Matching Items (14)

147904-Thumbnail Image.png

Using Neural Networks to Perform Colorwork on Images

Description

This paper is centered on the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to convert or generate RGB images from grayscale ones. The primary goal is to create sensible and colorful

This paper is centered on the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to convert or generate RGB images from grayscale ones. The primary goal is to create sensible and colorful versions of a set of grayscale images by training a discriminator to recognize failed or generated images and training a generator to attempt to satisfy the discriminator. The network design is described in further detail below; however there are several potential issues that arise including the averaging of a color for certain images such that small details in an image are not assigned unique colors leading to a neutral blend. We attempt to mitigate this issue as much as possible.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

147905-Thumbnail Image.png

Using Neural Networks to Perform Colorwork on Images

Description

This paper is centered on the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to convert or generate RGB images from grayscale ones. The primary goal is to create sensible and colorful

This paper is centered on the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to convert or generate RGB images from grayscale ones. The primary goal is to create sensible and colorful versions of a set of grayscale images by training a discriminator to recognize failed or generated images and training a generator to attempt to satisfy the discriminator. The network design is described in further detail below; however there are several potential issues that arise including the averaging of a color for certain images such that small details in an image are not assigned unique colors leading to a neutral blend. We attempt to mitigate this issue as much as possible.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

147918-Thumbnail Image.png

Using Neural Networks to Perform Colorwork on Images

Description

This paper is centered on the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to convert or generate RGB images from grayscale ones. The primary goal is to create sensible and colorful

This paper is centered on the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to convert or generate RGB images from grayscale ones. The primary goal is to create sensible and colorful versions of a set of grayscale images by training a discriminator to recognize failed or generated images and training a generator to attempt to satisfy the discriminator. The network design is described in further detail below; however there are several potential issues that arise including the averaging of a color for certain images such that small details in an image are not assigned unique colors leading to a neutral blend. We attempt to mitigate this issue as much as possible.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

157176-Thumbnail Image.png

Simulation of GaN CAVETs in Silvaco Atlas

Description

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistors (CAVETs) present many appealing qualities for applications in high power, high frequency devices. The wide bandgap, high carrier velocity of GaN

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistors (CAVETs) present many appealing qualities for applications in high power, high frequency devices. The wide bandgap, high carrier velocity of GaN make it ideal for withstanding high electric fields and supporting large currents. The vertical topology of the CAVET allows for more efficient die area utilization, breakdown scaling with the height of the device, and burying high electric fields in the bulk where they will not charge interface states that can lead to current collapse at higher frequency.

Though GaN CAVETs are promising new devices, they are expensive to develop due to new or exotic materials and processing steps. As a result, the accurate simulation of GaN CAVETs has become critical to the development of new devices. Using Silvaco Atlas 5.24.1.R, best practices were developed for GaN CAVET simulation by recreating the structure and results of the pGaN insulated gate CAVET presented in chapter 3 of [8].

From the results it was concluded that the best simulation setup for transfer characteristics, output characteristics, and breakdown included the following. For methods, the use of Gummel, Block, Newton, and Trap. For models, SRH, Fermi, Auger, and impact selb. For mobility, the use of GANSAT and manually specified saturation velocity and mobility (based on doping concentration). Additionally, parametric sweeps showed that, of those tested, critical CAVET parameters included channel mobility (and thus doping), channel thickness, Current Blocking Layer (CBL) doping, gate overlap, and aperture width in rectangular devices or diameter in cylindrical devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

155162-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of heat dissipation in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with GaN micropits at GaN-SiC interface

Description

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based microelectronics technology is a fast growing and most exciting semiconductor technology in the fields of high power and high frequency electronics. Excellent electrical properties of GaN

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based microelectronics technology is a fast growing and most exciting semiconductor technology in the fields of high power and high frequency electronics. Excellent electrical properties of GaN such as high carrier concentration and high carrier motility makes GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) a preferred choice for RF applications. However, a very high temperature in the active region of the GaN HEMT leads to a significant degradation of the device performance by effecting carrier mobility and concentration. Thus, thermal management in GaN HEMT in an effective manner is key to this technology to reach its full potential.

In this thesis, an electro-thermal model of an AlGaN/GaN HEMT on a SiC substrate is simulated using Silvaco (Atlas) TCAD tools. Output characteristics, current density and heat flow at the GaN-SiC interface are key areas of analysis in this work. The electrical characteristics show a sharp drop in drain currents for higher drain voltages. Temperature profile across the device is observed. At the interface of GaN-SiC, there is a sharp drop in temperature indicating a thermal resistance at this interface. Adding to the existing heat in the device, this difference heat is reflected back into the device, further increasing the temperatures in the active region. Structural changes such as GaN micropits, were introduced at the GaN-SiC interface along the length of the device, to make the heat flow smooth rather than discontinuous. With changing dimensions of these micropits, various combinations were tried to reduce the temperature and enhance the device performance. These GaN micropits gave effective results by reducing heat in active region, by spreading out the heat on to the sides of the device rather than just concentrating right below the hot spot. It also helped by allowing a smooth flow of heat at the GaN-SiC interface. There was an increased peak current density in the active region of the device contributing to improved electrical characteristics. In the end, importance of thermal management in these high temperature devices is discussed along with future prospects and a conclusion of this thesis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

158651-Thumbnail Image.png

Analytical Modeling and Development of GaN-Based Point of Load Buck Converter with Optimized Reverse Conduction Loss

Description

This work analyzes and develops a point-of-load (PoL) synchronous buck converter using enhancement-mode Gallium Nitride (e-GaN), with emphasis on optimizing reverse conduction loss by using a well-known technique of placing

This work analyzes and develops a point-of-load (PoL) synchronous buck converter using enhancement-mode Gallium Nitride (e-GaN), with emphasis on optimizing reverse conduction loss by using a well-known technique of placing an anti-parallel Schottky diode across the synchronous power device. This work develops an improved analytical switching model for the GaN-based converter with the Schottky diode using piecewise linear approximations.

To avoid a shoot-through between the power switches of the buck converter, a small dead-time is inserted between gate drive switching transitions. Despite optimum dead-time management for a power converter, optimum dead-times vary for different load conditions. These variations become considerably large for PoL applications, which demand high output current with low output voltages. At high switching frequencies, these variations translate into losses that contribute significantly to the total loss of the converter. To understand and quantify power loss in a hard-switching buck converter that uses a GaN power device in parallel with a Schottky diode, piecewise transitions are used to develop an analytical switching model that quantifies the contribution of reverse conduction loss of GaN during dead-time.

The effects of parasitic elements on the dynamics of the switching converter are investigated during one switching cycle of the converter. A designed prototype of a buck converter is correlated to the predicted model to determine the accuracy of the model. This comparison is presented using simulations and measurements at 400 kHz and 2 MHz converter switching speeds for load (1A) condition and fixed dead-time values. Furthermore, performance of the buck converter with and without the Schottky diode is also measured and compared to demonstrate and quantify the enhanced performance when using an anti-parallel diode. The developed power converter achieves peak efficiencies of 91.7% and 93.86% for 2 MHz and 400 KHz switching frequencies, respectively, and drives load currents up to 6A for a voltage conversion from 12V input to 3.3V output.

In addition, various industry Schottky diodes have been categorized based on their packaging and electrical characteristics and the developed analytical model provides analytical expressions relating the diode characteristics to power stage performance parameters. The performance of these diodes has been characterized for different buck converter voltage step-down ratios that are typically used in industry applications and different switching frequencies ranging from 400 KHz to 2 MHz.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

154294-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling and design of GaN high electron mobility transistors and hot electron transistors through Monte Carlo particle-based device simulations

Description

In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and

In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation methods. The techniques for device modeling are described applied to a recent GaN-HEMT, and they are validated with experimental measurements. The main techniques characterization techniques are also described, including the original contribution provided by this work. Chapter 3 focuses on a popular technique to enhance HEMTs performance: the down-scaling of the device dimensions. In particular, this chapter is dedicated to lateral scaling and the calculation of a limiting cutoff frequency for a device of vanishing length. Finally, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 describe the modeling of Hot Electron Transistors (HETs). The simulation approach is validated by matching the current characteristics with the experimental one before variations of the layouts are proposed to increase the current gain to values suitable for amplification. The frequency response of these layouts is calculated, and modeled by a small signal circuit. For this purpose, a method to directly calculate the capacitance is developed which provides a graphical picture of the capacitative phenomena that limit the frequency response in devices. In Chapter 5 the properties of the hot electrons are investigated for different injection energies, which are obtained by changing the layout of the emitter barrier. Moreover, the large signal characterization of the HET is shown for different layouts, where the collector barrier was scaled.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

153104-Thumbnail Image.png

Structural properties of III-nitride semiconductors

Description

Group III-nitride semiconductors have been commercially used in the fabrication of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, covering the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectral range and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications.

Group III-nitride semiconductors have been commercially used in the fabrication of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, covering the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectral range and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. InGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 0.7 to 3.4 eV. It has a great potential in the application for high efficient solar cells. AlGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 3.4 to 6.2 eV. These alloys have a great potential in the application of deep ultra violet laser diodes. However, there are still many issues with these materials that remain to be solved. In this dissertation, several issues concerning structural, electronic, and optical properties of III-nitrides have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. First, the microstructure of InxGa1-xN (x = 0.22, 0.46, 0.60, and 0.67) films grown by metal-modulated epitaxy on GaN buffer /sapphire substrates is studied. The effect of indium composition on the structure of InGaN films and strain relaxation is carefully analyzed. High luminescence intensity, low defect density, and uniform full misfit strain relaxation are observed for x = 0.67. Second, the properties of high-indium-content InGaN thin films using a new molecular beam epitaxy method have been studied for applications in solar cell technologies. This method uses a high quality AlN buffer with large lattice mismatch that results in a critical thickness below one lattice parameter. Finally, the effect of different substrates and number of gallium sources on the microstructure of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet laser has been studied. It is found that defects in epitaxial layer are greatly reduced when the structure is deposited on a single crystal AlN substrate. Two gallium sources in the growth of multiple quantum wells active region are found to cause a significant improvement in the quality of quantum well structures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

151457-Thumbnail Image.png

TEM characterization of electrically stressed high electron mobility transistors

Description

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well as other techniques. The dissertation was organized primarily into three topical areas: (1) characterization of near-gate defects in electrically stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, (2) microstructural and chemical analysis of the gate/buffer interface of AlN/GaN HEMTs, and (3) studies of the impact of laser-liftoff processing on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The electrical performance of stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs was measured and the devices binned accordingly. Source- and drain-side degraded, undegraded, and unstressed devices were then prepared via focused-ion-beam milling for examination. Defects in the near-gate region were identified and their correlation to electrical measurements analyzed. Increased gate leakage after electrical stressing is typically attributed to "V"-shaped defects at the gate edge. However, strong evidence was found for gate metal diffusion into the barrier layer as another contributing factor. AlN/GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire substrates were found to have high electrical performance which is attributed to the AlN barrier layer, and robust ohmic and gate contact processes. TEM analysis identified oxidation at the gate metal/AlN buffer layer interface. This thin a-oxide gate insulator was further characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and energy-filtered TEM. Attributed to this previously unidentified layer, high reverse gate bias up to −30 V was demonstrated and drain-induced gate leakage was suppressed to values of less than 10−6 A/mm. In addition, extrinsic gm and ft * LG were improved to the highest reported values for AlN/GaN HEMTs fabricated on sapphire substrates. Laser-liftoff (LLO) processing was used to separate the active layers from sapphire substrates for several GaN-based HEMT devices, including AlGaN/GaN and InAlN/GaN heterostructures. Warpage of the LLO samples resulted from relaxation of the as-grown strain and strain arising from dielectric and metal depositions, and this strain was quantified by both Newton's rings and Raman spectroscopy methods. TEM analysis demonstrated that the LLO processing produced no detrimental effects on the quality of the epitaxial layers. TEM micrographs showed no evidence of either damage to the ~2 μm GaN epilayer generated threading defects.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151454-Thumbnail Image.png

The optical properties of nitride semiconductors for visible light emission

Description

Nitride semiconductors have wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics technologies. Understanding the nature of the optical recombination process and its effects on luminescence efficiency is important for the development of

Nitride semiconductors have wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics technologies. Understanding the nature of the optical recombination process and its effects on luminescence efficiency is important for the development of novel devices. This dissertation deals with the optical properties of nitride semiconductors, including GaN epitaxial layers and more complex heterostructures. The emission characteristics are examined by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging, and are correlated with the structural and electrical properties studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron holography. Four major areas are covered in this dissertation, which are described next. The effect of strain on the emission characteristics in wurtzite GaN has been studied. The values of the residual strain in GaN epilayers with different dislocation densities are determined by x-ray diffraction, and the relationship between exciton emission energy and the in-plane residual strain is demonstrated. It shows that the emission energy increases withthe magnitude of the in-plane compressive strain. The temperature dependence of the emission characteristics in cubic GaN has been studied. It is observed that the exciton emission and donor-acceptor pair recombination behave differently with temperature. The donor-bound exciton binding energy has been measured to be 13 meV from the temperature dependence of the emission spectrum. It is also found that the ionization energies for both acceptors and donors are smaller in cubic compared with hexagonal structures, which should contribute to higher doping efficiencies. A comprehensive study on the structural and optical properties is presented for InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting in the blue, green, and yellow regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate the presence of indium inhomogeneties which should be responsible for carrier localization. The temperature dependence of emission luminescence shows that the carrier localization effects become more significant with increasing emission wavelength. On the other hand, the effect of non-radiative recombination on luminescence efficiency also varies with the emission wavelength. The fast increase of the non-radiative recombination rate with temperature in the green emitting QWs contributes to the lower efficiency compared with the blue emitting QWs. The possible saturation of non-radiative recombination above 100 K may explain the unexpected high emission efficiency for the yellow emitting QWs Finally, the effects of InGaN underlayers on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting in visible spectral regions have been studied. A significant improvement of the emission efficiency is observed, which is associated with a blue shift in the emission energy, a reduced recombination lifetime, an increased spatial homogeneity in the luminescence, and a weaker internal field across the quantum wells. These are explained by a partial strain relaxation introduced by the InGaN underlayer, which is measured by reciprocal space mapping of the x-ray diffraction intensity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012