Matching Items (17)

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The History and Importance of the Double-Slit Experiment: From Classical to Quantum Physics

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This paper analyzes the history and impact of the double-slit experiment on the world of physics. The experiment was initially created by Thomas Young in the early nineteenth century to

This paper analyzes the history and impact of the double-slit experiment on the world of physics. The experiment was initially created by Thomas Young in the early nineteenth century to prove that light behaved as a wave, and the experiment’s findings ended up being foundational to the classical wave theory of light. Decades later, the experiment was replicated once more with electrons instead of light and shockingly demonstrated that electrons possessed a dual nature of behavior in that they acted in some instances as particles and in others as waves. Despite numerous modifications and replications, the dual behavior of electrons has never been definitively explained. Numerous interpretations of quantum mechanics all offer their own explanations of the double-slit experiment’s results. Notably, the Copenhagen Interpretation states that an observer measuring a quantum system, such as the double-slit experiment, causes the electrons to behave classically (i.e. as a particle.) The Many Worlds Interpretation offers that multiple branching worlds come into existence to represent the physical occurrence of all probable outcomes of the double-slit experiment. In these and other interpretations, explanations of the double-slit experiment are key to proving their respective dogmas. The double-slit experiment has historically been very important to the worlds of both classical and quantum physics and is still being modified and replicated to this day. It is clear that it will continue to remain relevant even in the future of physics.

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  • 2021-05

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Field Theories à la Gravity: From Navier-Stokes to Superconductivity.

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Recent developments inspired by string theoretic considerations provide multiple maps between gravitational and non-gravitational degrees of freedom. In this dis- sertation I discuss aspects of three such dualities, the gauge/gravity

Recent developments inspired by string theoretic considerations provide multiple maps between gravitational and non-gravitational degrees of freedom. In this dis- sertation I discuss aspects of three such dualities, the gauge/gravity duality and how it applies to condensed matter systems, the fluid-gravity duality, and the color-kinematics duality.

The first of these, colloquially referred to as holography, in its simplest form posits a mapping of d-dimensional conformal field theory (boundary) partition functions onto d+1 dimensional gravitational(bulk) partition functions, where the space-time carries a negative cosmological constant. In this dissertation I discuss the results of our calculations examining the emergence of Fermi-surface like structures in the bulk spacetime despite the absence of explicit Fermions in the theory.Specifically the 4+1 dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with scalar degrees of freedom, with and without symmetry breaking is considered. These theories are gravity duals to spatially modulated gauge theories. The results of calculations presented here indicate the existence of a rich phase space, most prominently Fermi shells are seen.

The second set of dualities considered are the color-kinematic duality, also known as the double-copy paradigm and the fluid-gravity duality. The color-kinematic duality involves identifying spin-2 amplitudes as squares of spin-1 gauge amplitudes. This double copy picture is utilized to construct “single copy” representations for space- times where Einstein’s equations reduce to incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In this dissertation I show how spacetimes that characterize irrotational fluids and constant vorticity fluids each map to distinct algebraically special spacetimes. The Maxwell fields obtained via the double-copy picture for such spacetimes further provide interesting parallels, for instance, the vorticity of the fluid is proportional to the magnetic field of the associated gauge field.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Electronic, Spin and Valley Transport in Two Dimensional Dirac Systems

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This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key

This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key findings are achieved.

First, studying persistent currents in confined chaotic Dirac fermion systems with a ring geometry and an applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, unusual whispering-gallery modes with edge-dependent currents and spin polarization are identified. They can survive for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos. By sustaining robust persistent currents, these modes can be utilized to form a robust relativistic quantum two-level system.

Second, the quantized topological edge states in confined massive Dirac fermion systems exhibiting a remarkable reverse Stark effect in response to an applied electric field, and an electrically or optically controllable spin switching behavior are uncovered.

Third, novel wave scattering and transport in Dirac-like pseudospin-1 systems are reported. (a), for small scatterer size, a surprising revival resonant scattering with a peculiar boundary trapping by forming unusual vortices is uncovered. Intriguingly, it can persist in arbitrarily weak scatterer strength regime, which underlies a superscattering behavior beyond the conventional scenario. (b), for larger size, a perfect caustic phenomenon arises as a manifestation of the super-Klein tunneling effect. (c), in the far-field, an unexpected isotropic transport emerges at low energies.

Fourth, a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) originated from fractional singular Berry flux is revealed. It is shown that gVHE possesses a nonlinear dependence on the Berry flux with asymmetrical resonance features and can be considerably enhanced by electrically controllable resonant valley skew scattering. With the gVHE, efficient valley filtering can arise and these phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

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  • 2017

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Synthesis of 2D Janus Crystals and their Superlattices

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Two dimensional (2D) Janus Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a new class of atomically thin polar materials. In these materials, the top and the bottom atomic layer are made of

Two dimensional (2D) Janus Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a new class of atomically thin polar materials. In these materials, the top and the bottom atomic layer are made of different chalcogen atoms. To date, several theoretical studies have shown that a broken mirror symmetry induces a colossal electrical field in these materials, which leads to unusual quantum properties. Despite these new properties, the current knowledge in their synthesis is limited only through two independent studies; both works rely on high-temperature processing techniques and are specific to only one type of 2D Janus material - MoSSe. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a new synthesis method to (1) Extend the library of Janus class materials. (2) Improve the quality of 2D crystals. (3) Enable the synthesis of Janus heterostructures. The central hypothesis in this work is that the processing temperature of 2D Janus synthesis can be significantly lowered down to room temperatures by using reactive hydrogen and sulfur radicals while stripping off selenium atoms from the 2D surface. To test this hypothesis, a series of controlled growth studies were performed, and several complementary characterization techniques were used to establish a process–structure-property relationship. The results show that the newly proposed approach, namely Selective Epitaxy and Atomic Replacement (SEAR), is effective in reducing the growth temperature down to ambient conditions. The proposed technique benefits in achieving highly crystalline 2D Janus layers with an excellent optical response. Further studies herein show that this technique can form highly sophisticated lateral and vertical heterostructures of 2D Janus layers. Overall results establish an entirely new growth technique for 2D Janus.layers, which pave ways for the realization of exciting quantum effects in these materials such as Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, Majorana fermions, and topological p-wave superconductors.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Full band Monte Carlo simulation of nanowires and nanowire field effect transistors

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In this work, transport in nanowire materials and nanowire field effect transistors is studied using a full band Monte Carlo simulator within the tight binding basis. Chapter 1 is dedicated

In this work, transport in nanowire materials and nanowire field effect transistors is studied using a full band Monte Carlo simulator within the tight binding basis. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the importance of nanowires and nanoscale devices in present day electronics and the necessity to use a computationally efficient tool to simulate transport in these devices. Chapter 2 discusses the calculation of the full band structure of nanowires based on an atomistic tight binding approach, particularly noting the use of the exact same tight binding parameters for bulk band structures as well as the nanowire band structures. Chapter 3 contains the scattering rate formula for deformation potential, polar optical phonon, ionized impurity and impact ionization scattering in nanowires using Fermi’s golden rule and the tight binding basis to describe the wave functions. A method to calculate the dielectric screening in 1D systems within the tight binding basis is also described. Importantly, the scattering rates of nanowires tends to the bulk scattering rates at high energies, enabling the use of the same parameter set that were fitted to bulk experimental data to be used in the simulation of nanowire transport. A robust and efficient method to model interband tunneling is discussed in chapter 4 and its importance in nanowire transport is highlighted. In chapter 5, energy relaxation of excited electrons is studied for free standing nanowires and cladded nanowires. Finally, in chapter 6, a full band Monte Carlo particle based solver is created which treats confinement in a full quantum way and the current voltage characteristics as well as the subthreshold swing and percentage of ballistic transport is analyzed for an In0.7Ga0.3As junctionless nanowire field effect transistor.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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A Study of Hole Transport in Crystalline Monoclinic Selenium Using Bulk Monte Carlo Techniques

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Amorphous materials can be uniformly deposited over a large area at lower cost compared to crystalline semiconductors (Silicon or Germanium). This property along with its high resistivity and wide band-ga

Amorphous materials can be uniformly deposited over a large area at lower cost compared to crystalline semiconductors (Silicon or Germanium). This property along with its high resistivity and wide band-gap found many applications in devices like rectifiers, xerography, xero-radiography, ultrahigh sensitivity optical cameras, digital radiography, and mammography (2D and 3D tomosynthesis). Amorphous selenium is the only amorphous material that undergoes impact ionization where only holes avalanche at high electric fields. This leads to a small excess noise factor which is a very important performance comparison matrix for avalanche photodetectors. Thus, there is a need to model high field avalanche process in amorphous selenium. At high fields, the transport in amorphous selenium changes from low values of activated trap-limited drift mobility to higher values of band transport mobility, via extended states. When the transport shifts from activated mobility with a high degree of localization to extended state band transport, the wavefunction of the amorphous material resembles that of its crystalline counterpart. To that effect, crystalline monoclinic selenium which has the closest resemblance to vapor deposited amorphous selenium has been studied. Modelling a crystalline semiconductor makes calculations simpler. The transport phenomena in crystalline monoclinic selenium is studied by using a bulk Monte Carlo technique to solve the semi-classical Boltzman Transport equation and thus calculate vital electrical parameters like mobility, critical field and mobility variations against temperatures. The band structure and the density of states function for monoclinic selenium was obtained by using an atomistic simulation tool, the Atomistic Toolkit in the Virtual Nano Lab, Quantum Wise, Copenhagen, Denmark. Moreover, the velocity and energy against time characteristics have been simulated for a wide range of electric fields (1-1000 $\frac{kV}{cm}$), which is further used to find the hole drift mobility. The low field mobility is obtained from the slope of the velocity vs. electric field plot. The low field hole mobility was calculated to be 5.51 $\frac{cm^{2}}{Vs}$ at room temperature. The experimental value for low field hole mobility is 7.29 $\frac{cm^{2}}{Vs}$. The energy versus electric field simulation at high fields is used to match the experimental onset of avalanche (754 $\frac{kV}{cm}$) for an ionization threshold energy of 2.1 eV. The Arrhenius plot for mobility against temperature is simulated and compared with published experimental data. The experimental and simulation results show a close match, thus validating the study.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Quantum nonlinear dynamics in graphene, optomechanical, and semiconductor superlattice systems

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Conductance fluctuations associated with quantum transport through quantumdot systems are currently understood to depend on the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics, i.e., integrable or chaotic. There are a couple

Conductance fluctuations associated with quantum transport through quantumdot systems are currently understood to depend on the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics, i.e., integrable or chaotic. There are a couple of interesting phenomena about conductance fluctuation and quantum tunneling related to geometrical shapes of graphene systems. Firstly, in graphene quantum-dot systems, when a magnetic field is present, as the Fermi energy or the magnetic flux is varied, both regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can occur, with alternating transitions between the two. Secondly, a scheme based on geometrical rotation of rectangular devices to effectively modulate the conductance fluctuations is presented. Thirdly, when graphene is placed on a substrate of heavy metal, Rashba spin-orbit interaction of substantial strength can occur. In an open system such as a quantum dot, the interaction can induce spin polarization. Finally, a problem using graphene systems with electron-electron interactions described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in the setting of resonant tunneling is investigated.

Another interesting problem in quantum transport is the effect of disorder or random impurities since it is inevitable in real experiments. At first, for a twodimensional Dirac ring, as the disorder density is systematically increased, the persistent current decreases slowly initially and then plateaus at a finite nonzero value, indicating remarkable robustness of the persistent currents, which cannot be discovered in normal metal and semiconductor rings. In addition, in a Floquet system with a ribbon structure, the conductance can be remarkably enhanced by onsite disorder.

Recent years have witnessed significant interest in nanoscale physical systems, such as semiconductor supperlattices and optomechanical systems, which can exhibit distinct collective dynamical behaviors. Firstly, a system of two optically coupled optomechanical cavities is considered and the phenomenon of synchronization transition associated with quantum entanglement transition is discovered. Another useful issue is nonlinear dynamics in semiconductor superlattices caused by its key potential application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers and detectors in the spectral range of terahertz. In such a system, transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Molecular models for conductance in junctions and electrochemical electron transfer

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This thesis develops molecular models for electron transport in molecular junctions and intra-molecular electron transfer. The goal is to identify molecular descriptors that afford a substantial simplification of these electronic

This thesis develops molecular models for electron transport in molecular junctions and intra-molecular electron transfer. The goal is to identify molecular descriptors that afford a substantial simplification of these electronic processes.

First, the connection between static molecular polarizability and the molecular conductance is examined. A correlation emerges whereby the measured conductance of a tunneling junction decreases as a function of the calculated molecular polarizability for several systems, a result consistent with the idea of a molecule as a polarizable dielectric. A model based on a macroscopic extension of the Clausius-Mossotti equation to the molecular domain and Simmon’s tunneling model is developed to explain this correlation. Despite the simplicity of the theory, it paves the way for further experimental, conceptual and theoretical developments in the use of molecular descriptors to describe both conductance and electron transfer.

Second, the conductance of several biologically relevant, weakly bonded, hydrogen-bonded systems is systematically investigated. While there is no correlation between hydrogen bond strength and conductance, the results indicate a relation between the conductance and atomic polarizability of the hydrogen bond acceptor atom. The relevance of these results to electron transfer in biological systems is discussed.

Hydrogen production and oxidation using catalysts inspired by hydrogenases provides a more sustainable alternative to the use of precious metals. To understand electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of a collection of Fe and Ni mimics of hydrogenases, high-level density functional theory calculations are described. The results, based on a detailed analysis of the energies, charges and molecular orbitals of these metal complexes, indicate the importance of geometric constraints imposed by the ligand on molecular properties such as acidity and electrocatalytic activity. Based on model calculations of several intermediates in the catalytic cycle of a model NiFe complex, a hypothetical reaction mechanism, which very well agrees with the observed experimental results, is proffered.

Future work related to this thesis may involve the systematic analysis of chemical reactivity in constrained geometries, a subject of importance if the context of enzymatic activity. Another, more intriguing direction is related to the fundamental issue of reformulating Marcus theory in terms of the molecular dielectric response function.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Structural and optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown inAsBi bulk layers and quantum wells

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InAsBi is a narrow direct gap III-V semiconductor that has recently attracted considerable attention because its bandgap is tunable over a wide range of mid- and long-wave infrared wavelengths for

InAsBi is a narrow direct gap III-V semiconductor that has recently attracted considerable attention because its bandgap is tunable over a wide range of mid- and long-wave infrared wavelengths for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, InAsBi can be integrated with other III-V materials and is potentially an alternative to commercial II-VI photodetector materials such as HgCdTe.

Several 1 μm thick, nearly lattice-matched InAsBi layers grown on GaSb are examined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Random Rutherford backscattering measurements indicate that the average Bi mole fraction ranges from 0.0503 to 0.0645 for the sample set, and ion channeling measurements indicate that the Bi atoms are substitutional. The X-ray diffraction measurements show a diffraction sideband near the main (004) diffraction peak, indicating that the Bi mole fraction is not laterally uniform in the layer. The average out of plane tetragonal distortion is determined by modeling the main and sideband diffraction peaks, from which the average unstrained lattice constant of each sample is determined. By comparing the Bi mole fraction measured by random Rutherford backscattering with the InAsBi lattice constant for the sample set, the lattice constant of zinc blende InBi is determined to be 6.6107 Å.

Several InAsBi quantum wells tensilely strained to the GaSb lattice constant with dilute quantities of Bi are characterized using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Investigation of the integrated intensity as a function of carrier excitation density spanning 5×1025 to 5×1026 cm-3 s-1 indicates radiative dominated recombination and high quantum efficiency over the 12 to 250 K temperature range. The bandgap of InAsBi is ascertained from the photoluminescence spectra and parameterized as a function of temperature using the Einstein single oscillator model. The dilute Bi mole fraction of the InAsBi quantum wells is determined by comparing the measured bandgap energy to that predicted by the valence band anticrossing model. The Bi mole fraction determined by photoluminescence agrees reasonably well with that estimated using secondary ion mass spectrometry.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Conductance fluctuations in GaAs nanowires and graphene nanoribbons

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In mesoscopic physics, conductance fluctuations are a quantum interference phenomenon that comes from the phase interference of electron wave functions scattered by the impurity disorder. During the past few decades,

In mesoscopic physics, conductance fluctuations are a quantum interference phenomenon that comes from the phase interference of electron wave functions scattered by the impurity disorder. During the past few decades, conductance fluctuations have been studied in various materials including metals, semiconductors and graphene. Since the patterns of conductance fluctuations is related to the distributions and configurations of the impurity scatterers, each sample has its unique pattern of fluctuations, which is considered as a sample fingerprint. Thus, research on conductance fluctuations attracts attention worldwide for its importance in both fundamental physics and potential technical applications. Since early experimental measurements of conductance fluctuations showed that the amplitudes of the fluctuations are on order of a universal value (e2/h), theorists proposed the hypothesis of ergodicity, e.g. the amplitudes of the conductance fluctuations by varying impurity configurations is the same as that from varying the Fermi energy or varying the magnetic field. They also proposed the principle of universality; e.g., that the observed fluctuations would appear the same in all materials. Recently, transport experiments in graphene reveal a deviation of fluctuation amplitudes from those expected from ergodicity.

Thus, in my thesis work, I have carried out numerical research on the conductance fluctuations in GaAs nanowires and graphene nanoribbons in order to examine whether or not the theoretical principles of universality and ergodicity hold. Finite difference methods are employed to study the conductance fluctuations in GaAs nanowires, but an atomic basis tight-binding model is used in calculations of graphene nanoribbons. Both short-range disorder and long-range disorder are considered in the simulations of graphene. A stabilized recursive scattering matrix technique is used to calculate the conductance. In particular, the dependence of the observed fluctuations on the amplitude of the disorder has been investigated. Finally, the root-mean-square values of the amplitude of conductance fluctuations are calculated as a basis with which to draw the appropriate conclusions. The results for Fermi energy sweeps and magnetic field sweeps are compared and effects of magnetic fields on the conductance fluctuations of Fermi energy sweeps are discussed for both GaAs nanowires and graphene nanoribbons.

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Date Created
  • 2015