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Blow Flies and the American Diet:Effects of Fat Content on Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Development

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Forensic entomology is an important field of forensic science that utilizes insect evidence in criminal investigations. Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are among the first colonizers of remains and are therefore frequently used in determining the minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). Blow

Forensic entomology is an important field of forensic science that utilizes insect evidence in criminal investigations. Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are among the first colonizers of remains and are therefore frequently used in determining the minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). Blow fly development, however, is influenced by a variety of factors including temperature and feeding substrate type. Unfortunately, dietary fat content remains an understudied factor on the development process, which is problematic given the relatively high rates of obesity in the United States. To study the effects of fat content on blow fly development we investigated the survivorship, adult weight and development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen; Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen; Diptera: Calliphoridae) on ground beef with a 10%, 20%, or 27% fat content. As fat content increased, survivorship decreased across both species with P. regina being significantly impacted. While P. regina adults were generally larger than L. sericata across all fat levels, only L. sericata demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight by sex. Average total development times for P. regina are comparable to averages published in other literature. Average total development times for L. sericata, however, were nearly 50 hours higher. These findings provide insight on the effect of fat content on blow fly development, a factor that should be considered when estimating a mPMI. By understanding how fat levels affect the survivorship and development of the species studied here, we can begin improving the practice of insect evidence analysis in casework.

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2021-05

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Use of microRNA to Determine the Age of Forensically Relevant Blow Fly Pupae

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Medicolegal forensic entomology is the study of insects to aid with legal investigations (Gemmellaro, 2017). Insect evidence can be used to provide information such as the post-mortem interval (PMI). Blow flies are especially useful as these insects are primary colonizers,

Medicolegal forensic entomology is the study of insects to aid with legal investigations (Gemmellaro, 2017). Insect evidence can be used to provide information such as the post-mortem interval (PMI). Blow flies are especially useful as these insects are primary colonizers, quickly arriving at a corpse (Malainey & Anderson, 2020). The age of blow flies found at a scene is used to calculate the PMI. Blow fly age can be estimated using weather data as these insects are poikilothermic (Okpara, 2018). Morphological analysis also can be used to estimate age; however, it is more difficult with pupal samples as the pupae exterior does not change significantly as development progresses (Bala & Sharma, 2016). Gene regulation analysis can estimate the age of samples. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression (Cannell et al., 2008). Here, we aim to catalog miRNAs expressed during the development of three forensically relevant blow fly species preserved in several storage conditions. Results demonstrated that various miRNA sequences were differentially expressed across pupation. Expression of miR92b increased during mid pupation, aga-miR-92b expression increased during early pupation, and bantam, miR957, and dana-bantam-RA expression increased during late pupation. These results suggest that microRNA can be used to estimate the age of pupal samples as miRNA expression changes throughout pupation. Future work could develop a statistical model to accurately determine age using miRNA expression patterns.

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2021-05

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The Effect of Over-the-Counter Drugs on Blood Spatter and Blood Deposit

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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis and Toxicology are important aspects of Forensic Science in determining what occurred at a crime scene. There are limited studies done on the effects of drugs on blood spatter found at crime scenes. Since drugs can have

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis and Toxicology are important aspects of Forensic Science in determining what occurred at a crime scene. There are limited studies done on the effects of drugs on blood spatter found at crime scenes. Since drugs can have different effects on the body, the blood would be affected by these drugs. Visine and Aspirin were chosen to be incorporated into sheep’s blood due to their common use in the general population. Contaminated blood was deposited onto several common surfaces alongside controls. The results were compared to the control and the secondary control, DI water added to blood, using a two-sample t-test. Many of the results came back as significant including the secondary control compared to the control group. Therefore the significance of the results cannot be linked directly back to the substances themselves, but to the water in addition to the substance added. Future studies could be done with higher concentrations of drugs, with the metabolites of drugs, and with different drugs, licit and illicit.

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2022-05