Matching Items (5)

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Impacts of Age on Neuropsychological Task Performance

Description

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) would decrease from their initial visit to their one year follow-up visit and that greater overall age is associated with worse performance. Overall, the older adults with a follow-up visit in this study experienced greater decline on the RBANS DMI than on the RBANS total scaled score. There seems to be a negative trend in which individuals with higher first-visit VCI scores experience greater improvement on the first trial of the motor task with the non-dominant hand. The same trend can be seen in DMI scores where higher initial DMI scores are associated with greater improvement on the first non-dominant hand trial of the motor task. This initial trend suggests that visuospatial scores have an association with long-term change in the motor task. The number of participants in this data set were limited, thus more data will be needed to increase confidence in conclusions about these relationships in the future.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Screening in school-wide positive behavior supports: methodogical comparisons

Description

Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior

Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior techniques with a system wide problem solving model. Aspects of this model are still being developed in the research community, including assessment techniques which aid the decision making process. Tools for screening entire student populations are examples of such assessment interests. Although screening tools which have been described as "empirically validated" and "cost effective" have been around since at least 1991, they have yet to become standard practice (Lane, Gresham, & O'Shaughnessy 2002). The lack of widespread implementation to date raises questions regarding their ecological validity and actual cost-effectiveness, leaving the development of useful tools for screening an ongoing project for many researchers. It may be beneficial for educators to expand the range of measurement to include tools which measure the symptoms at the root of the problematic behaviors. Lane, Grasham, and O'Shaughnessy (2002) note the possibility that factors from within a student, including those that are cognitive in nature, may influence not only his or her academic performance, but also aspects of behavior. A line of logic follows wherein measurement of those factors may aid the early identification of students at risk for developing disorders with related symptoms. The validity and practicality of various tools available for screening in SWPBS were investigated, including brief behavior rating scales completed by parents and teachers, as well as performance tasks borrowed from the field of neuropsychology. All instruments showed an ability to predict children's behavior, although not to equal extents. A discussion of practicality and predictive utility of each instrument follows.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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How disorder onset controllability moderates the impact of biological arguments on judgments of criminal responsibility

Description

In recent years, the use of biologically based (neurological, neuropsychological, genetic) evidence in criminal trials as support for claims of mental impairments among offenders has increased in popularity. However, research

In recent years, the use of biologically based (neurological, neuropsychological, genetic) evidence in criminal trials as support for claims of mental impairments among offenders has increased in popularity. However, research on how exposure to those arguments affects jury decision-making remains unclear. Specifically, arguments rooted in biology sometimes mitigate and sometimes aggravate judgments of criminal responsibility for mentally ill offenders, and this discrepancy seems to stem from the specific conditions by which that disorder was acquired. The following study’s aim was to uncover the precise mechanism(s) behind this elusive effect. Utilizing a 2x2 between subjects experimental design, participants were presented with a hypothetical crime summary involving an offender with either an onset controllable or uncontrollable mental disorder. Ratings of criminal responsibility and other variables hypothesized to function as mediators were obtained after presentation of a prime supporting either a biologically deterministic or free will argument for human behavior in general. Results indicated that when the defendant’s disorder was the result of the his own actions (onset controllable), a biological prime decreased judgments of criminal responsibility; however, when the disorder was caused by factors out of his control (onset uncontrollable), the prime increased judgments of criminal responsibility. An examination of several possible mechanisms finds the effect mediated by the perception of control the defendant could have had over his own actions at the time of the crime. These results suggest that perceptions of behavioral control are an important contributor to jurors’ formation of criminal responsibility judgments when an offender possesses a mental illness; and arguments advocating a biological basis for human behavior reliably affect blame attribution, suggesting that a societal shift in the perception of free will as a result of increased exposure to biology in general may alter the framework of criminal responsibility judgments.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Evaluating brain boosters: a new cognitive enhancement program for treating post-traumatic stress disorder and depression

Description

ABSTRACT Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and insomnia are prevalent among United States (US) military veterans. This study investigates whether Brain Boosters, a new cognitive enhancement group therapy, improves symptoms

ABSTRACT Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and insomnia are prevalent among United States (US) military veterans. This study investigates whether Brain Boosters, a new cognitive enhancement group therapy, improves symptoms of PTSD, depression, and insomnia among veterans completing the groups. The study population includes 64 US military veterans treated in the setting of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System in Phoenix, AZ. Group members were US military veterans, age 22 to 87 (mean age=53.47), who had served in or after World War II (WWII), who sought mental health care at the Phoenix VA from 2007 through 2011. Participants were treated with Brain Boosters therapy. They completed measures of mental-health related symptoms before and after this therapy. Participants were assessed pre and post group with the PTSD Checklist for military personnel (PCL-M), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; a measure of depression symptoms), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Statistical analyses were done with paired samples t-tests and McNemar's tests, using SPSS. The hypotheses were that symptoms of PTSD, depression, and insomnia would show statistically significant improvement with Brain Boosters therapy. Results supported the hypotheses that symptoms of PTSD and depression would improve significantly. Insomnia did not show significant improvement. The results showed the mean PCL-M score was 54.84 before Brain Boosters therapy and 51.35 after (p= 0.008). The mean PHQ-9 score was 15.21 before Brain Boosters therapy and 13.05 after (p= 0.002). The mean ISI score was 15.98 before Brain Boosters Therapy and 14.46 after (p= 0.056). Although this is a nonrandom, uncontrolled trial, findings nevertheless suggest that Brain Boosters may be an effective therapy to reduce PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity. This may be especially important for veterans seeking alternatives to pharmacological intervention or traditional therapeutic interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Neuropsychological functioning and stress reactivity In type 1 diabetes mellitus

Description

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that requires maintaining tight metabolic control through complex behavioral and pharmaceutical regimens. Subtle cognitive impairments and stress response dysregulation may partially

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that requires maintaining tight metabolic control through complex behavioral and pharmaceutical regimens. Subtle cognitive impairments and stress response dysregulation may partially account for problems negotiating life changes and maintaining treatment adherence among emerging adults. The current study examined whether young adults with T1DM physiologically respond to psychological stress in a dysregulated manner compared to non-diabetic peers, and if such individuals also demonstrated greater cognitive declines following psychological stress. Participants included 23 young adults with T1DM and 52 non-diabetic controls yoked to T1DM participants based on age, gender, ethnicity, participant education, and maternal education. Participants completed a laboratory-based social stressor, pre- and post-stressor neurocognitive testing, provided fingerstick blood spots (for glucose levels) and salivary samples (for cortisol levels) at five points across the protocol, and completed psychosocial questionnaires. Related measures ANOVAs were conducted to assess differences between T1DM participants and the average of yoked controls on cortisol and cognitive outcomes. Results demonstrated that differences in cortisol reactivity were dependent on T1DM participants' use of insulin pump therapy (IPT). T1DM participants not using IPT demonstrated elevated cortisol reactivity compared to matched controls. There was no difference in cortisol reactivity between the T1DM participants on IPT and matched controls. On the Stroop task, performance patterns did not differ between participants with T1DM not on IPT and matched controls. The performance of participants with T1DM on IPT slightly improved following the stressor and matched controls slightly worsened. On the Trail Making Test, the performance of participants with T1DM was not different following the stressor whereas participants without T1DM demonstrated a decline following the stressor. Participants with and without T1DM did not differ in patterns of performance on the Rey Verbal Learning Task, Sustained Attention Allocation Task, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, or overall cortisol output across participation. The results of this study are suggestive of an exaggerated cortisol response to psychological stress in T1DM and indicate potential direct and indirect protective influences of IPT.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013