas egress flow in model gas turbine stages

Description

Efficient performance of gas turbines depends, among several parameters, on the mainstream gas entry temperature. At the same time, transport of this high temperature gas into the rotor-stator cavities of

Efficient performance of gas turbines depends, among several parameters, on the mainstream gas entry temperature. At the same time, transport of this high temperature gas into the rotor-stator cavities of turbine stages affects the durability of rotor disks. This transport is usually countered by installing seals on the rotor and stator disk rims and by pressurizing the cavities by injecting air (purge gas) bled from the compressor discharge. The configuration of the rim seals influences the magnitude of main gas ingestion as well as the interaction of the purge gas with the main gas. The latter has aerodynamic and hub endwall heat transfer implications in the main gas path. In the present work, experiments were performed on model single-stage and 1.5-stage axial-flow turbines. The turbines featured vanes, blades, and rim seals on both the rotor and stator disks. Three different rim seal geometries, viz., axially overlapping radial clearance rim seals for the single-stage turbine cavity and the 1.5-stage turbine aft cavity, and a rim seal with angular clearance for the single-stage turbine cavity were studied. In the single-stage turbine, an inner seal radially inboard in the cavity was also provided; this effectively divided the disk cavity into a rim cavity and an inner cavity. For the aft rotor-stator cavity of the 1.5-stage turbine, a labyrinth seal was provided radially inboard, again creating a rim cavity and an inner cavity. Measurement results of time-average main gas ingestion into the cavities using tracer gas (CO2), and ensemble-averaged trajectories of the purge gas flowing out through the rim seal gap into the main gas path using particle image velocimetry are presented. For both turbines, significant ingestion occurred only in the rim cavity. The inner cavity was almost completely sealed by the inner seal, at all purge gas flow rates for the single-stage turbine and at the higher purge gas flow rates for 1.5-stage turbine. Purge gas egress trajectory was found to depend on main gas and purge gas flow rates, the rim seal configuration, and the azimuthal location of the trajectory mapping plane with respect to the vanes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Experimental study of the flow field in a model rotor-stator disk cavity using particle image velocimetry

Description

Modern day gas turbine designers face the problem of hot mainstream gas ingestion into rotor-stator disk cavities. To counter this ingestion, seals are installed on the rotor and stator disk

Modern day gas turbine designers face the problem of hot mainstream gas ingestion into rotor-stator disk cavities. To counter this ingestion, seals are installed on the rotor and stator disk rims and purge air, bled off from the compressor, is injected into the cavities. It is desirable to reduce the supply of purge air as this decreases the net power output as well as efficiency of the gas turbine. Since the purge air influences the disk cavity flow field and effectively the amount of ingestion, the aim of this work was to study the cavity velocity field experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were carried out in a model single-stage axial flow turbine set-up that featured blades as well as vanes, with purge air supplied at the hub of the rotor-stator disk cavity. Along with the rotor and stator rim seals, an inner labyrinth seal was provided which split the disk cavity into a rim cavity and an inner cavity. First, static gage pressure distribution was measured to ensure that nominally steady flow conditions had been achieved. The PIV experiments were then performed to map the velocity field on the radial-tangential plane within the rim cavity at four axial locations. Instantaneous velocity maps obtained by PIV were analyzed sector-by-sector to understand the rim cavity flow field. It was observed that the tangential velocity dominated the cavity flow at low purge air flow rate, its dominance decreasing with increase in the purge air flow rate. Radially inboard of the rim cavity, negative radial velocity near the stator surface and positive radial velocity near the rotor surface indicated the presence of a recirculation region in the cavity whose radial extent increased with increase in the purge air flow rate. Qualitative flow streamline patterns are plotted within the rim cavity for different experimental conditions by combining the PIV map information with ingestion measurements within the cavity as reported in Thiagarajan (2013).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Hydrogen fuel cell on a helicopter: a system engineering approach

Description

Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted

Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted to extend their applicability to rotary wing aircrafts. To aid in the advancement of such innovative technologies, a holistic technical approach is required to ensure risk reduction and cost effectiveness throughout the product lifecycle. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of replacing a gas turbine auxiliary power unit on a helicopter with a direct hydrogen, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, all while emphasizing a system engineering approach that utilize a specialized set of tools and artifacts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016