Matching Items (7)

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The effects of square breathing as a vagal nerve stimulant on learning new motor strategies in unreliable proprioceptive conditions

Description

Lack of proprioceptive feedback is one cause for the high upper-limb prosthesis abandonment rate. The lack of environmental interaction normalcy from unreliable proprioception creates dissatisfaction among prosthesis users. The purpose

Lack of proprioceptive feedback is one cause for the high upper-limb prosthesis abandonment rate. The lack of environmental interaction normalcy from unreliable proprioception creates dissatisfaction among prosthesis users. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of square breathing on learning to navigate without reliable proprioception. Square breathing is thought to influence the vagus nerve which is linked to increased learning rates. In this experiment, participants were instructed to reach toward targets in a semi-immersive virtual reality environment. Directional error, peak velocity, and peak acceleration of the reaching hand were investigated before and after participants underwent square breathing training. As the results of<br/>this experiment are inconclusive, further investigation needs to be done with larger sample sizes and examining unperturbed data to fully understand the effects of square breathing on learning new motor strategies in unreliable proprioceptive conditions.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Simulation and analysis of walking on compliant surfaces

Description

There are a large group of amputees living in the country and the number of them is supposed to increase a lot in the following years. Among them, lower-limb amputees

There are a large group of amputees living in the country and the number of them is supposed to increase a lot in the following years. Among them, lower-limb amputees are the majority. In order to improve the locomotion of lower-limb amputees, many prostheses have been developed. Most commercially available prostheses are passive. They can not actively provide pure torque as an intact human could do. Powered prostheses have been the focus during the past decades. Some advanced prostheses have been successful in walking on level ground as well as on inclined surface and climbing stairs. However, not much work has been done regarding walking on compliant surfaces. My preliminary studies on myoelectric signals of the lower limbs during walking showed that there exists difference in muscle activation when walking on compliant surfaces. However, the mapping of muscle activities to joint torques for a prosthesis that will be capable of providing the required control to walk on compliant surfaces is not straightforward. In order to explore the effects of surface compliance on leg joint torque, a dynamic model of the lower limb was built using Simscape. The simulated walker (android) was commanded to track the same kinematics data of intact human walking on solid surface. Multiple simulations were done while varying ground stiffness in order to see how the torque at the leg joints would change as a function of the ground compliance. The results of this study could be used for the control of powered prostheses for robust walking on compliant surfaces.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Haptic discrimination of object size using vibratory sensory substitution

Description

Humans constantly rely on a complex interaction of a variety of sensory modalities in order to complete even the simplest of daily tasks. For reaching and grasping to interact with

Humans constantly rely on a complex interaction of a variety of sensory modalities in order to complete even the simplest of daily tasks. For reaching and grasping to interact with objects, the visual, tactile, and proprioceptive senses provide the majority of the information used. While vision is often relied on for many tasks, most people are able to accomplish common daily rituals without constant visual attention, instead relying mainly on tactile and proprioceptive cues. However, amputees using prosthetic arms do not have access to these cues, making tasks impossible without vision. Even tasks with vision can be incredibly difficult as prosthesis users are unable to modify grip force using touch, and thus tend to grip objects excessively hard to make sure they don’t slip.

Methods such as vibratory sensory substitution have shown promise for providing prosthesis users with a sense of contact and have proved helpful in completing motor tasks. In this thesis, two experiments were conducted to determine whether vibratory cues could be useful in discriminating between sizes. In the first experiment, subjects were asked to grasp a series of hidden virtual blocks of varying sizes with vibrations on the fingertips as indication of contact and compare the size of consecutive boxes. Vibratory haptic feedback significantly increased the accuracy of size discrimination over objects with only visual indication of contact, though accuracy was not as great as for typical grasping tasks with physical blocks. In the second, subjects were asked to adjust their virtual finger position around a series of virtual boxes with vibratory feedback on the fingertips using either finger movement or EMG. It was found that EMG control allowed for significantly less accuracy in size discrimination, implying that, while proprioceptive feedback alone is not enough to determine size, direct kinesthetic information about finger position is still needed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Anticipatory muscle responses for transitioning between rigid surface and surfaces of different compliance:: towards smart ankle-foot prostheses

Description

Locomotion is of prime importance in enabling human beings to effectively respond

in space and time to meet different needs. Approximately 2 million Americans live

with an amputation with most of those

Locomotion is of prime importance in enabling human beings to effectively respond

in space and time to meet different needs. Approximately 2 million Americans live

with an amputation with most of those amputations being of the lower limbs. To

advance current state-of-the-art lower limb prosthetic devices, it is necessary to adapt

performance at a level of intelligence seen in human walking. As such, this thesis

focuses on the mechanisms involved during human walking, while transitioning from

rigid to compliant surfaces such as from pavement to sand, grass or granular media.

Utilizing a unique tool, the Variable Stiffness Treadmill (VST), as the platform for

human walking, rigid to compliant surface transitions are simulated. The analysis of

muscular activation during the transition from rigid to different compliant surfaces

reveals specific anticipatory muscle activation that precedes stepping on a compliant

surface. There is also an indication of varying responses for different surface stiffness

levels. This response is observed across subjects. Results obtained are novel and

useful in establishing a framework for implementing control algorithm parameters to

improve powered ankle prosthesis. With this, it is possible for the prosthesis to adapt

to a new surface and therefore resulting in a more robust smart powered lower limb

prosthesis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Volitional control of a powered prosthetic ankle

Description

Approximately 1.7 million people in the United States are living with limb loss and are in need of more sophisticated devices that better mimic human function. In the Human Machine

Approximately 1.7 million people in the United States are living with limb loss and are in need of more sophisticated devices that better mimic human function. In the Human Machine Integration Laboratory, a powered, transtibial prosthetic ankle was designed and build that allows a person to regain ankle function with improved ankle kinematics and kinetics. The ankle allows a person to walk normally and up and down stairs, but volitional control is still an issue. This research tackled the problem of giving the user more control over the prosthetic ankle using a force/torque circuit. When the user presses against a force/torque sensor located inside the socket the prosthetic foot plantar flexes or moves downward. This will help the user add additional push-off force when walking up slopes or stairs. It also gives the user a sense of control over the device.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Design and development of a passive prosthetic ankle

Description

In this work, different passive prosthetic ankles are studied. It is observed that complicated designs increase the cost of production, but simple designs have limited functionality. A new design for

In this work, different passive prosthetic ankles are studied. It is observed that complicated designs increase the cost of production, but simple designs have limited functionality. A new design for a passive prosthetic ankle is presented that is simple to manufacture while having superior functionality. This prosthetic ankle design has two springs: one mimicking Achilles tendon and the other mimicking Anterior-Tibialis tendon. The dynamics of the prosthetic ankle is discussed and simulated using Working model 2D. The simulation results are used to optimize the springs stiffness. Two experiments are conducted using the developed ankle to verify the simulation It is found that this novel ankle design is better than Solid Ankle Cushioned Heel (SACH) foot. The experimental data is used to find the tendon and muscle activation forces of the subject wearing the prosthesis using OpenSim. A conclusion is included along with suggested future work.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

Intracortical microstimulation of somatosensory cortex: functional encoding and localization of neuronal recruitment

Description

Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) within somatosensory cortex can produce artificial sensations including touch, pressure, and vibration. There is significant interest in using ICMS to provide sensory feedback for a prosthetic limb.

Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) within somatosensory cortex can produce artificial sensations including touch, pressure, and vibration. There is significant interest in using ICMS to provide sensory feedback for a prosthetic limb. In such a system, information recorded from sensors on the prosthetic would be translated into electrical stimulation and delivered directly to the brain, providing feedback about features of objects in contact with the prosthetic. To achieve this goal, multiple simultaneous streams of information will need to be encoded by ICMS in a manner that produces robust, reliable, and discriminable sensations. The first segment of this work focuses on the discriminability of sensations elicited by ICMS within somatosensory cortex. Stimulation on multiple single electrodes and near-simultaneous stimulation across multiple electrodes, driven by a multimodal tactile sensor, were both used in these experiments. A SynTouch BioTac sensor was moved across a flat surface in several directions, and a subset of the sensor's electrode impedance channels were used to drive multichannel ICMS in the somatosensory cortex of a non-human primate. The animal performed a behavioral task during this stimulation to indicate the discriminability of sensations evoked by the electrical stimulation. The animal's responses to ICMS were somewhat inconsistent across experimental sessions but indicated that discriminable sensations were evoked by both single and multichannel ICMS. The factors that affect the discriminability of stimulation-induced sensations are not well understood, in part because the relationship between ICMS and the neural activity it induces is poorly defined. The second component of this work was to develop computational models that describe the populations of neurons likely to be activated by ICMS. Models of several neurons were constructed, and their responses to ICMS were calculated. A three-dimensional cortical model was constructed using these cell models and used to identify the populations of neurons likely to be recruited by ICMS. Stimulation activated neurons in a sparse and discontinuous fashion; additionally, the type, number, and location of neurons likely to be activated by stimulation varied with electrode depth.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013