Matching Items (13)

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Immigrant Youth Resiliency: A Holistic Approach to Family Separation

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Between October 2016 and February 2018, DHS reported separating 1,768 children from their parents in what they called “a long-standing policy”. From July 2017 to October 2017, the Trump administration

Between October 2016 and February 2018, DHS reported separating 1,768 children from their parents in what they called “a long-standing policy”. From July 2017 to October 2017, the Trump administration implemented a pilot program in El Paso. Federal prosecutors criminally charged adults who crossed the border from New Mexico to West Texas. Forced family separation has long-lasting consequences on the health of immigrant youth and their families even as they become integrated into US society. In addition, policies like the zero-tolerance policy on illegal criminal entry and practices such as the exclusion and criminalization of immigrants perpetuate the image of an immigrant's subordinate position in the States. <br/>The zero tolerance policy has significant impacts on immigrants’ mental health, educational attainment, legal vulnerability, and physical health. While research typically focuses on the impacts of family separation on the child, the separation affects the entire family unit leading to feelings of helplessness and cultural disruption. Additionally, the topic of family separation during migration is well-studied, there is a lack of literature on forced family separation and long-lasting impacts post-reunification especially through a lens of resiliency.This paper seeks to examine how the zero-tolerance policy impacts Central American immigrant youth and their families and the limited support systems available. The family separation policy ignited protests across the country. Across the nation there was outrage of “kids in cages,” Central American children being taken from their families and placed into overcrowded facilities, left to sleep under tinfoil-like sheets in fenced areas. <br/>I argue that the zero tolerance policy is one of a long line of racist immigration policies that negatively impacts immigrant youth and their families. The effects of family separation seep into various dimensions of immigrants' lives, further complicating their adjustment to life in the US. Continued support for families who have been separated is critical to combat the adverse effects of harmful and racist immigration policies. Because the effects of family separation are multidimensional, I advocate for a holistic approach that addresses the various ways the effects spillover into daily life. This paper relies on the concept of resiliency versus a victim narrative, situating agency with the immigrant, and viewing immigration as an autonomous action. A resiliency framework acknowledges and appreciates immigrant youth's resourcefulness, strategic agency, and ability to subvert dominant norms and overcome barriers.

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  • 2021-05

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Hohokam Irrigation Longevity and Agricultural Success in the Lower Salt River Valley, Arizona

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The primary focus of this research is the poorly understood relationship between water insufficiency and broad-scale social change, in the semi-arid lower Salt River Valley, in central Arizona. The overarching

The primary focus of this research is the poorly understood relationship between water insufficiency and broad-scale social change, in the semi-arid lower Salt River Valley, in central Arizona. The overarching research question guiding this research is if water insufficiency could have prompted sociopolitical change among the Hohokam. Specifically, the research investigates if long-term water deficits were a catalyst for the two most consequential transformations in Hohokam history – the Preclassic/Classic transition (A.D. 1070-1100/1150) and the early to late Classic period transition (ca. A.D. 1300).

This research used extensive historical aerial photographs and cultural resource management excavation data to complete the largest-scale reconstruction of Hohokam irrigation. These lines of evidence provided exceptional insight into the developmental histories of eight major irrigation systems along the lower Salt River, four of which are newly defined here. Also, historic Salt River streamflow trends are leveraged to refine previously reconstructed annual flow discharges. The irrigation system reconstruction provided the means for estimating irrigation demand through irrigated acreage, and monthly streamflows supplied the amount of water available during key points in the two agricultural cycles per year. Together, irrigation demand and water availability provided necessary data to identify persistent water shortages during Hohokam history between A.D. 740 and 1450.

The findings discussed in this dissertation demonstrate that water insufficiency likely had no notable effect related to either the Preclassic/Classic or early to late Classictransitions in the lower Salt River Valley. Instead, there was possibly enough water through time for Hohokam farmers to meet agricultural demands. Three substantial additional insights were gained from this research. First, an extremely large flood, occurring either during the late Colonial or early Sedentary periods, may have profoundly altered irrigation agriculture and social organization in the valley. Second, during at least the Sedentary and Classic periods, Hohokam irrigation was structured into standardized irrigation units (SIU), a far more complex and efficient method of irrigation than previously perceived along the lower Salt. Third, a bedrock reef located near Canal System 2, and not at other lower Salt irrigation systems, is plausibly a determinate in Canal System 2’s longevity.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Setting a resilient urban table: planning for community food systems

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Research indicates that projected increases in global urban populations are not adequately addressed by current food production and planning. In the U.S., insufficient access to food, or the inability to

Research indicates that projected increases in global urban populations are not adequately addressed by current food production and planning. In the U.S., insufficient access to food, or the inability to access enough food for an active, healthy life affects nearly 15% of the population. In the face of these challenges, how are urban planners and other food system professionals planning for more resilient food systems? The purpose of this qualitative case study is to understand the planning and policy resources and food system approaches that might have the ability to strengthen food systems, and ultimately, urban resiliency. It proposes that by understanding food system planning in this context, planning approaches can be developed to strengthen urban food systems. The study uses the conceptual framework of urban planning for food, new community food systems, urban resiliency, and the theory of Panarchy as a model for urban planning and creation of new community food systems. Panarchy theory proposes that entrenched, non-diverse systems can change and adapt, and this study proposes that some U.S. cities are doing just that by planning for new community food systems. It studied 16 U.S. cities considered to be leaders in sustainability practices, and conducted semi-structured interviews with professionals in three of those cities: Portland, OR; San Francisco, CA; and Seattle, WA. The study found that these cities are using innovative methods in food system work, with professionals from many different departments and disciplines bringing interdisciplinary approaches to food planning and policy. Supported by strong executive leadership, these cities are creating progressive urban agriculture zoning policies and other food system initiatives, and using innovative educational programs and events to engage citizens at all socio-economic levels. Food system departments are relatively new, plans and policies among the cities are not consistent, and they are faced with limited resources to adequately track food system-related data. However they are still moving forward with programming to increase food access and improve their food systems. Food-system resiliency is recognized as an important goal, but cities are in varying stages of development for resiliency planning.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Evaluation of Geodesign as a Planning Framework for American Indian Communities in the Southwest United States

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The overarching aim of this dissertation is to evaluate Geodesign as a planning approach for American Indian communities in the American Southwest. There has been a call amongst indigenous planners

The overarching aim of this dissertation is to evaluate Geodesign as a planning approach for American Indian communities in the American Southwest. There has been a call amongst indigenous planners for a planning approach that prioritizes indigenous and community values and traditions while incorporating Western planning techniques. Case studies from communities in the Navajo Nation and the Tohono O’odham Nation are used to evaluate Geodesign because they possess sovereign powers of self-government within their reservation boundaries and have historical and technical barriers that have limited land use planning efforts. This research aimed to increase the knowledge base of indigenous planning, participatory Geographic information systems (GIS), resiliency, and Geodesign in three ways. First, the research examines how Geodesign can incorporate indigenous values within a community-based land use plan. Results showed overwhelmingly that indigenous participants felt that the resulting plan reflected their traditions and values, that the community voice was heard, and that Geodesign would be a recommended planning approach for other indigenous communities. Second, the research examined the degree in which Geodesign could incorporate local knowledge in planning and build resiliency against natural hazards such as flooding. Participants identified local hazards, actively engaged in developing strategies to mitigate flood risk, and utilized spatial assessments to plan for a more flood resilient region. Finally, the research examined the role of the planner in conducting Geodesign planning efforts and how Geodesign can empower marginalized communities to engage in the planning process using Arnstein’s ladder as an evaluation tool. Results demonstrated that outside professional planners, scientists, and geospatial analysts needed to assume the role of a facilitator, decision making resource, and a capacity builder over traditional roles of being the plan maker. This research also showed that Geodesign came much closer to meeting American Indian community expectations for public participation in decision making than previous planning efforts. This research demonstrated that Geodesign planning approaches could be utilized by American Indian communities to assume control of the planning process according to local values, traditions, and culture while meeting rigorous Western planning standards.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Classroom resiliency: a comparison of Navajo elementary students' perceptions of their classroom environment

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The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a gender difference in how students perceived their classroom environment on the Navajo Nation public school.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Women's Chant Group: Singing from our Souls

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This paper is an exploration of the potential benefits of an all-women’s chant group. A mixed-methods study using a Community Music Therapy approach informed by Feminist Music Therapy Theory

This paper is an exploration of the potential benefits of an all-women’s chant group. A mixed-methods study using a Community Music Therapy approach informed by Feminist Music Therapy Theory sheds light on the questions: How are individuals’ resilience affected by participation in a multi-session Women’s Chant Group? How does participation in a single-session Women’s Chant Group affect an individual’s mood? Which elements of a Women’s Chant Group are perceived to be the most important to the participants? No statistical significance was found in participants’ resiliency from the beginning to end of the study, although a higher sample size may yield more promising results. The Women’s Chant Group sessions demonstrated a considerable positive impact on the mood of the participants, specifically in reducing feelings of anxiety and increasing feelings of relaxation. Participants found the experience of creating aesthetic, complex, high-quality vocal music to be the most important element of the Women’s Chant Group. Recommendations are made for future research into the area of Women’s Chant Groups.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Students as experts: using photo-elicitation facilitation groups to understand the resiliency of Latina low-income first-generation college students

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ABSTRACT

Historically, first-generation college students (FGCS), students whose parents have not attended college nor earned a degree, are more likely to have lower college retention rates and are less likely to

ABSTRACT

Historically, first-generation college students (FGCS), students whose parents have not attended college nor earned a degree, are more likely to have lower college retention rates and are less likely to complete their academic programs in a timely manner. Despite this, there are many FGCS who do succeed and it is imperative to learn what fuels their success. The theoretical perspectives that framed this study included: hidden curricula, resiliency theory and community cultural wealth. Drawing from these perspectives, this qualitative research study consisted of a 10-week photo-elicitation facilitation and reflection group in which participants identified aspects of the hidden curricula encountered in the university that were challenging in their educational journeys and guided them in identifying the sources of strength (i.e. protective factors) that they channeled to overcome those challenges. The participants for this study were selected using a stratified purposeful sampling approach. The participants identified as Latina, low-income FGCS who were on good academic standing and majored in two of the largest academic units at Arizona State University's Tempe campus- the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and the Fulton College of Engineering. This study used participants’ testimonios (critical, reflexive narratives), photo-elicitation images, student journal responses, focus group dialogue and Facebook group posts to better understand the resiliency of Latina, low-income FGCS at ASU. Using grounded theory analysis, this study revealed the following,

Latina, low-income FGCS:

- Primarily define and develop their academic resiliency outside of the classroom and use social capital connections with peers and aspirational capital connections to their future to be successful inside the classroom.

- Are heavily driven to succeed in the university setting because of their family's support and because they view their presence in college as a unique opportunity that they are grateful for.

- Operationalize their academic resiliency through a combination of hard work and sacrifice, as well as an active implementation of resilience tactics.

- Are motivated to pass on their resiliency capital to other students like them and perceive their pursuit of a college education as a transformative action for themselves, their families and their communities.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Investigation of sustainable and reliable design alternatives for water distribution systems

Description

Nowadays there is a pronounced interest in the need for sustainable and reliable infrastructure systems to address the challenges of the future infrastructure development. This dissertation presents the research associated

Nowadays there is a pronounced interest in the need for sustainable and reliable infrastructure systems to address the challenges of the future infrastructure development. This dissertation presents the research associated with understanding various sustainable and reliable design alternatives for water distribution systems. Although design of water distribution networks (WDN) is a thoroughly studied area, most researchers seem to focus on developing algorithms to solve the non-linear hard kind of optimization problems associated with WDN design. Cost has been the objective in most of the previous studies with few models considering reliability as a constraint, and even fewer models accounting for the environmental impact of WDN. The research presented in this dissertation combines all these important objectives into a multi-objective optimization framework. The model used in this research is an integration of a genetic algorithm optimization tool with a water network solver, EPANET. The objectives considered for the optimization are Life Cycle Costs (LCC) and Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions (LCE) whereby the system reliability is made a constraint. Three popularly used resilience metrics were investigated in this research for their efficiency in aiding the design of WDNs that are able to handle external natural and man-made shocks. The best performing resilience metric is incorporated into the optimization model as an additional objective. Various scenarios were developed for the design analysis in order to understand the trade-offs between different critical parameters considered in this research. An approach is proposed and illustrated to identify the most sustainable and resilient design alternatives from the solution set obtained by the model employed in this research. The model is demonstrated by using various benchmark networks that were studied previously. The size of the networks ranges from a simple 8-pipe system to a relatively large 2467-pipe one. The results from this research indicate that LCE can be reduced at a reasonable cost when a better design is chosen. Similarly, resilience could also be improved at an additional cost. The model used in this research is more suitable for water distribution networks. However, the methodology could be adapted to other infrastructure systems as well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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From criminalization to symbolic resiliency: undocumented immigrants "re-imagining success" In the United States

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The goal of this exploratory study is to learn how undocumented immigrants remain resilient by adopting new strategies to survive and thrive despite confronting challenges as they legally justify their

The goal of this exploratory study is to learn how undocumented immigrants remain resilient by adopting new strategies to survive and thrive despite confronting challenges as they legally justify their presence in the United States. This study will focus on three research questions: first, what are the demographic factors that describe undocumented immigrant family resiliency in the United States? Second, how are social service providers; perceptions of the challenges faced by their clients modified by the services they provide? Third, how do resiliency factors identified by their social service providers allow undocumented immigrants to overcome the challenges of criminalization in the United States? The theoretical framework for this study was based on two approaches: first, a symbolic interaction approach which was specifically inspired by Benedict Anderson's classic Imagined Communities (1983, 2006). The second approach is Ecological Risk and Resiliency. This study used mixed methods of research: interviews and descriptive analysis. The qualitative data was drawn from ten social service providers from a faith-based agency, and from a narrative analysis of participants enrolled in an ESL program (English as a Second Language). The subjects for the quantitative design were drawn from a group of undocumented first-generation Hispanic immigrants who received social services during the year 2009 from the same faith-based agency. In summary, this exploration discovered that immigrants show great ability for imaginatively developing strategies in order to survive and thrive under their difficult circumstances. Furthermore, undocumented immigrant survival does not completely depend upon food and shelter and even money, but also on a sense of well being. Noted was that women undocumented immigrants show greater resiliency than their male counterparts. Also discovered was that social services do make a difference in the lives of undocumented immigrants but not all social service providers are fully trained and prepared to assist them beyond normal standards. In conclusion, the Hispanic undocumented immigrant displays remarkable resiliency despite tremendous obstacles and personal difficulties and this resiliency could only improve by social service providers' improved understanding of their needs and personal resources.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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I'm going to work with the tools: an exploration of diabetes medication adherence in African Americans of the Southwest

Description

Nationally, African Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes; with 13.2% of African Americans diagnosed with diabetes compared to 7.6% of non-Hispanic whites (CDC, 2014). Nearly one-half of all people with diabetes

Nationally, African Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes; with 13.2% of African Americans diagnosed with diabetes compared to 7.6% of non-Hispanic whites (CDC, 2014). Nearly one-half of all people with diabetes are non-adherent to their oral medications; adherence to insulin therapy was 60%-80% (Brunton et al., 2011; Cramer, 2004; Rubin, 2005). This study explored the question, "What mechanisms are associated with adherence to diabetes medication, including insulin, for African Americans in the Southwest?" Twenty-three people participated in the study; 17 participated in interviews and six participated in gendered focus groups. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach engaged the African American community as partners in research.

Major themes emerging from the data included illness perception, support, and the process of medication adherence. Acceptance of the diabetes diagnosis was imperative for medication adherence. Stigmatization of diabetes was salient in the recruitment process and as it related to mechanisms for adherence. Furthermore, many informants were not aware of a family history of diabetes before their own diagnosis. Four gendered emerging typologies were identified, which further illuminated major themes. Moreover, an eight-step process of medication adherence model is discussed. The researcher was able to identify culturally compatible strategies that may be extended to those struggling with medication adherence. The implications section suggests a set of strategies that healthcare providers can present to people with diabetes in order to increase medication adherence.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015