Matching Items (2)

148068-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid Shear Thinning Hydrogels Towards Neural Cell Applications

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widespread health issue that affects approximately 1.7 million lives per year. The effects of TBI go past the incident of primary injury, as chronic

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widespread health issue that affects approximately 1.7 million lives per year. The effects of TBI go past the incident of primary injury, as chronic damage can follow for years and cause irreversible neurodegeneration. A potential strategy for repair that has been studied is cell transplantation, as neural stem cells improve neurological function. While promising, neural stem cell transplantation presents challenges due to a relatively low survival rate post-implantation and issues with determining the optimal method of transplantation. Shear-thinning hydrogels are a type of hydrogel whose linkages break when under shear stress, exhibiting viscous flow, but reform and recover upon relaxation. Such properties allow them to be easily injected for minimally invasive delivery, while also shielding encapsulated cells from high shear forces, which would normally degrade the function and viability of such cells. As such, it is salient to research whether shear-thinning hydrogels are feasible candidates in neural cell transplantation applications for neuroregenerative medicine. In this honors thesis, shear-thinning hydrogels were formed through guest-host interactions of adamantane modified HA (guest ad-HA) and beta-cyclodextrin modified HA (host CD-HA). The purpose of the study was to characterize the injection force profile of different weight percentages of the HA shear-thinning hydrogel. The break force and average glide force were also compared between the differing weight percentages. By understanding the force exerted on the hydrogel when being injected, we could characterize how neural cells may respond to encapsulation and injection within HA shear-thinning hydrogels. We identified that 5% weight HA hydrogel required greater injection force than 4% weight HA hydrogel to be fully delivered. Such contexts are valuable, as this implies that higher weight percentage gels impart higher shear forces on encapsulated cells than lower weight gels. Further study is required to optimize our injection force system’s sensitivity and to investigate if cell encapsulation increases the force required for injection.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

154106-Thumbnail Image.png

Modulating chemokine receptor expression in neural stem cell transplants to promote migration after traumatic brain injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death. Almost half (43%) of all TBI patients report experiencing long-term cognitive and/or motor dysfunction. These long-term deficits are largely due to the expansive biochemical injury that underlies the mechanical injury traditionally associated with TBI. Despite this, there are currently no clinically available therapies that directly address these underlying pathologies. Preclinical studies have looked at stem cell transplantation as a means to mitigate the effects of the biochemical injury with moderate success; however, transplants suffer very low retention and engraftment rates (2-4%). Therefore, transplants need better tools to dynamically respond to the injury microenvironment.

One approach to develop new tools for stem cell transplants may be to look towards the endogenous repair response for inspiration. Specifically, activated cell types surrounding the injury secrete the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), which has been shown to play a critical role in recruiting endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) to the site of injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that improving NPSC response to SDF-1α may be a viable mechanism for improving NPSC transplant retention and migration into the surrounding host tissue. To this end, work presented here has 1. identified critical extracellular signals that mediate the NPSC response to SDF-1α, 2. incorporated these findings into the development of a transplantation platform that increases NPSC responsiveness to SDF-1α and 3. observed increased NPSC responsiveness to local exogenous SDF-1α signaling following transplantation within our novel system. Future work will include studies investigating NSPC response to endogenous, injury-induced SDF-1α and the application of this work to understanding differences between stem cell sources and their implications in cell therapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015