Matching Items (5)

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Antibiotic-Related Policies and Public Health: A Cross-Country Comparison & Policy Analysis

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Antibiotic resistance is a growing crisis across the globe. With the use of antibiotics in heathcare settings in an ever-growing population, the growth of antibiotic resistance has been named a

Antibiotic resistance is a growing crisis across the globe. With the use of antibiotics in heathcare settings in an ever-growing population, the growth of antibiotic resistance has been named a top 10 global public health threat by the World Health Organization. Through an analysis of 6 countries; Mexico, China, the United States, India, Saudi Arabia, and Ethiopia, I look at the current implementation of policy and contributing factors to the use and abuse of antibiotics within the country. Through my research, I was able to find knowledge, behaviors, and a lack of enforcement to be the main contributors to the growing antibiotic crisis. Based on the evidence, I suggested three policies that focused on treatment, prevention, or economic assistance in an effort to combat the antibiotic crisis on a global scale. With socio-economic factors in mind as well as sustainability of policy, the evidence pointed in the direction of a three-pronged approach on prevention with education, policy enforcement, and a global database to minimize the growth of antibiotic resistance as well as improve public health at a global level.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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A Social Welfare Policy Analysis of Substance Abuse in the Russian Federation

Description

The implementation of substance abuse treatment policy is ambiguous in the Russian Federation. Though policies are in place, financial responsibility and best practice procedures are largely overlooked by the Russian

The implementation of substance abuse treatment policy is ambiguous in the Russian Federation. Though policies are in place, financial responsibility and best practice procedures are largely overlooked by the Russian government. The purpose of this thesis is to conduct a policy analysis of the Russian Federation Federal Law, On Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, adopted December 10, 1997. Amendments and additions to this law are integrated. Utilizing Gilbert and Terrell’s (2005) elements of an analytic social policy, including allocation, provision, delivery, and finance, the extent of substance abuse treatment provision is analyzed in the Russian context. Result indicate limited Russian government provision of detoxification for drug and alcohol users, with a nearly absent continuum required for true rehabilitation. The Russian government must provide harm reduction measurements to protect the population from HIV/AIDS. Involving the Russian Orthodox Church in advocacy for the implementation of harm reduction measures is recommended.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Coordinated like the criminals [electronic resource]: a policy analysis of the current and future U.S. responses to drug cartels

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The presence of drug cartels within Mexico impacts U.S. national security, foreign policy, U.S. crime rates, and public health policy. Due to the direct and indirect effects that the cartels

The presence of drug cartels within Mexico impacts U.S. national security, foreign policy, U.S. crime rates, and public health policy. Due to the direct and indirect effects that the cartels have on the United States, this paper examines the Mérida Initiative, the current U.S. anti-cartel policy, and makes several recommendations for future policy directions. Using official documents as well as current academic research, this paper examines the outcomes of past comparable policies that the United States has implemented in Colombia and Afghanistan to address the issue of drug trafficking. The paper then builds on the present successes of the Mérida Initiative by recommending several policies in the areas of international cooperation, agricultural development, Mexican targeting and enforcement, and U.S. law enforcement. This paper recommends that information sharing between countries should be increased to reduce the likelihood that pressure place on cartels will cause displacement; crop eradication cease and alternative crop development be implemented to reduce illicit crop growth; the joint Mexican-U.S. enforcement focus should move from high-value targets to more highly connected members; the United States should increase vetting for gun purchases to help keep guns out of the hands of cartel members; and domestic drug policies should shift toward treatment and demand-focused policies. By implementing the recommended policies, this paper suggests that the influence of cartels within Mexico as well as the United States may be reduced.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Adapting to climate change: a sensitivity analysis of national adaptation programmes of action towards women

Description

The most recent decision of the 2012 Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes that in order to create climate policies

The most recent decision of the 2012 Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes that in order to create climate policies that respond to the different needs of men and women a more balanced representation of women from developed and developing countries is needed. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to “identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to respond to impending threats from climate change.” Since 1997, the United Nations has agreed to gender mainstreaming- a globally accepted strategy for promoting gender equality by ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities in the all UN systems.

Due to the gender division of labor climate change will affect men and women differently. Policies and programs that do not take into account the needs and capacities of both men and women will fail to be effective and may worsen preexisting conditions that historically favor men. My research investigates the UN’s commitment towards gender mainstreaming. More specifically my objective is to understand how and to what extent the NAPAs from 49 countries integrate a gender dimension into their national climate adaptation policy. For the purpose of this research, I consider three interrelated issues: whether gender-specific needs and vulnerabilities were identified by the NAPA; if these needs and vulnerabilities were addressed by proposed adaptation projects; and in what forms women participated in the formulation of the NAPA. The scope of this research begins with an overview assessment of 49 NAPAs followed by a comparative assessment of NAPAs from four countries- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Niger, and an in-depth analysis of Nepal’s NAPA, which incorporates field study. Nepal was chosen as a focus country due to its identification as being both inclusive and gender sensitive.

The method of inquiry consists of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, utilizing the quantitative measures of HDI and GII and the qualitative methods of content analysis and case study. The findings suggest that the response to the gender dimensions of climate change found in adaptation policies vary widely among the LDCs and the level of response is dependent upon social, cultural, economic, and political contexts within each LDC. Additionally, I find that gender mainstreaming techniques have not been fully integrated into the NAPA policy and processes, and have not been effective at promoting gender equality through adaptation strategies. Recommendations are provided in order to help mainstream gender in NAPAs as they continue to be developed, revised, and implemented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The past and future of biofuels a case study of the United States using the institutional analysis and development framework

Description

In recent years, the world has debated the idea of biofuels as a solution to energy security, energy independence, and global climate change. However, as the biofuels movement has

In recent years, the world has debated the idea of biofuels as a solution to energy security, energy independence, and global climate change. However, as the biofuels movement has unfolded, crucial issues emerged regarding biofuels efficacy and efficiency. The deployment of biofuels of marginal benefit has raised questions about how countries like the USA may have found themselves so invested in a potentially failing technology. In order to better understand and evaluate these issues, this study utilizes the Ostrom Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework to better evaluate these issues and analyze interacting institutions that shape US biofuel policy. The IAD framework is a model that enables one to study, conceptualize, compare, and make connections across decision arenas that would otherwise be distinct from each other. By analyzing the interactions of relevant institutions, one can see how different dynamic interests interacted to shape biofuel policy in the USA today. Conclusions from this analysis include: the IAD framework is ideal for analyzing the political and economic case for biofuels. The five action arenas identified in this thesis are sufficient to understand corn bioethanol policy. A compelling case for supporting bioethanol is not made. An international agreement to reduce GHG emissions could change the landscape for biofuels. Finally, there is little prospect for biofuels playing a significant role in the near term without greater alignment among the action arenas.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010