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Motherhood: The Experiences of Domestic Workers in Contemporary Latin American Cinema

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This paper explores the psychological experiences of domestic workers in three contemporary Latin American films: Roma (Mexico, 2018), Crímenes de familia (Argentina, 2020) and Que Horas Ela Volta? (Brazil, 2015). Specifically, the motherhood of these three protagonists is explored and

This paper explores the psychological experiences of domestic workers in three contemporary Latin American films: Roma (Mexico, 2018), Crímenes de familia (Argentina, 2020) and Que Horas Ela Volta? (Brazil, 2015). Specifically, the motherhood of these three protagonists is explored and analyzed using psychological research that pertains to motherhood, trauma, and the relationships between domestic workers and the families that employ them. This paper reveals that contemporary Latin American cinema portrays domestic workers as having negative experiences of motherhood as a direct result of their occupation and proposes for further protections, policy change, and psychological research to take place for domestic workers in Latin America and beyond.

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2021-05

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Reivindicación de sitios públicos femeninos: retrato de mujeres fuertes mexicanas en la crónica de Salvador Novo, Carlos Monsiváis y Sara Sefchovich

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Las personas públicas de mujeres fuertes mexicanas generalmente se definen como desafiantes y contrarias a los roles sociales generalmente aceptados de las mujeres sumisas. Dichas personas públicas exigen atención y buscan incluirse en la cultura popular. Sin embargo, cuando se

Las personas públicas de mujeres fuertes mexicanas generalmente se definen como desafiantes y contrarias a los roles sociales generalmente aceptados de las mujeres sumisas. Dichas personas públicas exigen atención y buscan incluirse en la cultura popular. Sin embargo, cuando se analizan mediante los rubros de la teoría queer, se revelan arquetipos heternormativos. Esta tesis examina cronológicamente la obra de tres cronistas mexicanos de los siglos XX y XXI, Salvador Novo, Carlos Monsiváis y Sara Sefchovich, analizando su retrato de mujeres fuertes que ocupan sitios urbanos públicos en la Ciudad de México. Se investigan los efectos sociales elitistas de las imágenes públicas de mujeres fuertes, revelando restricciones patriarcales de mujeres en espacios públicos y construcciones subsecuentes de personas públicas como exóticas y cosificadas, asimismo facilitando interacciones con una sociedad sumamente masculinista y machista. La falta de agencialidad social real se revela cuando el patriarcado se reafirma, a pesar de la índole disconforme de las mujeres retratadas. Los constructos de familia y de masculinidad exigen la existencia tanto del padre y del esposo ausentes como del hipermacho y de la acompañante mujer sumisa limitada a sitios privados. El retrato de mujeres fuertes en la obra analizada desnaturaliza la imagen de domesticidad, señalando que las mujeres mexicanas salen del hogar para ocupar sitios públicos en la Ciudad de México. Como la normalización del constructo de familia se cuestiona, la teoría queer se utiliza en una manera innovadora para analizar dichos retratos de mujeres fuertes y agencialidad sociopolítica.

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2013

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Múltiples discursos de la diferencia en tres autoras Bolivianas de fines del siglo XX: Gaby Vallejos, Ericka Bruzonic y Giovanna Rivero Santa Cruz

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In the last years of the twentieth century, while the narrative of women in other Latin American countries has received critical attention, Bolivian women's narrative has been widely ignored. The fact that the voice of Bolivian women in Latin American

In the last years of the twentieth century, while the narrative of women in other Latin American countries has received critical attention, Bolivian women's narrative has been widely ignored. The fact that the voice of Bolivian women in Latin American feminist discourse is rarely discussed in Latin American criticism is enough to justify the present study. This work focuses on three prominent Bolivian writers: Gaby Vallejos, Giovanna Rivero Santa Cruz, and Erika Bruzonic. The short stories of these three authors are characterized by accentuating certain telluric features revealed in the background of their feminine/feminist narratives. At the same time, based on the American and European feminist literary critique, this work analyzes the feminine/feminist themes mounted in the narrative of these authors. Gaby Vallejos, with a cinematic style, chronicles the life and customs of the "valluno" context, building a mosaic of different voices in dialogue. Her topics revolve around binaries: life-death, and pain and pleasure, voicing condemnation for a patriarchal society. Ericka Bruzonic deals with women and identity, memory and the breaking of lineage as an imposing structure. Her themes are built around the cosmopolitism of "paceña" urban life, and her voice transgresses the binomials established by a patriarchal society. Finally Giovanna Rivero Santa Cruz takes the life and customs of the Santa Cruz and the Guarani culture and her plots weave these elements reaching for myths and taboos, involving the reader into her stories. In this manner, her narrative makes an incursion into the conscious and unconscious realm of the readers questioning their wealth of moral and social values, their notions of heterosexuality, and sexual taboos. The three writers, with different narrative styles yet dialogical, narrate various experiences of women from different regions, social classes, ages, education, and sexual orientations. Our authors give high value to the word and the body embedded in the culture, thereby affirming their woman's voice as Bolivians and their literary presence in the context of Latin American literature.

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2013

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Humor, violencia y memoria nacional cubana: aproximaciones a la narrativa breve de Aida Bahr, Marilyn Bobes y Ena Lucía Portela

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With the establishment of "the special period in times of peace" in the nineties, there was in Cuba a series of transformations that affected its artistic and literary production. Therefore, gradually, a thematic opening emerged focused on deconstructing the idealized

With the establishment of "the special period in times of peace" in the nineties, there was in Cuba a series of transformations that affected its artistic and literary production. Therefore, gradually, a thematic opening emerged focused on deconstructing the idealized sociopolitical reality of the island allowing for the reformulation of the ways in which women were depicted. The main objective of this study is to initiate a dialogue with the short fiction produced during this period in order to shed light on the fragmentary representation of female characters. In regards to said objective, the approach selected centers on the observation and analysis of violence, humor and national memory as recurring thematic elements in the texts. With that finality, the aesthetic proposals present in the work of Aida Bahr, Ena Lucía Portela, and Marilyn Bobes, will be analyzed using current literary and cultural theory. Among these the most noteworthy are Josephine Gattuso Hendin's theory of violence and the representations of women, Henri Bergson's theory of humor, and the critical works of numerous scholars specializing in Cuban fiction produced in the last two decades. As has been concluded, through the protagonists and their discourse, thematic and stylistic components contribute to creating new representations of women allowing for new responses and ways of coexisting that cast doubt on the stereotype of the revolutionary woman. These components, likewise, question the relationship between the characters in the stories and the concept of nation, which in the words of Nara Araújo, will allow us to reveal the different ways of reading the world of the present generation. Therefore, through the analysis of the configuration of these reactionary representations, a contribution is made to the study of the current narrative produced by women in Cuba.

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2012