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Impacts of Age on Neuropsychological Task Performance

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The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) would decrease from their initial visit to their

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) would decrease from their initial visit to their one year follow-up visit and that greater overall age is associated with worse performance. Overall, the older adults with a follow-up visit in this study experienced greater decline on the RBANS DMI than on the RBANS total scaled score. There seems to be a negative trend in which individuals with higher first-visit VCI scores experience greater improvement on the first trial of the motor task with the non-dominant hand. The same trend can be seen in DMI scores where higher initial DMI scores are associated with greater improvement on the first non-dominant hand trial of the motor task. This initial trend suggests that visuospatial scores have an association with long-term change in the motor task. The number of participants in this data set were limited, thus more data will be needed to increase confidence in conclusions about these relationships in the future.

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2021-05

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Neuropsychological functioning and stress reactivity In type 1 diabetes mellitus

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that requires maintaining tight metabolic control through complex behavioral and pharmaceutical regimens. Subtle cognitive impairments and stress response dysregulation may partially account for problems negotiating life changes and maintaining treatment adherence

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that requires maintaining tight metabolic control through complex behavioral and pharmaceutical regimens. Subtle cognitive impairments and stress response dysregulation may partially account for problems negotiating life changes and maintaining treatment adherence among emerging adults. The current study examined whether young adults with T1DM physiologically respond to psychological stress in a dysregulated manner compared to non-diabetic peers, and if such individuals also demonstrated greater cognitive declines following psychological stress. Participants included 23 young adults with T1DM and 52 non-diabetic controls yoked to T1DM participants based on age, gender, ethnicity, participant education, and maternal education. Participants completed a laboratory-based social stressor, pre- and post-stressor neurocognitive testing, provided fingerstick blood spots (for glucose levels) and salivary samples (for cortisol levels) at five points across the protocol, and completed psychosocial questionnaires. Related measures ANOVAs were conducted to assess differences between T1DM participants and the average of yoked controls on cortisol and cognitive outcomes. Results demonstrated that differences in cortisol reactivity were dependent on T1DM participants' use of insulin pump therapy (IPT). T1DM participants not using IPT demonstrated elevated cortisol reactivity compared to matched controls. There was no difference in cortisol reactivity between the T1DM participants on IPT and matched controls. On the Stroop task, performance patterns did not differ between participants with T1DM not on IPT and matched controls. The performance of participants with T1DM on IPT slightly improved following the stressor and matched controls slightly worsened. On the Trail Making Test, the performance of participants with T1DM was not different following the stressor whereas participants without T1DM demonstrated a decline following the stressor. Participants with and without T1DM did not differ in patterns of performance on the Rey Verbal Learning Task, Sustained Attention Allocation Task, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, or overall cortisol output across participation. The results of this study are suggestive of an exaggerated cortisol response to psychological stress in T1DM and indicate potential direct and indirect protective influences of IPT.

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2013